1,133 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2018
    1. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    2. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    3. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    4. Preventing Alzheimer’s is straightforward, you just have to put in the work!

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Preventing Alzheimer’s is straightforward, you just have to put in the work!

    5. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    6. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    9. Researchers at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina examined 548 veterans with a head injury and 1228 without head injury to yield these results (15).

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      Researchers at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina examined 548 veterans with a head injury and 1228 without head injury to yield these results (15).

    10. In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average. For other varieties of dementia, the onset was delayed by 3 years on average.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average. For other varieties of dementia, the onset was delayed by 3 years on average.

    11. In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

    12. In one study, researchers at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio recruited almost 100 older men and women, aged 65 to 89, some of whom had a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Half of these participants carried the carried the e4 gene, which substantially increased their risk of developing the disease (9).

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      In one study, researchers at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio recruited almost 100 older men and women, aged 65 to 89, some of whom had a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Half of these participants carried the carried the e4 gene, which substantially increased their risk of developing the disease (9).

    13. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    14. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    15. 9 Diet & Lifestyle Habit Changes

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Listicle (“6 Tips on …”)

      Highlight:

      9 Diet & Lifestyle Habit Changes

    16. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    17. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    18. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Not at All Convincing

    2. The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:They present facts regarding the Basa fish and its cultivation strategies.

      Highlight:

      The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

    3. In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:They present facts regarding the Basa fish and its cultivation strategies.

      Highlight:

      In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

    4. The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:They present facts regarding the Basa fish and its cultivation strategies.

      Highlight:

      The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

    5. The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

    6. In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

    7. The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

    8. The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

    9. Besides this, the meat has been found to contains heavy metals, chlorate, isomers, hexachlorobenzene and other harmful compounds.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Besides this, the meat has been found to contains heavy metals, chlorate, isomers, hexachlorobenzene and other harmful compounds.

    10. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    11. Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

    12. Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

    13. In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

    14. The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

    15. The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

    16. danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      danger.Newly

    17. some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

    18. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    19. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    20. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    21. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    22. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Not at all justified

    23. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:None

    24. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    25. DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Inducing fear (“Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?”)

      Highlight:

      DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

    26. DO NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (“...Shocking Result”, “...Leave You in Tears”)

      Highlight:

      DO NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

    27. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Very much clickbaity

    28. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    29. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Very low credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    3. These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    4. To assess this, the exercise routines given to the volunteers differed. The traditional fitness training program conducted mainly repetitive exercises, such as cycling or Nordic walking, but the dance group were challenged with something new each week. Dr Rehfeld explains, "We tried to provide our seniors in the dance group with constantly changing dance routines of different genres (Jazz, Square, Latin-American and Line Dance). Steps, arm-patterns, formations, speed and rhythms were changed every second week to keep them in a constant learning process. The most challenging aspect for them was to recall the routines under the pressure of time and without any cues from the instructor." These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      To assess this, the exercise routines given to the volunteers differed. The traditional fitness training program conducted mainly repetitive exercises, such as cycling or Nordic walking, but the dance group were challenged with something new each week. Dr Rehfeld explains, "We tried to provide our seniors in the dance group with constantly changing dance routines of different genres (Jazz, Square, Latin-American and Line Dance). Steps, arm-patterns, formations, speed and rhythms were changed every second week to keep them in a constant learning process. The most challenging aspect for them was to recall the routines under the pressure of time and without any cues from the instructor."

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    5. Elderly volunteers, with an average age of 68, were recruited to the study and assigned either an eighteen-month weekly course of learning dance routines, or endurance and flexibility training.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Elderly volunteers, with an average age of 68, were recruited to the study and assigned either an eighteen-month weekly course of learning dance routines, or endurance and flexibility training.

    6. These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    7. Both groups showed an increase in the hippocampus region of the brain.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Both groups showed an increase in the hippocampus region of the brain.

    8. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    17. While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:1

      Highlight:

      While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

    18. "In this study, we show that two different types of physical exercise (dancing and endurance training) both increase the area of the brain that declines with age. In comparison, it was only dancing that lead to noticeable behavioral changes in terms of improved balance."

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      "In this study, we show that two different types of physical exercise (dancing and endurance training) both increase the area of the brain that declines with age. In comparison, it was only dancing that lead to noticeable behavioral changes in terms of improved balance."

    19. While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

    20. Dr Kathrin Rehfeld, lead author of the study, based at the German center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg, Germany.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Dr Kathrin Rehfeld, lead author of the study, based at the German center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg, Germany.

    21. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    22. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    23. A new study, published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, shows that older people who routinely partake in physical exercise can reverse the signs of aging in the brain, and dancing has the most profound effect.

      CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      A new study, published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, shows that older people who routinely partake in physical exercise can reverse the signs of aging in the brain, and dancing has the most profound effect.

