678 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2016
    1. physical landscape features had a direct impact on shaping human behavior

      This is something that I discovered while doing the Built Environment Description. As I sat in Krog Street Market, the closer to closing time it got, the louder the music they were playing got. It reached a point where the music was loud and annoying so people were leaving. In Krog Street Market, they influenced the environment and sound landscape in order to get the patrons to do what they wanted (which was to leave). This proves that this statement is true.

    2. increased public awareness that environmental protection is a critical issue

      Now, there are a lot of public announcements about environmental awareness. Colleges (even Georgia State) pride themselves in being environmentally friendly and helping the environment by conserving energy. While most "typical" college campuses have large green spaces, Georgia State is different as we do not, so we have to help the environment in other ways (like walking instead of driving, turning lights off in unoccupied rooms, not littering, etc.).

    3. “ring road” type of plan, in which vehicles were mostly kept outside the pedestrian oriented campus core

      After reading this phrase it immediately made me think of Georgia Tech. There, there is a road that circles the campus where cars can drive and all parking lots are on the outside. However, when you walk on to the campus, there is nothing but green space, trees, and sidewalks for walking. There are no cars on campus, only the the "ring road" outside of it.

    4. through its working farms, forests, arboretums, greenhouses, gardens

      For the first time, students are getting out of the classroom and into actual experiences and hands-on learning (another aspect of holistic learning). This proves that the Morrill Act of 1862 was not only important when it comes to land use, but also student's education as well.

    5. Morrill Act of 1862

      The Morrill Act of 1862 "provided each state with 30,000 acres of Federal land for each member in their Congressional delegation. The land was then sold by the states and the proceeds used to fund public colleges that focused on agriculture and the mechanical arts." From this land, sixty-nine universities were founded including Cornell, MIT, and the University of Wisconsin.

      Source: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Morrill.html

    6. secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community

      This is what many typical college campuses are like. You walk onto the campus and are surrounded but nothing but the college. Once again, this all goes back to holistic learning--the immersion of the student in university life. On a separate note, this is nothing like what Georgia State is like. Georgia state is not secluded from city distraction and is very open to the larger community. However, I still feel like I am on a campus in Georgia State because the part of downtown Atlanta that the college is located in has really become Georgia State's "section" of the city.

    7. One way to examine this potential is to consider the entire campus with its buildings, roads and natural open spaces as a well-networked landscape system that supports student learning experiences.

      This statement is supporting the theory of holistic learning. Clearly, in this article, the authors are arguing that holistic learning is important for a student's learning and colleges must make adjust their campus to make it more easy for holistic learning to occur.

    8. (Boyer, 1987; Greene, 2013).

      This annotation is not about the text, but rather the sources being used. I believe that it is important and helpful that the authors decided to use so many sources because they make this article very credible. However, essentially every sentence is being cited, and this is making the writing very hard to read (because there are so many citations). Also, the fact that the authors are citing after about every sentence makes me think that they did not contribute a lot to the paper, but rather wrote an article consisting of just quotes from others' works.

    9. must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      I was confused on what the term "holistic learning" meant so I did some research on it. Holistic learning is philosophy where a person does more than just sit in a classroom and learn. They are suppose to find purpose and meaning in their life and the community and basically surround themselves with knowledge and learning.

    10. By 2019, enrollments are expected to rise 9% for students under age 25, and rise 23% for students over the age of 25 (Snyder & Dillow, 2011).

      Here is a link to a chart showing that college enrollment has increased over time. This supports the author's points and proves that universities now have to adjust to the increasing number of students on campus.


    11. Continued enrollment growth, societal and technological changes, financial challenges, and a need for increased universal and open access create ever more diverse, changing and complex US university systems.

      This is a point that we have encountered throughout all of our classes. As times change, society and organizations are forced to change with it. As the times change, technology gets better, and the needs/wants of students evolve, public and private universities are forced to adjust to these changes and shifts or risk being left behind.

  2. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. property, built houses

      The New York Times article "Homeownership Drop is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think" describes the drop in American homeownership in 2016. The homeownership rate hit "the lowest rate in more than 50 years". The article also discusses inflated mortgage and renting rates, and describes the reason for these statistics to be that salaries and employment rates have not recovered since the recession. The article also points out that the greatest drop in homeownership occurred amongst African Americans.

      Juxtaposing this article with Parting Ways, it is clear that the methods in which homeownership occurs have drastically changed since the 1800s. Cato Howe and his fellow neighbors simply purchased a plot of land, built homes, and began to farm the land. Another thing to compare is the fact that about 200 years later, African Americans are still finding a struggle to own homes and to find success in the U.S.

      Citation: Baker, Dean. "Homeownership Drop Is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 2 Aug. 2016. Web. 14 Sept. 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/08/02/homeownership-at-50-year-low-so-what/homeownership-drop-is-bad-news-but-not-for-the-reason-you-think.

    2. housing were difficult to come by

      In the article entitled "American Must Equalize Access to Homeownership and Its Wealth Opportunities", Carlene Crowell explains how mortgage and loan rates for African Americans and other minorities and American are statistically unfair in the United States. This fact inevitably prevents minorities from purchasing homes in this country, and Crowell points this out. She describes that despite the fact that many African American families seeking to own homes are wealthy compared to the average, they are given unfair mortgage rates and difficult loan rates. She says "discriminatory lending practices during the recent era of subprime loans erased many of the financial gains that Black and Brown families made since the enactment of the Community Reinvestment Act. Instead, these consumers were targeted for predatory, unsustainable loans". Comparing this very modern situation to Cato's, the ability of African Americans to own their own. nice home is still a difficult feat. Financial discrimination is still able to leak through the cracks of equality laws.

      Citation: Crowell, Charlene. "America Must Equalize Access to Homeownership and Its Wealth Opportunities By Charlene Crowell." Trice Edney Wire. Trice Edney Communications, 6 Aug. 2016. Web. 15 Sept. 2016. http://www.triceedneywire.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7013%3Aamerica-must-equalize-access-to-homeownership-and-its-wealth-opportunities-by-charlene-crowell&catid=54%3Aurban-news-features&Itemid=208.

    3. inventory has survived

      It is interesting to compare the situation of Cato Howe to the situation of wealthy African American families today. Cato Howe was able to build a home, a community, and to have surviving wealth. Even an African American man in the 1800s, before slavery was abolished, was able to own property and a home. Today, African Americans find it extremely difficult to afford the rates at which homes are sold to them. This makes it difficult for wealthy black families to continue their wealth to their kin, and to grow their wealth. Owning a home is seen as a necessary factor in the American Dream. What if black families are given mortgage rates out of the roof, and cannot afford to own a home? Have they been effectively excused from the "American Dream"? Whether intentionally or unintentionally, African Americans are still experiencing financial oppression that is causing their lack of growth and impression in the community.

    4. pressed glass objects

    5. in the woods around Plympton

    6. rheumatism

      http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatism/"Rheumatism." Rheumatism. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2016. I was not sure if there was a difference between arthritis and rheumatism. Turns out, rheumatism is just a very general term for joint pain.

    7. Bunker Hill

      The Battle of Bunker Hill was the first official battle of the Revolutionary War and took place in Massachusetts. Despite a narrow British victory, the battle encouraged the rebels that they had a chance to win the war. “The Battle of Bunker Hill: Now We Are at War.” Accessed September 6, 2016. https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/42bunker/42bunker.htm.

    8. 61.82 1/2

      I wanted to see some economics numbers from the time to compare Howe's wealth with the average American, but I could not find any substantial economic statistics on the period. However, I was able to find some inflation calculations and found that Howe's wealth would be around $1474.43, but that's still useless with comparative statistics. Here's the graph that shows US inflation from 1792-2016: “$61.82 in 1792 - Inflation Calculator.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.in2013dollars.com/1792-dollars-in-2016?amount=61.82.

    9. Both sections of the footing showed extensive evidence of fire.

      I have noticed that in several of the history books that I've read, fires often cause historians trouble become so many documents have burned either on accident, like Thomas Jefferson's childhood journals, or purposely, George and Martha Washington's letters.

    10. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form.

      I would never have thought of shotgun houses being African in origin because I have seen it so much in the South. I did some quick reading on them, and, apparently, it is theorized that shotgun houses came with Haitian immigrants, which is why their popularization started in Louisiana and Creole communities and grew in use both due to smaller urban residential lots and real estate taxes that charged based on frontage, not square footage.

      Campanella, Richard. “Shotgun Geography: The History behind the Famous New Orleans Elongated House.” NOLA.com, February 12, 2014. http://www.nola.com/homegarden/index.ssf/2014/02/shotgun_geography_new_orleans.html.

    11. However marginal they may have seemed to the dominant European community,

      I find this statement contradictory because I felt that some of Deetz's earlier writing in this article showed that the community had some care for them, as evidenced by them receiving land at all and having high-quality pottery, possibly gifts from wealthy men.

    12. John Vlach tells us that there is a clear pattern in the types of objects used by African Americans to decorate graves.

      Some very quick reading on this topic taught me that it was a common spiritual belief in Africa that even the afterlife people had the same needs, so the broken objects may be items that the family members thought the dead would need or want. My hypothesis from that would be that the bottles would be smashed to deliver water to the grave. “44-1-10.pdf.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/NP/44-1-10.pdf.

      It is another common pattern that I have read in history where people are buried with items that they might need or want, like how the Egyptian Pharaohs were buried with their belongings and even servants, or how in the ancient Indus Valley society, wives would throw themselves onto their husband's funeral pyres, or in Roman civilization, the dead were buried with a coin in their mouth to pay for the passage into the afterlife.

    13. A widespread African system of belief holds not only that the spirits of the dead are white beings, but they reside beneath the water.

      I remember that when I lived in Uganda, native Ugandans would often say water to mean life, and none of us understand why. I think that these ideas are likely connected.

    14. Since the artifactual and architectural remains of these communities are a better index of the life of African Americans in their own terms, they hold great promise of supplementing American black history in a different and important way.

      This concept reminds me of the "Introduction to Vernacular Architecture" article where it talked about how structures that were ordinary and unremarkable at the time but now have huge potential to offer valuable insight into how people lived and the zeitgeist of their time.