    24. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    25. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    26. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. So, Anthony Mawson, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the School of Public Health, Jackson State University, along with colleagues Azad Bhuiyan and Binu Jacob, collaborated with Brian D. Ray, president of the National Home Education Research Institute in Salem, OR, to engage and enrol homeschooling families to participate in the study. In this way, homeschoolers were compared to homeschoolers (apples to apples), but with the added advantage that homeschoolers as a population match the profiles of American families at large. The families who responded to the anonymous online survey were recruited through homeschooling associations in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Oregon.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      So, Anthony Mawson, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the School of Public Health, Jackson State University, along with colleagues Azad Bhuiyan and Binu Jacob, collaborated with Brian D. Ray, president of the National Home Education Research Institute in Salem, OR, to engage and enrol homeschooling families to participate in the study. In this way, homeschoolers were compared to homeschoolers (apples to apples), but with the added advantage that homeschoolers as a population match the profiles of American families at large. The families who responded to the anonymous online survey were recruited through homeschooling associations in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Oregon.

    3. *Vaccinated children were over four-fold more likely to be diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum (OR 4.3) *Vaccinated children were 30-fold more likely to be diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) than non-vaccinated children * Vaccinated children were 22-fold more likely to require an allergy medication than unvaccinated children *Vaccinated children were over five-fold more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability than unvaccinated children (OR 5.2) *Vaccinated children were 340 percent more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder than unvaccinated children (OR 4.3) * Vaccinated children were 5.9-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia than unvaccinated children *Vaccinated children were 3.8-fold more likely to be diagnosed with middle ear infection (otitis media) than unvaccinated children (OR 3.8) *Vaccinated children were 700 percent more likely to have had surgery to insert ear drainage tubes than unvaccinated children (OR 8.1) * Vaccinated children were 2.4-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with any chronic illness than unvaccinated children

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      *Vaccinated children were over four-fold more likely to be diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum (OR 4.3)

      *Vaccinated children were 30-fold more likely to be diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) than non-vaccinated children

      • Vaccinated children were 22-fold more likely to require an allergy medication than unvaccinated children

      *Vaccinated children were over five-fold more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability than unvaccinated children (OR 5.2)

      *Vaccinated children were 340 percent more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder than unvaccinated children (OR 4.3)

      • Vaccinated children were 5.9-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia than unvaccinated children

      *Vaccinated children were 3.8-fold more likely to be diagnosed with middle ear infection (otitis media) than unvaccinated children (OR 3.8)

      *Vaccinated children were 700 percent more likely to have had surgery to insert ear drainage tubes than unvaccinated children (OR 8.1)

      • Vaccinated children were 2.4-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with any chronic illness than unvaccinated children
    4. In the homeschooler study, the risk of being diagnosed on the autism spectrum was over four-fold higher among vaccinated children than unvaccinated children (OR 4.2).

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      In the homeschooler study, the risk of being diagnosed on the autism spectrum was over four-fold higher among vaccinated children than unvaccinated children (OR 4.2).

    5. What it found about increases in immune-mediated diseases like allergies and neurodevelopmental diseases including autism, should make all parents think twice before they ever vaccinate again:

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      What it found about increases in immune-mediated diseases like allergies and neurodevelopmental diseases including autism, should make all parents think twice before they ever vaccinate again:

    6. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. “There was no explanation for the differences in health outcomes observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups of children other than vaccination itself,” the study's authors concluded. Although the design of the study limits causal interpretation, they added, there is an apparent dose-response relationship between vaccination and chronic illness too, with the partially vaccinated showing intermediate odds of being diagnosed with chickenpox and whooping cough as well as ear infection, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis, ADHD, eczema, and learning disability (see Table 4).

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      “There was no explanation for the differences in health outcomes observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups of children other than vaccination itself,” the study's authors concluded. Although the design of the study limits causal interpretation, they added, there is an apparent dose-response relationship between vaccination and chronic illness too, with the partially vaccinated showing intermediate odds of being diagnosed with chickenpox and whooping cough as well as ear infection, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis, ADHD, eczema, and learning disability (see Table 4).

    14. “The extent to which these findings apply to the population of homeschooled children as well as the general population awaits further research on vaccinated and unvaccinated children,” Mawson and colleagues say. “Investigating and understanding the biological basis of these unexpected nonspecific outcomes of vaccination is essential for ensuring evidence-based vaccine policies and decisions.”

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      “The extent to which these findings apply to the population of homeschooled children as well as the general population awaits further research on vaccinated and unvaccinated children,” Mawson and colleagues say. “Investigating and understanding the biological basis of these unexpected nonspecific outcomes of vaccination is essential for ensuring evidence-based vaccine policies and decisions.”

    15. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    16. Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

    17. In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

    18. New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

    19. Another recent study found it isn't just pneumococcal bugs that are affected, but several unexpected types of infectious bugs rush in to colonize where vaccines have been.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      Another recent study found it isn't just pneumococcal bugs that are affected, but several unexpected types of infectious bugs rush in to colonize where vaccines have been.

    20. Studies like these (here and here) describe how aluminum hydroxide linked to egg white protein (another vaccine ingredient) is used to create animal models of asthma.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      Studies like these (here and here) describe how aluminum hydroxide linked to egg white protein (another vaccine ingredient) is used to create animal models of asthma.

    21. This 2014 study describes how researchers used aluminum hydroxide bound to a bordetella pertussis (that's whooping cough bacteria in every child's two, four, six and 18-month DTaP which also contains aluminum) and exposed the animal to an oral antigen (ie., food, like peanuts or soya) to produce rats with food allergies.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      This 2014 study describes how researchers used aluminum hydroxide bound to a bordetella pertussis (that's whooping cough bacteria in every child's two, four, six and 18-month DTaP which also contains aluminum) and exposed the animal to an oral antigen (ie., food, like peanuts or soya) to produce rats with food allergies.

    22. In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

    23. New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

    24. Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

    25. A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    27. A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

      CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. the professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California wrote to the then President, urging him to order a “full medical and neuropsychiatric evaluation” of the then President-elect.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      the professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California wrote to the then President, urging him to order a “full medical and neuropsychiatric evaluation” of the then President-elect.

    3. They published a manifesto warning of Trumpian ideology, citing the following as the signs to fear: “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      They published a manifesto warning of Trumpian ideology, citing the following as the signs to fear:

      “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

    4. “With Trump, he's a disturbed person who protects himself by building up his ego and tearing down others,” an anonymous psychologist explained to the NY Daily News.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      “With Trump, he's a disturbed person who protects himself by building up his ego and tearing down others,” an anonymous psychologist explained to the NY Daily News.

    5. The American Psychiatry Association has a nine-point checklist for narcissism - if someone displays just five of the traits, they have Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      The American Psychiatry Association has a nine-point checklist for narcissism - if someone displays just five of the traits, they have Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

    6. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    7. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    10. “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

    11. And according to psychologists, this pathological disconnection from reality is dangerous.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      And according to psychologists, this pathological disconnection from reality is dangerous.

    12. He surrounds himself with people who admire and applaud him, and goes on angry tirades against journalists who enrage him by daring to suggest anything negative about him.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      He surrounds himself with people who admire and applaud him, and goes on angry tirades against journalists who enrage him by daring to suggest anything negative about him.

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. However some mental health experts believe we should be wary of psychologists diagnosing someone they've never met: The University of Glasgow's Professor of Psychiatry Daniel Smith told The Independent: “It's considered not very ethical or good practice to comment on things like this if you've never assessed the individual. It's also important to remember that there's a difference between personality disorder and mental illness.”

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      However some mental health experts believe we should be wary of psychologists diagnosing someone they've never met:

      The University of Glasgow's Professor of Psychiatry Daniel Smith told The Independent: “It's considered not very ethical or good practice to comment on things like this if you've never assessed the individual. It's also important to remember that there's a difference between personality disorder and mental illness.”

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. American Psychiatry Association

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      American Psychiatry Association

    19. Citizen Therapists Against Trumpism

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      Citizen Therapists Against Trumpism

    20. anonymous psychologist

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 4

      Highlight:

      anonymous psychologist

    21. professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 3

      Highlight:

      professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California

    22. clinical psychologist Dr. Julie Futrell

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      clinical psychologist Dr. Julie Futrell

    23. John D. Gartner

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      John D. Gartner

    24. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    26. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    27. DONALD TRUMP DISPLAYS CLASSIC TRAITS OF MENTAL ILLNESS, CLAIM PSYCHOLOGISTS

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (“...Shocking Result”, “...Leave You in Tears”)

      Highlight:

      DONALD TRUMP DISPLAYS CLASSIC TRAITS OF MENTAL ILLNESS, CLAIM PSYCHOLOGISTS

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

    3. Houston has been stuck in a vicious circle. More people means more subdivisions, and more subdivisions means more runoff. That results in more flooding, which ends up affecting more people.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Houston has been stuck in a vicious circle. More people means more subdivisions, and more subdivisions means more runoff. That results in more flooding, which ends up affecting more people.

    4. Prairies, which also act as floodwater sponges, have been decimated too.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Prairies, which also act as floodwater sponges, have been decimated too.