    15. In our world today, other lessons gained from thinking about artifacts might be applicable.

      When I took AP Lang, my teacher instilled in me the idea that "Everything's an argument" (Houser 2014), so I have developed the habit of searching for the argument immediately whenever I read nearly anything critically. While reading this article, I could not find any argument to this piece until this paragraph. It felt purposeless to me at first, but looking at it retroactively, I now see a sharply crafted argument about the importance of archaeology and artifacts history and cultural anthropology through this example.

    16. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      One thing that bothered me about Deetz's writing was that it seemed to occasionally try to suggest a subtle commentary about African-American history, but any attempted analysis lacked a crafted sense of reason to me. After all, the crime of America and African-American history is well documented, and, of course, there is always some new perspective or idea to suggest, Deetz never adds anything to the commentary other stating that it was as bad. For me, the embedded commentary did not add to the article and distracted from what, I felt, was the central argument about the importance of archaeological analysis because I was, instead, thinking about the racial implications.

    17. In the New York Times article "Homeownership Drop Is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think," economist Dean Baker explains the negative reasons behind the decline in homeownership that are not the obvious reasons that come to mind initially. Baker presumes that most people will interpret the homeownership drop is bad because most people feel that owning a home is inherently good, but Baker states that the drop actually has some potentially positive omens as owning a home is not universally a positive choice for every person. Ideally, Baker says, a drop in owning homes should mean that people are investing money into areas beyond real estate that are more sensible given a person's current condition and that are cheaper and safer to return a profit. However, non-home investments have gone down faster than homeownership, a problem that Baker attributes to the fact that most adults and families lack the education and knowledge to make an informed decision for them and their families. Further, this homeownership drop has disproportionately affected African-Americans, implying that African-Americans also disproportionately lack the ability to make informed financial decisions.

      Where I saw this connect to the story of Parting Ways was that when the African-American men who would live there surely lacked the teachings needed to live effectively because they had been raised as slaves and not given educations, and other than their time as slaves, soldering was the only other form of work that they had been exposed to; even though the land of Parting Ways was destitute, the residents only had farming as way of life to take up. Without any formal education, any ability, or even chance, to read, write, understand finances, run businesses, etc. the four men had no choice but to take up the lives of farmers even if their land lacked the necessary resources. For the African-American citizens today without investments or wise money spending, most of them, likely, grew up in and were educated in poor areas with low qualities of educations due to a lack of funding from low tax revenue. The opportunity exists for these African-Americans and their families to improve their lives and conditions of living, but they cannot take these opportunities because nobody ever gave them the ability to do so. The problem is not as conspicuous as the problems of the 1790's; it is easy to look back and see the crime of allowing children to be born into the world as property and then thrown out into without any reasonable education to give them the abilities to live the full potentials of their lives, both as a result of the lack of training and of the legal, institutional, cultural, and overall barriers placed in the way of African-Americans. Today, children are not born into slavery, but children are born into situations where their parents never received the proper tools to do better and succeed and create a better life, and, as a result, neither do their children. The struggles and consequences of the past are not as acute and definite, as they were at Parting Ways and the entire freedmen community, yet they exist, and it would be another crime to forget that.

       “Homeownership at 50-Year Low — So What?” The New York Times. Accessed September 7, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/08/02/homeownership-at-50-year-low-so-what/homeownership-drop-is-bad-news-but-not-for-the-reason-you-think.
    18. But the evidence for a two-period construction is quite clear and sufficient.

      I also find it unbelievable that archaeologists are able to determine precise dates for renovations and buildings. The archaeologists noted that James Burr's house was constructed in two different phases with each phase about thirty years apart from the other. The first phase of construction was likely by Burr's grandfather. The second phase was completed by Burr himself when he added a cellar. Centuries later, archaeologists somehow dated the renovations that occurred on the buildings. This ability nutures the admiration I have for individuals in that profession.

    19. The town authorized the sale of the property in that year, referring to it as land "recently held by Cato Howe, deceased" and "formerly occupied by Prince, man of color."

      Why did the land owned by four men go enlisted as Howe's acreage? Was Howe deemed as more important than his counterparts who also lived in the New Guinea community? Additionally, the town's authorization included the information that the land was formerly occupied by a "man of color" which demonstrates the nation's emphasize on race as a social construct and hierarchy. In realty, European settlers probably did not desire to live in a settlement that was previously owned by an African American. Therefore, under the house's description, the potential buyers were informed if the land was once owned by a "man of color."

    20. This piece of oral history established the cellar as that of James Burr.

      Personally, I have never utilized oral history into any of my research. Therefore, I find it immensely interesting that a key piece of evidence in the archaeological research of Burr's home was that of oral history regarding the cellar. What are the advantages and disadvantages of oral sources?

    21. https://www.youtube.com/a40c636a-ab25-4342-9687-7a375e1e1565 I found a great, short video that quickly introduces what Parting Ways is. Its a fantastic source for background information going in to reading the article.

    22. 61.82 1/2

      By the time of Howe's death, he had acquired more valuables that equated to $61.82 and 1/2. Though, still very few in actual value, the growth of his net value illustrates that during his later life, Howe was able to grow and sustain his belongings. Maybe the African American community that he lived on helped to further his revenue...

    23. Prince Goodwin is the only one of the four whose life before the war is indicated in any way. He was a slave, owned first by Dr. William Thomas and then by his son, judge Joshua Thomas.

      It is unfortunate that the only known records kept of Prince Goodwin before his service in the army was that he served as a slave by Dr. William Thomas and his son, Joshua Thomas. No birth certificates - just his slave contract. The single documentation of his servitude defined Goodwin, until archaeology was implemented in this study and discovered his life story.

    24. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      Howe's total value when asking to receive government pension was $27. This is crazy to even fathom because $27 nowadays will never be enough to survive on. Of course, inflation and the value of a dollar was immensely different in the 1800's, but the slim value of his belongings demonstrate how Howe owned a small amount of items.

    25. At the same time, the committee sought and obtained a vote at Plymouth town meeting to set the land aside for memorial purposes, including the area of the Parting Ways settlement.

      My previous question was answered. The land has been reserved for historical landmark purposes. In fact, after doing research, there is a Parting Ways cemetery that exists in Massachusetts which acts as a historical landmark for the Parting Ways community.

    26. Yoruba two-room side-entrance building

      A very very modernized version of that concept

    27. their African heritage surfaced one more time

      How many generations removed were the Parting Ways residents from being in Africa?

    28. Cato Howe was black.

      This quote about Howe's race was in a paragraph all by itself - the sole sentence in the entire paragraph, thus emphasizing the significance of Howe's race. Additionally, in this brief biography, the author mentions he served in the army. Because of the perception of servicemen during this time period, readers might assume Howe to be of European decent, though the author promptly stops this assumption by stating the shocking fact of Howe's race.

    29. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by

      After Howe's service, the opportunities for him to succeed and make a decent living were slim even though he was free. The government did very little to help accommodate for Howe. Nowadays, the government is willing and able to help those who have served in our military which contrasts to the 1800's. Was it because of Howe's race that he did not receive aid or was it because the government solely did little to help?

    30. tiny cemetery

    31. In 1818 he applied to the government for a pension, based on reduced circumstances.

      Is government pension back in the 1800's similar to government aid like medicaid, medicare, food stamps, etc. nowadays? I had no idea that the 1800's instituted welfare programs like modern day.

    32. Cato Howe is not a name we will find in our history books.

      Though, most students do not learn about Howe in history curriculum, it does not mean Howe does not have any historical impact in America. The introduction of Howe makes it appear that the readers have no information regarding him, though once we continue reading, it is incredible how much you can determine about an individual based off archives and archaeological data. Solely based off fact, readers can learn the majority of Howe's lifetime, even though at the beginning of this passage, he is unfamiliar territory.

    33. Even less is known about the three men who were his neighbors in the little community of New Guinea.

      In the article "America must equalize access home-ownership and its wealth opportunities" by Charlene Crowell, Crowell discusses the lack of opportunities for individuals and families who struggle financially to receive equal and accessible housing that permeates financial growth. The government practices discriminatory policies that enables minority races to build any sort of wealth and access financial aid (i.e. loans) to aid in mortgage payments. There exists a connection between this article and Parting Ways in regards to minority communities. In particular, Crowell states "new research by the Center for Responsible Lending, highlights how post-housing crisis lending trends perpetuate racial wealth gaps and housing segregation" (Crowell). Essentially, this modern dilemma depicts the housing status back in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Communities thrived in the 1700's when the individuals that owned land were wealthy and Caucasian. Contrastingly, in Parting Ways, the four African American men were segregated in Plymouth and lived in intense poverty, just like the Latinos and Blacks in present day America. Furthermore, "these practices erect yet another barrier to wealth creation for these communities" (Crowell). Ultimately, because of this racial bias, African American communities, like those of Parting Ways, were unable to thrive financially and remained separate from the white colonized settlements.

      Website Credit:

      Crusader. “America Must Equalize Access to Homeownership and Its Wealth Opportunities.” Gary/Chicago Crusader. N.p., 15 Aug. 2016. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    34. shotgun house

    35. Mud-wall-and-post construction is reminiscent of West African building methods, although it did occur in the Anglo-American tradition at an earlier time.

    36. terminus post quem

      " Latin for "limit after which," is used to indicate the date after which an artifact must have been deposited." “TPQ.pdf.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/comic/activity/pdf/TPQ.pdf.

    37. A more striking aspect of this pottery is its very high quality. Types such as handpainted creamware are not often encountered on New England sites representing people of average means. We might guess that not only was the pottery given to the people of Parting Ways by the townspeople of Plymouth, but it was given by the wealthier ones

      Why would the wealthy people of Plymouth give the black men very nice pottery? Were racial tensions not as prevalent in Parting Ways and Plymouth? I have this fallacy where I believe that all whites hated African Americans during this era, though that may not be the case. Of course, racial tensions were high and Africans were treated as subordinate, but that hateful mindset does not apply to all Caucasians.

    38. photograph

    39. When the site was first visited, the area later shown to have been the main center of occupation was grassy, with an occasional locust tree, in contrast to the scrub pine and oak that covered the remaining original ninety-four acres. There was only one visible feature, a large cellar hole heavily overgrown with brush. Initial excavations were directed at this feature and a slight depression in the ground a short distance away.

    40. map

      Here's a modern map that I found that tries to replicate how the men divided the land. “Maps of New Guinea Settlement from 1823-Present | Parting Ways.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://partingways.org/cms/learn/parting_ways/documents.

    41. Were it not for Howe's having served in the Continental Army, we would know hardly a thing about him.

      To me, Deetz's tone feels like he's blaming this fact on Howe's race, but that feels unfair to me. Record-keeping was not a common practice in the 1700's.

    42. But Cato was a common slave name

      I'm also curious about why Cato was a common name. When I hear the name Cato, I think of the line of Roman politicians who hated Caesar. Carthage, and luxury.

    43. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports. They are also said to have been used at times for storing and shipping tamarind, a West African cultivated fruit that was grown in the West Indies.

      Somehow, jars from the West Indies made their way to Parting Ways. This difference in location is incredible. Who gave the men these jar? How did they transport to America? Did the men use it for the same purpose as those who used these jars in the West Indies (for tamarind)?

    44. New Guinea

      Why was New Guinea a common name?

    45. If archaeology is a vital contributor to our understanding of all of America's common folk, and what their life meant to them, it is doubly so in the case of our understanding of the black experience in America.

      That is an interesting point that I had never really considered, but it suddenly makes recounting individual black history more interesting given the difficulties that it presents.

    46. Cato Howe was black.

      Immediately, I'm curious about why the write chose to put such emphasis on the fact that Howe was black. The intro paragraph offers no reason for such importance.

    47. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      This is exactly the question I have been pondering throughout the piece. Because of their African decent, did the men want to bring parts of their culture over to the community of New Guinea or did they want to expel their heritage from the ethnocentric European settlers?

    48. James F. Deetz

      According to the New York times, Deetz was a Harvard-educated anthropologist who specialized in colonial America. “James Deetz, 70, Chronicler of America's Colonial Past.” The New York Times, November 28, 2000, sec. National. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/28/national/28DEET.html.

    49. Mud-wall-and-post construction is reminiscent of West African building methods, although it did occur in the Anglo-American tradition at an earlier time.

      What are the differences between West African and Anglo-American architecture? Stylistically, how did they compare to one another?

    50. Yet, even though the photograph of the Burr house shows a small chimney projecting from the roof, there was neither evidence nor space for a hearth and chimney of the sort seen in American houses of the period.

      Burr's home had a chimney while American houses of the same period did not utilize chimneys.. If Burr's chimney was indeed a properly functioning chimney, then his building's architecture was beyond the time of other American homes. For a financially struggling African American, owning a chimney was a more modern feature that other European homes did not attain.

    51. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form. Not only does the Burr house plan conform to the ground plans of shotgun houses, the dimensions are remarkably similar.

      The article displays a visual illustrating a traditional shotgun design, similar to Burr's house. In reference to shotgun houses, I took a human geography course where I had to locate traditional shotgun houses within my hometown. Because of the assignment, I became quite knowledgeable on that particular structure. Never did I think that shotgun structures would be utilized again in another course, but I am thankful that it arose in this subject!

    52. The little houses at Parting Ways were probably no less, yet because of the poverty of their builders and the scarcity of material, perhaps the statement was not as blatantly made.

      The houses at Parting Ways may not be intentionally shotgun houses due to their scarce materials and impoverish lifestyle. With limited resources and capital, the men built houses that fit within their budget which so happened to be buildings that resembled those of a shotgun structure. Contrastingly, because of Burr's African background, he could have utilized the African American architectural form when constructing his home. Was there an intention for shotgun houses due to ethnic influences or was it pure coincidence under the scare circumstances?

    53. While it may be that they formed a close community simply for mutual reassurance, it is equally likely that the placement of the houses reflects a more corporate spirit than four Anglo-Americans might show in similar circumstances.

      Instinctively, people with common characteristics, ideas, and beliefs tend to accumulate together to form a sense of a community. I believe this idea resonates with the four men in Parting Ways more so than the idea that the placement of houses reflected their shared "spirit." It seems more probable that their local government decided the placement of their houses and their mutual cultural identities made their community and households similar.

    54. It may be the poverty in which the inhabitants lived that is shown by the large number of cow's feet, which make up the majority of the animal bone found. Such parts were of little value to Anglo-Americans, although they could be cooked to yield nourishment.

      The feet bones that remained from cows tell us about the nourishment and cuisine of Anglo-Americans. At this time, cow feet were of little value to most inhabitants, but they still could act as a source of food, especially to those who are desperate for survival. Maybe, the four men had a particularly preference in cuisine that utilized cow feet as opposed to Anglo-American cuisine... or maybe the four men were so impoverished that they could only utilize the undervalued meat because of their limited income.

    55. Parting Ways is a very special site, in that it was occupied by at least three families of African Americans who were free of those constraints which might have been imposed on them under the institution of slavery.

      This is one of the first times that this article discusses the abnormality of these four men's freedom. I find it quite interesting that these four men were not under the institution of slavery because slavery was unfortunately so common for African Americans during this time period. I do understand that because of their service in the national army, they were able to get out of their contract of slavery, but this was not the norm for most Africans in America. However, it is impressive that after numerous years, four men who gained their freedom were able to form a community together based on the foundation of their ethnicity.

    56. HERE LIE THE GRAVES OF FOUR NEGRO SLAVES QUAMANY    PRINCE PLATO           CATO THESE MEN FOUGHT IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR AND WERE FREED AT ITS CLOSE. The cemetery is located in the original 94 acre plot of land which was deeded to them by the government when they were given their freedom.

      On most gravestones, the text is dedicated to shedding light on deceased individuals' lives to the fullest extent. Though on the four men's gravestone, it does attempt to remember the men positively. Inevitably, it exhibits their inferiority through the presence of "four negro slaves" which illustrates the corrupt racial hierarchy that America instituted. The positive attributes about their service and their freedom, in my opinion, are outweighed by the powerful phrase "negro slaves." Hypothetically, if race were not included in the memorial, then individuals during that time period would have viewed the African American soldiers as more admirable and heroic.

    57. Almost seven thousand artifacts were found atop the paving, and for the most part were concentrated in two discrete areas. The vast majority of these artifacts were fragments of pottery, but there were pieces of shattered glassware as well.

      What was the importance of pottery during this time period? Was it an elevated piece of art that the upper class yearned to own or was it used practically in households by all classes to store various items? Personally, I believe the African Americans utilized the pottery for everyday tasks (i.e storage), though that does not mean the pottery was not important to their culture. The pottery could hold significant value to family lineage and/or cultural customs. Both practicality and aesthetic could be representative by the pottery's use.

    58. As a servant to a congressman, he lived in Washington and traveled to England.

      Being a slave to an upper-class member of society, James Burr got opportunities that his ancestors did not get. Most notably, records about him. He also was most likely treated better than slaves of a lower class member of society. This is demonstrated in this portrait of slaves from a wealthy family below. The slaves are well-dressed and seem to be treated fairly well (at least from the picture's perspective). This of course, was not the reality for all slaves, but is a snapshot of slave life for the rich.

      Source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/516506650991376779/

    59. The article I read to relate to this one was the CNN article detailing how historical objects were lost in the recent Italian earthquake (http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/25/europe/italy-earthquake-historic-sites-damaged/ ). The article states that multiple historic sites in Italy were damaged structurally by the earthquake. Many historic churches suffered structural cracks and some even partially collapsed and sites dating back to the medieval times were damaged, much to the disappointment and saddening of Italy's Minister of Culture, Dario Franceschini and historians everywhere. Because of this destruction to Italy's historical objects, on August 28 all proceeds from state museums went to a fund to help start rebuilding the damage. Hopefully soon, these ancient sites will be repaired.

      This article relates to "Parting Ways" because both deal, obviously, with historical objects. Also, in both articles, a historical object gets destroyed. In "Parting Ways," the house burns down, and in the CNN article ancient structures are damaged because of the earthquake. In both articles, archaeologists have to use the past in order to draw conclusions in the present. For Italy, the rebuilt churches will not be the same as the original, but they will come close. This is because we have so many ancient buildings to learn from. We know how people back then built structures. We know the techniques and the styles from studying buildings and art. By studying the buildings so intently, we know how to recreate them. So, by studying past culture and tradition, we know more about the present than we would otherwise. In "Parting Ways," this is similar. Because the houses are gone we cannot study the actual thing. However, with the help of photographs, oral histories, and excavations, we learn clues about how past people lived. We can learn about their culture and their traditions, and ways that they took their own culture and morphed it in some ways to make it more modern and useful. In both these articles, people studying the past are using what they learned to impact the present. Archaeologists who look to and learn from the past can use their knowledge of past tradition and culture and techniques to further understand and shape the present, whether it be to see how freed slaves lived, or to rebuild medieval churches.


      Orjoux, Alanne. "Historical Treasures Lost, Damaged in Italian Quake." CNN. Cable News Network, 25 Aug. 2016. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.

    60. Such breakage could be seen to be done to prevent theft, but Vlach cites extensive evidence that such is not the case, since the community will not disturb grave offerings, even coins, as a result of customs which had their origin in the African past.

      Maybe I depict humans as selfish and evil, but why did the community not disturb the grave offerings? I would assume that certain individuals would steal the objects and use them for their own benefit. Perhaps, the valuables did not get stolen because the community recognized the significance of those gravestone offerings to the deceased and respected them... or perhaps the community saw no value in the items and therefore did not result to theft.

    61. It tells us that such patterns are applicable only to the remains of a single cultural tradition, and once outside that tradition, other rules apply.

      The variations in architectural structure of the African men in Parting Ways could potentially occur because of their difference in location in relation to other Anglo-American communities. Similar to the idea of varying dialects between the same culture, the men's style might have a slight variance because they do not live in close proximity to the majority of Anglo-American culture.

    62. associated with African American ritual practices and their West African roots.

      The huge importance of culture again being seen here. This connects to annotations I had above about culture influencing society.

    63. Such conditions did not prevail in the Plantation South, where the yoke of slavery was not removed until the time of the Civil War.

      This is an example of social environment impacting culture. Below is a timeline from an AP World History website showing how slavery changed over the of the civil war years. This timeline supports what Deetz is writing here.

    64. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      Americans today assume that our nation has been founded and will forever stand as a cultural "melting pot." Contrast to popular belief, this has never been the case. Differing cultures face immense diversity and are not easily accepted to "swim in the so-called melting pot" like those of European decent. I enjoy how the author concludes with an idea that is contrasting to the belief that Americans have been institutionalized since youth. In relation to Parting Ways, I find it incredible that the four men's African heritage remained as the sole backbone of their homes, even after enduring the hardship that slavery and racial tensions in society inflicted upon them. The four men did not perceive America as a melting pot because the colonists did not desire to swim in the same pot as inferiors.

    65. . . . the grave, save for its rawness, resembled any other marked off without order about the barren plot by shards of pottery and broken bottles and old brick and other objects insignificant to sight but actually of a profound meaning and fatal to touch, which no white man could have read

      Faulkner makes it appear that the decorations on African American gravestones serve no meaning to white individuals, but symbolize immense significance to other African Americans. Ultimately, whites will never understand. This stands out to me because Caucasians have always been deemed as superior and represented in society, but this African gravestone undoubtedly does not include them and praises the African American instead. With a society that is always praising white culture, it is almost unheard of to own valuables that do not involve Caucasians. Additionally, Faulkner is a white man writing about black culture in this excerpt so I wonder if his conclusion about African gravestones is accurate or is it biased?

    66. Parting Ways

      Summary: Parting Ways by James Deetz is a scholarly article that highlights an African American community and discovers decades worth of information based on the archaeological examination of the homes in Parting Ways. The article focuses on Cato Howe, Prince Goodwin, Plato Turner, and Quamany. Initially, not much is known about these individuals apart from the fact that they were once slaves and then were granted their freedom after service in the army. Though on the surface, not much can be inferred about each individuals' life, after immense scrutiny of the architecture of their community, their life stories can be unraveled and praised. Deetz demonstrates the importance of utilizing archaeology in telling the history of the undocumented and potentially forgotten.

    67. Renewed interest in the tiny community and its inhabitants had been generated by a special town bicentennial committee on black history, and this group's efforts at first were directed at the cemetery.

      This is a photo of the gravestone that currently lies in the Parting Ways cemetery. Before finding images of the cemetery, I read that the gravestone stated "here lies the graves of four negro slaves." Initially, I was in disgust because the four men from Parting Ways are more than just negro slaves. They have an identity that goes beyond such a subservient title. They had family, friends, belongings, property, a unique culture. But to the on-goers looking at their gravestone, they are just a group of slaves. Now, after looking at the reality of the photo, I hope people realize the impact that these men had on colonial society other than the coercive labor that they had to endure.

      Image credit:

      “Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials.” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    68. at home in Plymouth, Massachusetts.


      To familiarize myself with the geography of Parting Ways and to visualize Deetz's setting, I looked up the location on Google Maps. In present day, the Parting Ways community is commemorated with a cemetery that honors the individuals who had once lived there. Parting Ways is located in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Too my surprise (mainly because I'm ignorant about United State's geography), I discovered that the city of Plymouth lies right next to Plymouth bay! After this discovery, it makes sense that the colony would be located near a coastline due to the sail-ships that transported individuals from Europe to the Americas via the Atlantic.

      Website Credit:

      “Parting Ways Cemetery.” Parting Ways Cemetery. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    69. The house has a small central chimney, and with its shingled exterior and six-over-six windows

      This is an image of the Turner-Burr house which was structurally different from most vernacular houses of the nineteenth century. In my opinion, the house reminds me of a classic one-story shotgun style home because of the structure's long and narrow frame. Shotgun houses originate from African influences which could be a coincidence or it could be intentional due to the African Americans living in the community. Additionally, for such a small house, there were plenty of windows that acted as a primary light source. Since electricity was not accessible during this time, it makes sense that the building had numerous windows; it was a necessity.

      Image Credit:

      “parting5.jpg (JPEG Image, 400 × 246 Pixels).” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    70. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports.

      By studying buildings, we not only learn about the building itself and who lived there, but we also learn about interactions inhabitants of the building had with other humans--interactions we did not previously think had happened or were possible.

    71. complete agreement among all sources is rare indeed.

      This is obviously the downside to oral history. Each person is going to remember the same event or thing a little differently and that can throw off the actual description. That is why archaeologists must use good judgement when listening to a person recall a memory or a story and use common sense when comparing it to other's. This connects to my annotations on pages 194 and 195.

    72. The man was ninety-one years old and remembered walking past the house as a child

      This is a great example of oral history filling in the blanks for what is not there (the actual house). Because of this old man's memory and story, we are able to visualize the town more clearly and know that there was a house there.This supports my annotation from page 194.

    73. For this reason, the archaeological dimension of the study of the community assumes a much greater significance. In some respects, such investigations take on some of the aspects of prehistoric archaeology

      When we are studying a person whose life does not have much record, we must turn to outside sources to help fill in the gap. These outside sources can be anything, and sometimes can take the researcher as far back as to prehistoric times.

    74. In 1975 an archaeological investigation of the Parting Ways community was begun.

      It was probably at this archaeological investigation that archaeologists began to learn about Cato Howe and the town that he was a part of. Below is a link to the project's website. Here there is more information available to the reader than what is provided in this article.


    75. Cato Howe was black.

      By introducing the reader to his fact right from the start, we now can start forming ideas about the sorts of troubles and problems Cato Howe faced in his time serving in the Army and also in life afterwards.

    76. People who held such a status could hardly be expected to have recorded a history of their own in any conventional way, although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope.

      Slavery and the way blacks were treated at this time period not only affected them in the present but also in the future. Because of this, it is harder for us now to study their lives and find the details about their lifestyles.

    77. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      It is ironic and sad that the government (and no one else) cared to take any record of Cato until he had to serve for the country. This is the sad truth that the government (and white people) did not care about blacks back then until they needed their help.

    78. "voted and granted a strip of land about twenty rods wide and about a mile and a half long on the easterly side of the sheep pasture, to such persons as will clear the same in the term of three years."

      It's very cool that we still have records like this today. These records can help tell us a lot about who owned certain properties of land. This will help immensely when studying architecture and landscape and the histories of both.

    79. Cato married Lucy Prettison of Plymouth in 1821.

      What I am finding intriguing about all these details about Cato's life is earlier the author stated that there are few records about Cato before he served in the Army (besides his unconfirmed slave records). However, after he serves, there are plenty of records about where he lived, how much he was worth, who he married, when he died, etc. This shows that after a slave won their freedom (in this case Cato earning it by fighting in the war) they could become a true member of society even though society looked down on them because of their skin color.

    80. Were it not for Howe's having served in the Continental Army, we would know hardly a thing about him.

      This supports the annotation I said previously. It took Cato serving in the war to be recognized as a true and free member of society and to have records about himself be written down.

    81. He was a slave, owned first by Dr. William Thomas and then by his son, judge Joshua Thomas.

      It is disappointing that the only reasons we have records of Prince Goodwin is because he was a slave. It just shows how different society was back then and how class played such an important role on your place in society.

    82. Melted window glass, heavy charcoal and ash deposits, and large numbers of nails all attest to the house's having burned in place.

      I think it is amazing how archaeologists can look at these ruins (broken glass, ash, nails, etc.) and use that to determine the house's fate. Being able to analyze clues like this can be really beneficial in learning about a building's past.

    83. Types such as handpainted creamware are not often encountered on New England sites representing people of average means.

      If only the upper-class had pottery like this, it makes us wonder, why did low-income, freed blacks have this type of pottery? Who gave it to them? And why did they keep it and not sell it for a profit?

    84. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      This is a great question to pose, and one that is very hard to answer. However, through archaeology and archaeological digs, we can hope to come close to an answer.

    85. So it is that while the artifacts available to the members of the Parting Ways settlement were of necessity almost entirely Anglo-American, the rules by which they were put to use in functional combinations might have been more African American.

      Here is a prime example of two cultures colliding, and us learning about it only by excavating the site to learn more about it. The archaeologists just wanted to learn more about the building site, and ended up discovering something about culture, too.

    86. But the negative evidence is strong, so there had to be some accommodation for one within the building.

      Here, the picture is helping the archaeologists draw conclusions that would have otherwise baffled them. Even though there is no physical evidence that a fire place existed, because the picture shows one, that means it was there and was there with some purpose. Working backwards from this, archaeologists know what to search for to find more evidence of the fire place.

    87. Beyond this, there are differences.

      Culture changes over time. The basis can remain the same, but key aspects can and will change. Adjusting to the new environment always occurs.

    88. At the time of the community's formation, the usual pattern of Anglo-American house placement was a scattered one, each family on its own property.

      A key example to support my previous point. The settlers built their houses in accordance to tradition and culture, but modified key things, such as living patterns.

    89. they were able to organize their world on their own terms from the late eighteenth century onward.

      These African Americans who shared this land were a special group of people because they were not only freed slaves, but they also took culture and modified it and impact future generations. And by looking at their lifestyles and how they lived, we now in present time have a better understanding of life and culture back then.

    90. Prior to the excavations at Parting Ways in 1975 and 1976, the site was known only as the location of a tiny cemetery

      Examining the history and previous culture of a site can unlock clues for us in the present to learn what really happened there. That's why it's important for us now to study the past.

    91. Such a pattern has a striking parallel to grave decoration practices as they are known from the American South.

      By finding this shattered pottery, we are able to learn that there could be a potential grave here! Culture practices spread all over and fundamentally stay the same. This is really interesting.

    92. graves and their decorations are seen as inviolate, not to be stolen from.

      This explains why these fragments were never removed or touched or bothered. The cultural traditions continue on.

    93. But because the artifacts themselves were so familiar to us, the essential differences were disguised behind them, and only when a more basic consideration of different perceptions of the world was made did the picture come into focus.

      What the author is trying to say here is that since everything was grounded in similar habits and culture, it was easier to draw connections.

    94. Since the artifactual and architectural remains of these communities are a better index of the life of African Americans in their own terms, they hold great promise of supplementing American black history in a different and important way.

      The author here is saying that while oral history and stories are helpful, archaeology can unlock secrets we would not have known otherwise. We can learn about lifestyles and culture through archaeology and see hands-on the lives these people were living.

    95. African heritage surfaced one more time.

      The freed slaves united and came together through the common-ground of pure African culture, tradition, and, most importantly, heritage.

    96. In their own way, the black settlers of Parting Ways maintained their cultural heritage in the face of adversity.

      Through archaeology, we are able to see that the freed slaves were not just people, they were freed African American slaves and veterans who overcame racism and poverty to unite and form a bond and keep their African heritage alive, not only for them, but for future generations.

    97. The presence of the kind of pottery normally seen as an indicator of high status on a site occupied by pensioners receiving eight dollars a month should serve as a caveat to those who would uncritically use such a single piece of evidence to support a point.

      Most often, if valuable objects are found at a site, it is inferred that these people were rich and could afford such items. However, it is known that these men only received eight dollars a month, thus making it impossible for them to have bought that item. At this point, critical thinking must come into play to determine how the pottery came into this men's possession.

      “James Deetz, Parting Ways Site, Illustrations.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/partingillust7.html. This is a picture of the pottery found at the site of Parting Ways

    98. from

      In After Flooding, Some Louisiana Students Face Uncertain School Year http://abcnews.go.com/US/flooding-louisiana-students-face-uncertain-school-year/story?id=41589657 This article speaks of the massive damage sustained to a school after a flood, displacing many students and families and providing uncertain futures. These students were unable to go to school, and some even bounced from house to house after their own was destroyed. Since so many cars were damaged as well, more buses would have to be in operation in order to pick up the same students, some of which are now out of the school district in the effort to find a place to live. This can relate to the text in that this reminds me of how these men were displaced after the war, and received just enough to start over and try to make their own lives. They were also displaced from their homes on a much larger scale, as their homeland was Africa, and they were unable to go back to where they grew up or at least where their families grew up.

    99. The Burr house had been built in two stages, separated by perhaps as much as thirty years. The initial construction had taken place long before Burr moved to the site, and in view of the relationship between the two men, it may have been done by Burr's grandfather, Plato Turner. This first, small structure was twelve feet square, as evidenced by perfectly preserved stone footings. These footings stood on an intentionally mounded earth platform. Artifacts in the fill of this feature and in the trenches that held the footings all point to a construction date at the turn of the nineteenth century, with creamware and pearlware fragments providing the most precise dating evidence. These footings immediately abutted the cellar, and the cellar was beneath a second room, producing an overall ground plan of two contiguous

      The foundations of the Burr house have never been touched, so the condition of them makes it very easy to see how the house was made and what it looked like.

      “James Deetz, Parting Ways Site, Illustrations.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/partingillust4.html. This is a picture of the foundations.

      “James Deetz, Parting Ways Site, Illustrations.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/partingillust2.html. This is the Burr hosue before it burnt down.

    100. The archaeology tells us that in spite of their lowly station in life, they were the bearers of a lifestyle, distinctly their own, neither recognized nor understood by their chroniclers.

      I find it awe-inspiring that despite racial inferiority and poverty, the African men were able to live a distinct ethnic lifestyle in Parting Ways where they developed their own unique culture.

    101. ny simple vernacular house of the nineteenth century (see Figure 13)

      A "simple vernacular house", this relates back to the other article we read. A vernacular house shows how people were living at the time, so buildings with small central chimneys, shingled exteriors, and six-over-six windows were typical of a house at this time.

      Evans, Walker. “Nineteenth-Century House. Beaufort, South Carolina.” Still image, 1936. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1998020874/PP/. This is a picture of a nineteenth century home.

    102. The town authorized the sale of the property in that year, referring to it as land "recently held by Cato Howe, deceased" and "formerly occupied by Prince, man of color

      As soon as I read ""formerly occupied by Prince" all I could think of was "the artist formerly known as Prince".

    1. novels

      Once I visited the house that "The House of Seven Gables" by Nathaniel Hawthorne was based on, so maybe that novel could be used as valid research for the actual house. And, yes, the house did have seven gables.

    2. the place to begin is with the buildings themselves.

      As Carter and Cromley discuss, vernacular architecture is a very hands-on experience. You can't learn everything there is to know by simply looking at pictures or reading papers about it. You have to examine all of the finer details to build a picture that incorporates all of the true purposes of the building or area.

    3. Rather than foregoing the status that brick afforded, they put their m oney where it would do the I most good, on the fr

      This line reminds me of some topics discussed in "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl." By investing the money in a small project that would allow the Dubois' to come across as affluent and monetarily sound, they created an outward image, at least on part of the house, that represented this. This is similar to the roads that are being built today. The roads are "built to support sprawl, designed to modern safety standards" (Steuteville 1). In my mind, this is much like the situation with the Dubois house. Many people say that it is safer for drivers, and that in the long run it will work better, however by looking at the statistics, there are more casualties associated with these new roads that with those made before the 1950s. On paper, these ideas may seem much better, but in practice it may not be so.

    4. heir good taste and apparent affluence could be seen by all.

      The authors say that the owners chose to make only the front of their house out of this relatively expensive material as a way to present themselves in a light that made them seem more wealthy, and because of this, they appeared to have a higher position in the social hierarchy. However, this would only work if the people viewing the house did so in passing, such as driving. For anyone living in the neighborhood, they would realize what the family had done.

    5. bigger houses that survive

      Less wealthy people are unable to afford larger homes, so when the time comes for expansion to occur, these are the people that lose out. When areas are targeted for demolition for the construction of larger, more expensive homes, the poorer people in these areas may be forced out.

    6. Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans.

      In the past, many things were handmade, and because of this, there was a little bit more of the creator in each piece. This particular passage reminded me of the story about the Mohegan painted baskets. Our culture and our personal identity serve to help us produce items that allow others to see into the creator's life.

    7. We can, if the buildings have survived, interpret them for ourselves.

      Every building still around today has some form of character. Every material and every design was specifically chosen to serve some purpose, and these all build up to tell a story not only about the building itself but about the area in which it exists. For example, in many large cities, the buildings are very tall, and a lot of people live in apartments because there is a strain on the space, and they can't fit enough people into it.

    8. buildings reflect our cultural values. Once created, they not only become symbolic representations of those values but also serve in their own way to enforce those values actively, making sure that they are adhered to and followed. In this sense, as anthropologists point out, the material world is reflexive: architecture, in the words of the social theorist Mark Gottdiener, “possesses the dual characteristics of being both a product of social relations and a producer of social relations.”1

      In the article, "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Rural Communities," it is asserted that implementing simple projects such as local parks, benches, and sidewalks can influence a community to get out on the streets and influences the social constructs of the community. Take the Reflection Pool for instance, pictured above. Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    9. But even in times of historical record­keeping, most people do not write about themselves and most do little that makes others want to write about them. But every­one makes, or buys, and uses things,

      Analysis of artifacts and things are a sort of way to keep someone alive. Some believe that as long as someone is talking about you or saying your name, you are never really dead. So in a way, analysis brings certain times and places and people back to life. http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/46464-do-you-not-know-that-a-man-is-not-dead

    10. The study of vernacular architecture

      "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project," by Tasnim Shamma, Summary: The article starts with the ground breaking of MARTA’s “‘transit-oriented developments'" (Shamma) at Edgewood-Candler Park. The project was sponsored by a private developer who poured 40$ million dollars into the project; MARTA did not have to pay a single cent. The development will feature apartments, restaurants and even a theater; basically a living complex that centers around MARTA’s Edgewood-Candler Park station, for ease of access. The article then introduces a native to Edgewood, Eric Kronberg, and his interactions with his neighbors on ideas for the area, a vision they have been working on for well over a decade. The ground breaking has left him speechless, he described it as a kind of thing "...you don't even wish for because you don't believe it's possible." (Shamma) The development hopes to increase density capacity so that it can accommodate new ridership. Ridership, compared to last year statistics, is low. General manager Keith Parker however, expects things to pick up again describing it as only a "matter of time" (Shamma).

      This development anticipates the return of old members, as well as new patrons; an outcome MARTA is pretty confident in. With the building where it is, and the function it serves, people will be "'...right here to ride our services '" (Shamma). Expected to finish by the end of 2017, Amanda Rhein, senior director of the transit-oriented development, focuses on the other 5 locations where such developments will take place; for a total of 6. The article then briefly mentions the other location and their readability for work. According to Rhein, there are still a lot to figure out, but they have contact with a development partner they wish to work with, and have a good grasp on the projects.

      Shamma, Tasnim. "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." 90.1 FM WABE –<br> Atlanta's NPR Station. NPR, 23 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    11. ability to find meaning in artifacts.

      These artifacts are a physical representation of the culture of the person who created it. By looking into the designs, materials from which it was made, and what it was used for, we may be able to discern a lot of information about the people who made it, as well as its intended purpose if it isn't the traditional house or building.

    12. Vernacular architecture research implies a marriage of sources: oral history written documents, and the buildings themselves.

      Word and physical image must come together in an interplay of information so that we can get the perfect grasp on what it is we want to learn from the building. Lets then take a look at the MARTA transit buildings. Image Credit: (“SpokeEdgewoodCandlerPark.jpg (JPEG Image, 2400 × 1078 Pixels) - Scaled (53%).” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.)

      Looking at just the building itself (or how it is supposed to look when finished), a researcher wouldn't be able to tell that it was a building meant for ease of transportation. Without some inkling of a background, this building just resembles an apartment complex. This is where the article, "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" comes into play. In the article, it is revealed that these structures are "'transit-oriented developments'" (Shamma), with this information, the entire view of the structure, and all its connection to this concept of transit, comes to life. For example, the apartments we see, their purpose serves more than just housing, they provide ease of access to those who wish to live closer to their bus stops. Without the accompany of text, vernacular research can not commence, because what is needed is both the physical, as well as the abstract.

    13. 1 We need to remember that the everyday objects we see all around us are indicators of our cultural values

      Everything around us has a purpose, however what we intend to happen does not happen at all. As the article discusses, we began to construct roadways differently than we had in the past, as a way to "protect" people from driving carelessly (Steuteville 1). However, this change in our cultural values to a more relaxed view has actually led to an increase in the number of deaths, showing that what we may have valued and tried to achieve did not actually pan out.

      -This is a chart taken from the article "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl." Steuteville, Robert. "The Morbid and Mortal Toll of Sprawl." CNU. N.p., 26 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    14. Maps, blueprints, historic photo­graphs, and paintings can also reveal information about vernacular architecture.

      Perfectly complies with the "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" article by Tasnim Shamma. The building is not complete, all there is are rendered images, floor plans, and blueprints, yet, with just that, the meaning of the building and its purpose can already be assessed.

    15. In both its formal organ­ization and its use, the room reflects a normative approach to the education process.

      This can relate back to many things. As people perform research into the way people think and interact, there have been changes in fields that have't changed in a long time. For example, many classrooms have now implemented flipped classroom practices, in which the students teach, or they reorganize the class and allow for more student participation and discussion.

    16. Determining history through buildings has its drawbacks, certainly. One has been mentioned already: the time it takes to do fieldwork

      As with anything, good work takes time. To truly understand the importance of something, time must be taken. As the authors write, time in the field does not pass quickly. However, it is well worth it when, in the end, the researchers are able to accurately discuss the studied piece.

    17. Among Americans, for example, people for whom private space is a highly valued commodity,

      Much like Dr. Fernandez discussed in his class, the view of personal property and items is a very American idea. In Japan, for example, public property is seen as more important than the living space of the individual, as shown by the picture here (http://i.imgur.com/8gAqB.jpg). The living spaces in japan are typically smaller as time is spent outside in public rather than in the home.

      My Tiny Japanese Apartment. 2011. Photograph.

    18. survival

      This relates back to what we read in "Understanding Comics." The two main goals for us as humans is to survive and to reproduce. Everything that we produce, in some way is making out lives easier and more enjoyable, but ultimately, the point of these items is to help us survive.

    19. ed from actuality.

      In what ways can we attempt to stop the biasing and perceptions of the people that analyze a building, material, etc.? From an early age, we are trained to perceive certain traits of things based on how they look, etc., and it can be hard to overcome that.

    20. TO

      The article, “The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl,” is a very interesting read that discusses some of the changes that have occurred within society in the past few decades. Change occurs all the time, whether we like it or not. However, some of the things that are done as a way to try and help the majority of people actually do the exact opposite. The roadways that we put in place to help the majority of people actually led to more problems (Steuteville 4). The article goes on to discuss the fact that on paper, many of these roads and highways are safer for the majority of people than those that were built prior to the 1950s. The charts, on the other hand, tell a different story; more deaths occur on these newer, “safer,” roads (Steuteville 4).

      When looking at the information, it is easy to understand. But why do people not fight for roads that are truly safer? It is because we accept what we are told. The companies building these roads say that they are better for the overall safety of the drivers, and no one looks further into it. This causes a problem, because without people voicing their opinions and making their own ideas, nothing is ever going to change. More and more dangerous roads will be built, and only when the numbers start to climb even higher will people finally take notice.

      Steuteville, Robert. "The Morbid and Mortal Toll of Sprawl." CNU. N.p., 26 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    21. Analyzing and explaining the cultural content of a building is not something you can justr/o,

      To understand the significance of buildings, you have to look back into when it was built and by who. Then you can look at the people that lived or worked inside of it, because each of them has their own individual story, and it is likely that they left some piece of themselves behind, either in decorations or other aspects of the building.

    22. In its form, then, the room adheres to all the conventions proper to educa­tional space in the United States.1'

      By analyzing the classroom's construction, rather than just its contents, the classroom is decidedly different than any other room with desks and chairs. This classroom also seems more strict than some others of today's time. The symmetry of the room and classic set up of the desks speak volumes about the importance and seriousness of the education in that time and how classic its learning structure is.

    23. As mentioned, archaeologists deal little if any written documentation for early peri­ods.

      Most people, for example, would not document that they visit a community park often or that they walk to and from work, but in looking at the sidewalks and parks and benches or lack of these things, it can be determined if a certain community does these things or not.<br> Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016. “Bucharest, June The 1St 2015, Crowded Park On A Summer Afternoon, Heat Wave, Family Time, People Having Fun Stock Footage Video 10439756 - Shutterstock.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-10439756-stock-footage-bucharest-june-the-st-crowded-park-on-a-summer-afternoon-heat-wave-family-time-people.html.

    24. people need things— objects, artifacts, however they are referred to— to live in the world, and we make those things, not randomly or by chance, but systematically and intentionally through our culture.

      The things we make/use contain our cultural upbringing/views; we can then use the artifacts to reconstruct the past and get a more in depth view of the people who lived in and used those objects.

    25. questions about time, form, context, and ultimately function are necessary to a dec iphering of tbe building’s content

      You have to look at a whole lot of aspects in order to properly analyze a building.

    26. tell us about human behavior both past and present.

      Lets apply this idea to the developments Tasnim Shamma talks about in the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project". Vernacular studies can give insights into human behavior, both from the past, as well as the present. Then looking at the rendered image of the building, along with the text of course (mentioned before that vernacular studies incorporates both physical and written) can the past and present be told? Yes. The past: hundred of thousands of people ride MARTA on a daily basis, the building is to make it easier for commuters, as they can now live near the station. The present: MARTA is promoting the use of it's transportation by providing these structures.

    27. Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans

      I agree with Harry (Mr_Jenius), the physical change we experience in our environment is the direct result of our change in culture. Harry brought up the change in roadways in the article "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl", I also read the article, and it talks about the change in roadway construction from the 50's and how it actually causes more death then pre-50's constructions; cities who adopted a new road plan, compared to those who kept the same form since the 50's,have much higher traffic death rates. Harry mentioned the reason for this change; the MARTA transit oriented buildings, in the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", are also the result of cultural change. They are built to accommodate those who wish to live closer to the bus stops, so they do not have to travel far, to do more traveling. We are physically changing our environment to better fit our everyday needs.

    28. Mark Gottdiener, “possesses the dual characteristics of being both a product of social relations and a producer of social relations.”1

      In simpler words, buildings are made due to social interaction, which then causes more interaction to occur; its a cycle. The MARTA transit buildings possess such traits/characteristics. The building is a direct consequence of the interaction between transportation personnel, and the working class who use said transportation; in this case, MARTA. "'Once you build these types of developments...people will be right here to ride our services.'" (Shmma), these transit oriented buildings play the role of product, as well as producer.

    29. discovei highly complex meanings in even the simplest of forms.

      Essentially, a very in depth, close reading.

    30. such as class differences— rarely talked about in the United States— that becom e evident in the architectural landscape.

      Buildings represents culture. How we build them, their functions, everything about a building, is built based upon our perception; and what is our perception if not a cultural construct? Take for example, in the article "'MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project'" Within the article, there is a section where they talk about the housing plans "'MARTA expects to allocate about 20 percent of the apartment units as affordable housing – for those who make less than 80 percent of the area median income.'" (Shamma), why did they include this? Because there's class difference, and they want it to be known. Not the developers per se, but rather the whole of our society. Class difference is something that prevails throughout history, and will continue to prevail, because it is so ingrained upon our culture as human beings. So much so, that it appears in our "'architectural landscape'" (Carter, Cromley, 10) We may not talk about the existence of classes, but we don't have too, the things we make speak volumes. That is why vernacular studies has such a profound effect on understanding history.

    31. To understand how people bring beauty to their lives, one must study the buildings themselves

      I find this to be true while reading the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" by Tasnim Shamma. Space allocation of a building speaks volumes about what holds precedence over another; for example, in relation to this reading, the MARTA article talks about an entire hall "...dedicated..." (Shamma) to a educational dance group. Reading into the design of such a hall could quite possibly lead to the idea that, this is one way that beauty is brought into the architecture. Giving credence to the previous sentence that "...Objects are essential in the study and understanding of the artfulness of a culture" (Carter, Cromley, 10).

    32. If culture determines behavior, and we can see such behavior in the things people make, it is logical that we can also move in the opposite direction, working back from the object in an attempt to explain the ideas, values, and beliefs— the culture— that caused that object to com e into being.1

      Reiterates previous remark on the use of artifacts/objects as tools to reconstruct cultural views; essentially, the essence of the article. The reading "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" provides and excellent example. By reading the text, we already know why the buildings are being made, but lets say we don't. Then, from a vernacular study of these "'transit-oriented developments'"(Shamma), we can probably find out that these buildings were complex, incorporating both living and entertainment, and were built around MARTA stations. If such a building was centered around a transport station, well, that explains itself.

    33. figure out when and under what circum­stances buildings and landscapes become the best documents for answering particular kinds of historical questions,

      Vernacular architecture is not an all the time kind of thing, sometimes its actually best not to use vernacular studies in answering historical question. Like how math is not the answer to everything, we have to determine whether or not it is plausible to use buildings as the tool to historical understanding; if its the best way.

    34. watch and observe how people behave in various archi­tectural environments.

      Observing the interactions of people around a building will help determine the place in which the building holds in society.

    35. There is a great deal to learn about studying buildings for meaning.

      In "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", the idea behind the development of these buildings lie with the nature of urban sprawl. Transportation plays a huge role in our identity, as such, we as a community, go to great lengths to provide said transportation. It could be said then, that the development of these buildings, projects our views and encompasses our cultural presence. "'Our hopes have been exceeded greatly'" (Shamma) Hope in itself holds our dreams, dreams come from our perception of society, and society comes from culture. So, a simple building of a transit oriented complex can have insights into the workings of our world.

    36. Sometimes, in studying contemporary buildings, you may find the people who made or used the buildings speaking about bow they were used or what they meant.

      The purpose of a building lies in its use, and it is through that use that vernacular studies can try and interpret the cultural meaning of the building, and what it represents. in "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", there is a section of the article where Erick Kronberg talks about how much the development means to him and his community. Stating that his "'...hopes have been exceeded greatly'" (Shamma). The building, he says, will "'...help pay for things..." (Shamma), this would give insights into economic activity during the time, as well as a key function to the building. This further complementing the notion that we build things not by chance, but through culture. An aspect of our collective culture is that we are movers, we like to move around, from point A to point B. So, with a building solely dedicated to the ease and access for those who seek transit, we can see its cultural importance, and people in the distant future, were they to stumble upon these transit buildings and perform some vernacular readings, will find that we were a culture fixated on the notion of movement.

    37. We would not suggest that the study of buildings is some kind of academic panacea.

      Not some sort of "end all" to the endeavor to understand human culture, just another way of looking at things.

    38. We have to be careful to reconstruct the proper per­centages of houses in each economic level in the past and not to take the standing evi­dence for granted (

      Reconstructing history is a very powerful ability, therefore, it is crucial that the one reconstructing these histories be scrupulous in there work; or else history may be interperated wrongly.

    39. uneven rate of survival of building

      Vernacular studies deal with buildings and artifacts, so when you use vernacular studies to determine history, it may be difficult due to the fact that, a lot of the buildings, during whatever time period you're studying, are probably gone. That is when, in the aforementioned text, we reconstruct them through records and accounts; going into the written to rebuild the physical; all very abstract.

    40. The physical properties of the room, so constructed, ensure that these values are enforced and that those who use the room adhere to them as well.

      Great example of how our values are projected through the layout of buildings/rooms. Not only that, through this projection, we add a sense of...purpose into the room, we give it substance. It is this substance that almost makes the room/building alive; representing values and enforcing them onto whoever uses the building/room.

    41. best reason for studying buildings is the poten­tial they hold for helping us in the humanistic endeavor of better understanding who we -are and why we have done the things that we have.

      Unlike some animals in the wild, we are a species driven by our sense of community; take that away and it all crumbles. That's why we have so many laws and regulations that governs us as a whole, instead of laws for individuals. This humanistic quality that practically defines us as a species, can be seen not only through our interactions with one another, but also in the architecture that we have built over the years; architecture that binds us together into communities.

    42. the study o f thosehuman actions and behaviors that are manifest in commonplace architecture.

      Definition of vernacular Architecture.

    43. find meaning in buildings

      When we try to find meaning in buildings, we are are deconstructing the physical materials and turning them into words. Incorporating both word and image, something we talked about in our graphic novels class.

    44. We apply the known to the unknown, saying that “the house is significant because it is associated with such and such person or this or that event,” but we still have not studied the materiality of the building

      When analyzing a building, you have to analyze the building itself, not the events that took place there. You have to look at the style, why was that style chosen? what were the materials, the plan?; everything that made that building must be looked at so that we may get a glimpse to the human behavior during the time of construction.

    45. unknown,

      If they were studying the houses knocked over due to natural disasters, most of their evidence would be unknown. They would have to find documents and research the sights where the buildings used to be. It would be interesting to study the architecture that arose after the natural disasters, and compare the architecture before and after. It's probably too soon to study that though.

    46. oral history written documents, and the buildings themselves.

      If a vernacular researcher only had two of those three, would their findings be as stable?

    47. extrinsic

      Extrinsic: not part of the essential nature of someone or something; coming or operating from outside.

    48. you may need to reconstruct the missing pieces from whatever information is available

      This would definitely be the case for studying early 21st century southern Louisiana architecture.

    49. watch and observe how people behave in various archi­tectural environments.

      You can't do this if you're studying older architecture because the people who lived there are all dead...

    50. a well-trained eye for what was built, used, remodeled, or even torn down may be all you have.

      Exactly the case for the architecture of certain areas after a natural disaster has struck.

    51. but only your own story of what happened.

      How much of history is made up?

    52. does it represent a contin nation of older ideas or the introduction of new ones?

      If somebody were comparing the architecture before and after a natural disaster, I think it would be very clear where the old ideas are washed away and the new ideas arose. I mean if a flood wipes away a bunch of old houses, people are probably going to seize that opportunity to build new living complexes or even industrial areas.

    53. exegesis

      Exegesis: critical explanation or interpretation of a text, especially of scripture.

    54. hy not just stick to the usual documents?

      If you stuck to the usual documents, then vernacular architecture wouldn't exist. It would just be archeology.

    55. investigative technique b\ which the researcher is able to observe directly

      So most of the vernacular architecture research isn't going to be ethnographic because they mostly study old buildings where nobody lives anymore.

    56. the written document stands between us and the actual behavior being written about.

      This is the case for all of history, but I think that architecture is probably the most effective way to find out more about a certain historical culture. People poor themselves into their living areas. I mean, not only are certain types of architecture representative of a culture as a whole, but each individual structure will have a little bit of a distinct person in it, which not only gives you insight into culture, but also into individual human nature.

  3. atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net
    1. Trail of Life and Path of the Sun design patterns, the box embodies the continuity of Mohegan cultural traditions and identity in a time of tremendous change.

      According to the Mohegan tribe's vision statement, they "walk as a single spirit on the Trail of Life" and they are "guided by thirteen generations past." This not only exemplifies the continuity of their traditions, but it also explains their intense sense of community--the tribe views itself as a single entity.

      ("Our Vision." The Mohegan Tribe. Web. 05 Sept. 2016.)

    2. weft

      I wasn't sure what this term meant, so I looked up the definition. "Weft" is defined by Merriam-Webster as "the threads that run from side to side on a loom or in a woven fabric." ( "Weft." Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, 2016. Merriam-Webster.com. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.)

    3. Finally, as a text, the basket assumes primacy over its newspaper lining, reducing it to a utilitarian function devoid of communicative practice.

      This is a bit ironic, considering that newspaper, a widely recognized form of communication, does not function as expected. The basket does the talking, so to speak, while the newspaper becomes mundane and insignificant.

    4. four-domed medallions

      One of the four-domed medallions described by the author. It also as the symbol for the Mohegan tribe.

      (Mohegan Tribe Logo. Digital image. The Mohegan Tribe. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2016.)

    5. Most scholarship on Native decorated artifacts has focused on material aspects.

      The lack of depth of the study of these and the decision to focus on the material aspects of the artifacts seems to reflect Western culture in that it is preoccupied with the outward beauty or immediate value of an item rather than its cultural significance or the messages that it could convey.

    6. Any text is open to multiple readings, but this particular analysis reflects a non-Native bias

      This makes me wonder how accurate a single translation or interpretation of a basket can be. How were the meanings of the symbols initially determined? I can only assume that the translations were passed on orally, but the article does not discuss how the author knows what the symbols represent, nor does she explore the history behind them.

    7. Authorship, then, is communal rather than individual, and the resulting narrative belongs to the community as a whole.

      This sense of community identity can be seen in western culture as well, in some areas more than in others. For example, urban areas that have large populations and a high density of people are generally more community oriented, as they lack personal space. This sense of community may no influence the creation of artifacts, but it can shape politics and even the built environment of the area.

    8. Baskets, which were and still are ceremonial and utilitarian objects used for transportation and storage of items, prayer ceremonies, and traditional games, function as com

      Much like the dollhouses that Cooley describes in her article, these artifacts have a use that has been lost to time. While in the past dollhouses were used to teach young girls how to set up and manage a household, the baskets were used to communicate.

    9. In sum, by touching every aspect of daily Native life, both past and present, basketry is imbued with cultural and spiritual power.

      It seems fitting that these items, which initially seem mundane in nature, should be used to communicate and convey messages. The history and culture is literally woven into the basket this item of practical use, which I find very impressive.

    10. Mohegan Wood-splint Basket

      Nicole Cooley's "Dollshouses Weren't Invented for Play" details the history of doll houses and their unexpected origins. The original purpose of dollhouses differs greatly from the understood use of the modern doll dollhouse--play. The first dollhouses served a purpose that was precisely opposite: show. Called "miniature houses," they were symbols of wealth and social status, or otherwise served as tools to teach young girls how to manage a household. After the industrial revolution, however, when dollhouses and miniatures were mass-produced, they became common toys and their image shifted dramatically. No longer were these structures and their contents viewed as indicators of wealth. They were simply playtoys.

      With the advent of social media, dollhouses and miniatures have again begun to take on a new identity. Rather than being locked away in the parlors of large houses or the bedrooms of little girls, digital images shared across dozens of social media platforms have given these objects new life. Dollhouses and miniatures have come to represent a cultural era and can be enjoyed by millions worldwide. They are reflective of a maker movement that fosters a cultural identity and sense of community that was simply not present in the past.

      Cooley, Nicole. "Dollhouses Weren't Invented for Play." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 22 July 2016. Web. 05 Sept. 2016.

    11. .Wood-splint basket making was not a solitary effort; it was one that involved contributions of labor from within the community

      The Mohegan people were very social and relied on one another for everything from survival to basket-making. Such a heavy emphasis on community helps to keep the traditions of the Mohegan people alive and ensures they are passed from generation to generation. For example, Indian culture is also very community-centric, particularly in regards to family. Cooking traditional Indian food is generally a task that involves help from the whole family. My grandmother has kept this tradition alive and as a result, she has passed down recipes that I make with my roommates in our apartment together. Community keeps traditions like these alive and help to facilitate the passing down of such traditions.

    12. present-day Mohegan Natio

      Mohegan culture has stood the test of time. They are still a very traditional and active people. I found this picture of one of the elders of the Mohegan tribe, showing that even in the modern day, the Mohegans are fully rooted in their heritage.

      Credit: “d1fa17863692fd76045c8099096273e2.jpg (JPEG Image, 174 × 251 Pixels).” Accessed September 7, 2016. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/d1/fa/17/d1fa17863692fd76045c8099096273e2.jpg.

    13. The baskets and other objects are often covered with symbolic designs containing insightful readings into the particular culture from which they originate.

      The symbolic designs captured on the baskets tell their own stories, and therefore make a very convincing argument to include them as texts. The longstanding tradition of making these baskets can provide centuries worth of information about the Mohegan way of life. As stated in the first annotation referencing the supplemental text, these baskets contain a plethora of information that could provide much insight into Mohegan life.

    14. Early “Native Literaciesin N ew England

      In the article, "Mini Object Lession: Gender in Flight", author Christopher Schaberg addresses how gender is essentially irrelevant when it comes to air travel. Airplanes have gender-neutral bathrooms, and previous stereotypes depicting female stewardesses and male pilots have recently faded. Schaberg's major point in the article is that there is more to a person than their gender. Likewise, the reading about the baskets makes it very clear that there is more than meets the eye when it comes to these baskets. There is a much deeper meaning to these baskets than just a means of carrying fruit. They are decorated with intricate designs and paintings that have their own separate meanings; some even tell stories about historical events. Schaberg argues as well that when a woman seated in the exit row is asked if she is willing and able to help other passengers exit, she is not being accused of weakness for being a female. She is quite literally being asked if she is willing and able-- physically and mentally. Similarly, it matters more whether or not your neighbor on the flight is "an armrest hog, an endless talker, or if they are emitting an overpowering fragrance" than if they are male or female. (Schaberg). When the deeper, more important qualities are overlooked, there doesn't seem to be more to a person or a basket than their gender or basic function. In reality, most things---not just baskets and people-- are more than what is first perceived.

      Schaberg, Christopher. “Mini Object Lesson: Gender in Flight - The Atlantic.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/notes/2016/06/mini-object-lesson-gender-in-flight/486620/.

    15. "To the Mohegan, designs and life are more than simple representations of nature. There is a spiritual force that flows through all things, and if these symbols are true representations of that force, this spirit should be expressed in the designs.”

      It's interesting that the Mohegans so valued material possessions, but not in the same way that we do in the current day. The Mohegans believed in a life force that flows through everything, whether it be animate or inanimate. Today, we don't generally believe that but we still highly value our material possessions. Why is this? Maybe because, as we discussed in Dr. Fernandez's class, our material possessions represent our class standing.

    16. Because they do not conform to Western conceptions of writing, they have been dismissed, ignored, and largely excluded from the historical record, thus obscuring the long history of Native texts and textualities

      What could the reason for this be? Possibly because when we think of how we teach history here in the U.S. its obviously easiest to refer people to written texts. But that doesn't mean other historical artifacts are excluded from the record or aren't studied with the same degree of scrutiny.

    17. — Roger W illiam sA Key into the Language of America

      A Key into the Language of America was a book written by Roger Williams in 1643 describing the Native American languages in New England in the 17th century. Williams seems to have not taken the cultural aspect of these baskets into account from this quote. Initially I assumed from the quote that he was in the majority of early American colonists who antagonized Native Americans. From a bibliographical website I found however, Williams was actually known for peacekeeping between colonists and Native Americans.

      “Roger Williams Biography.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.rogerwilliams.org/biography.htm.

    18. t is 12 inches wide, 17 inches long, and 11 inches high. It is rectangular in shape, with sides that curve slightly inward. The rim is double reinforced and single wrapped, creating a sturdy durable frame.

      After reading the essay, this intro seems lacking in comparison to how Fitzgerald describes the Mohagens' baskets. Perhaps she wrote the intro in this way to play on our expectations of what something as simple as a basket can be.

    19. The instability of the Mohegan reality of home almost necessitates a physical transcription of their history; divided by migrations and further stratified by tension, oral stories would not endure like the tangible symbols of a basket. Basketry provided a secure way to maintain a sense of identity despite the tumult of white settlement.

      "The Century Quilt" by Marilyn Waniek describes a quilt handed down among generations of a particular family. The poem recounts the history associated with each generation, and its semblance of heritage as well as potential to the youngest member of the family. These texts reveal a human tendency to allocate ancestry to tangible artifacts; family trees, quilts, heirlooms and baskets. Our physical preservation of the past asserts that the human identity is often largely derived from heritage, and this emphasis of lineage places a greater importance on the hope of posterity. The legacy one generation leaves with the next is its only guarantee of immortality; subconsciously, humans reproduce in an attempt to remain eternal through the endurance of their offspring and their bloodline. The Mohegan baskets are an attempt to physically bind and subsequently immortalize their heritage or sense of self for future generations. It is no coincidence that these baskets were distributed by the Mohegan community when they had lost their land, connection to a culture steeped in nature, and ultimately their sense of self.


    20. The article “Dollhouses Weren’t Invented for Play” by Nicole Cooley is about the cultural significance of dollhouses and their reflection of the established paradigms of a society. Initially, Cooley traces the origins of dollhouses to northern Europe, where the exhibit of rare and miniature collectibles served as symbols of wealth and status. Their use shifted with the progression of European society to reflect the role of women, as girls practiced management and housekeeping with the figurines. It was not until the 19th century that dollhouses assumed the childlike renown the toys garner today. A renewed fascination with dollhouses and miniatures has reached contemporary youth, especially through social media platforms.

      Throughout their history, dollhouses have manifested the regulations of a society upon its children. Initially, the houses were locked upon display; this embraces the idea of public and private space discussed in Graphic Novels, especially the characterization of the home as private space. In the 17th century girls learned management of the house and its servants through dollhouses; the practice immediately associates wealth with power, and establishes clear and distinct castes in society and a strict adherence to its hierarchy. The simplistic role of dollhouses in contemporary American society demonstrates a shift in the definition of childhood, more relaxed and lenient than preceding connotations. A dollhouse's ability to reflect culture mimics the purpose of Mohegan baskets, but while dollhouses represent flexible values in a society, basketry conveys established truths of a native culture. However, they maintain similarities through the establishment of roles in society, especially the domesticated roles of women in European and Mohegan culture.

      Cooley, Nicole. "Dollhouses Weren't Invented for Play." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 22 July 2016. Web. 5 Sept. 2016.

    21. Further research determined that the box had been sent by minister Samson Occom from the Mohegan community in Brothertown to his sister Lucy at Mohegan as a record of the journ

      The baskets have more than just a strictly ‘tale-telling’ purpose. Samson sent it to his sister to show her what his trip was like through narrative, giving the baskets a deeper, more complex meaning to the Mohegan Culture.

    22. To read the Mohegan narrative of the basket, we must make a critical move that elides the Western print symbolic system in favor of traditional Mohegan communicative practices: We must turn to its surfac

      Although we have information from the newspaper, to truly understand the message of the box, we have to ignore our western instincts and look at the outside of the box. This is problematic and what Fitzgerald is trying to point out is that historically, artifacts like the baskets have been overlooked by Westerners solely because it doesn’t conform to its standard of sharing information.

    23. Early

      "Dollhouses Weren’t Invented For Play" is an article written by Nicole Cooley. She begins by talking about the history of dollhouses, where they came from and their original purpose. Their beginnings are rooted in Germany, Holland, and England in the 17th century. They served two main purposes, display and pedagogy, which is the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept. “Nuremberg Houses” is a term coined to describe them, and the dollhouses became a way to teach young girls how to take care of the house and become ‘The Woman of the House’. As time went on, the dollhouses almost disappeared completely. They popped up again in England during the 18th century as “Baby Houses” that were exact miniatures of the owners actual home. They did not reemerge again until the mid to late 20th century. With their revival, they took on a new purpose. Dollhouses became a whole new world, for the owners, adults and children, to lose themselves in. She describes how they have transformed themselves into a part of her culture. Its something special with her and she can share it with her daughters.

      Cooley, Nicole. "Dollhouses Weren’t Invented For Play." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 22 July 2016. Web. 05 Sept. 2016.

    24. 17 Hartford, Connectic

      This is a visual of where the Mohegan tribe was located

      Original Inhabitants of what is now Massachuusetts. Digital image. Native American Tribes of Massachusetts. Native Languages of the Americas Website © 1998-2015, n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    25. ize, form, style, and varying degrees of decoration all play a role in the making of the meaning and function.

      This portion shows how detailed the Native way of communication was, which provides us with evidence of their sophistication. By this point in history, the baskets and complicated language are indicative of how art and leisure played a role in the formation of the Mohegan culture and ways of life. They weren't a people that were starving and therefore only focused on hunting and gathering; they had the time to develop sophisticated ways of storytelling.

    26. The Mohegan word for painting, wuskuswang, is the same word used for writ­ing, inducting painted baskets in a long textual tradition that includes decora­tive birch bark etching, beadwork, wampum belts, and the written word.

      The Mohegans included the words "painting" and "writing" under their meaning for the work wuskuswang. This shows how they viewed art forms other than writing as being in the same category, such as "decorative birch bark etching, beadwork, [and] wampum belts".(Fitzgerald, 52) The Mohegans felt as if all of these different forms were appropriate ways of retelling history.

    27. The Cultural Work of a Mohegan Painted Baske

      Christopher Schaberg’s Gender in Flight discusses how modern day gender issues may be less “pressing and more profuse” than some would have you believe through the example of the commercial airplane. He notes how airplane bathrooms have been gender neutral for years without incident, how gender doesn’t determine who flies the plane or who passes out the pretzels. He asserts that the reason for this might be abundant “pragmatism” in airplanes where people are mostly focused on getting from one point to another. This isn’t to say we are all one big happy family when stuck in those flying “metal tubes”, but rather we are looking out for signs of a fellow passenger’s character; will this person be obnoxious, friendly, possibly dangerous? Airplanes are a very public space where we try our best to remain intact in our own private world.

      “Mini Object Lesson: Gender in Flight - The Atlantic.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/notes/2016/06/mini-object-lesson-gender-in-flight/486620/.

    28. Finally, as a text, the basket assumes primacy over its newspaper lining, reducing it to a utilitarian function devoid of communicative practice.

      A Mohegan Basket lined with newspaper

      Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. “A Woodsplint Basket.” Harvard Magazine, March 1, 2002. http://harvardmagazine.com/2002/03/a-woodsplint-basket.html.

    29. Indians made baskets and other woven objects long before European and other setders reached American shore

      This is important because Europeans historically overlooked the native’s way of life, or even claiming a native custom as their own.

    30. Thus, this basket bears witness to the particular cultural and historical moment that it inhabits.

      This makes me wonder, what other methods did the Mohegans use for storytelling aside from written text?

    1. On his return, Roger Williams started a trading post at Cocumscussoc (now North Kingstown) where he traded with the Indians and was known for his peacemaking between the neighboring colonists and the Indians.

      This is the quote I referred to in a previous annotation.