    5. Much of the destroyed wetlands were covered with pavement to accommodate the region’s explosive population growth. So these days, even a run-of-the-mill storm causes water to gush down the streets and can lead to flooding.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Much of the destroyed wetlands were covered with pavement to accommodate the region’s explosive population growth. So these days, even a run-of-the-mill storm causes water to gush down the streets and can lead to flooding.

    6. Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows. Most of the losses were in Harris County, where almost 30% of wetlands disappeared. Altogether, the region lost the ability to handle nearly four billion gallons (15 billion liters) of storm water. That’s equivalent to $600 million worth of flood water detention capacity, according to the university researchers’ calculations.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows. Most of the losses were in Harris County, where almost 30% of wetlands disappeared. Altogether, the region lost the ability to handle nearly four billion gallons (15 billion liters) of storm water. That’s equivalent to $600 million worth of flood water detention capacity, according to the university researchers’ calculations.

    7. The Harvey-wrought devastation is just the latest example of the consequences of Houston’s gung-ho approach to development.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:Singular Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The Harvey-wrought devastation is just the latest example of the consequences of Houston’s gung-ho approach to development.

    8. The vanished wetlands wouldn’t have prevented flooding, but they would have made it less painful, experts say.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:Singular Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The vanished wetlands wouldn’t have prevented flooding, but they would have made it less painful, experts say.

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. warning about the dangerous effects of bulldozing natural flood barriers for years.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      warning about the dangerous effects of bulldozing natural flood barriers for years.

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. By 1996, much of it was gone, but another 10% had been lost by 2010, while the developed acreage grew by 40%, data from HARC shows.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      By 1996, much of it was gone, but another 10% had been lost by 2010, while the developed acreage grew by 40%, data from HARC shows.

    19. Texas A&M University.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      Texas A&M University.

    20. From 1992 to 2010, this area lost more than 70% of its wetlands, according to research (pdf) by Texas A&M University.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      From 1992 to 2010, this area lost more than 70% of its wetlands, according to research (pdf) by Texas A&M University.

    21. Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

    22. Another study (pdf) by the same two groups looked at a dozen projects that had obtained permits, and found that only two of them had successfully offset wetland destruction, seven were partially successful, and three were complete failures.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      Another study (pdf) by the same two groups looked at a dozen projects that had obtained permits, and found that only two of them had successfully offset wetland destruction, seven were partially successful, and three were complete failures.

    23. In 2015, Texas A&M and non-profit research group HARC analyzed a sample of permits issued from 1990 to 2012 in the greater Houston area.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      In 2015, Texas A&M and non-profit research group HARC analyzed a sample of permits issued from 1990 to 2012 in the greater Houston area.

    24. Bill Bass, the HARC geospatial technology expert who put them together for Quartz,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Bill Bass, the HARC geospatial technology expert who put them together for Quartz,

    25. John Jacob, a wetlands expert who runs Texas A&M’s Coastal Watershed Program,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      John Jacob, a wetlands expert who runs Texas A&M’s Coastal Watershed Program,

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    27. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    28. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    29. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    30. Houston’s flooding shows what happens when you ignore science and let developers run rampant

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Cliffhanger to a story (“You Won’t Believe What Happens Next”, “Man Divorces His Wife After Overhearing This Conversation”)

      Highlight:

      Houston’s flooding shows what happens when you ignore science and let developers run rampant

    31. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    32. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    33. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Slightly Convincing

    2. Just like for indigestion, heartburn can be alleviated by sleeping on one’s left side according to WebMD.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Just like for indigestion, heartburn can be alleviated by sleeping on one’s left side according to WebMD.

    3. “For neck pain, it is helpful to use a small rolled-up hand towel right under the neck for added support,” according to PainPhysicians.com.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      “For neck pain, it is helpful to use a small rolled-up hand towel right under the neck for added support,” according to PainPhysicians.com.

    4. According to Skin Sheen, “Sleeping on the left side helps in better digestion.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      According to Skin Sheen, “Sleeping on the left side helps in better digestion.”

    5. However, WebMD recently released a report by Ehime University School of Medicine on how sleeping posture affects blood pressure. What they discovered was that sleeping face-down can actually lower blood pressure.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      However, WebMD recently released a report by Ehime University School of Medicine on how sleeping posture affects blood pressure. What they discovered was that sleeping face-down can actually lower blood pressure.

    6. Women’s Health Magazine suggested, “Get your best PMS shut-eye on your back. Place a pillow under your knees to keep your spine from arching too much.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Women’s Health Magazine suggested, “Get your best PMS shut-eye on your back. Place a pillow under your knees to keep your spine from arching too much.”

    7. Hub’s Health Expert said, “I used to suffer from daily headaches until I realized that I was twisting my neck when I slept.” They recommend surrounding the head with pillows to prevent it from turning.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Hub’s Health Expert said, “I used to suffer from daily headaches until I realized that I was twisting my neck when I slept.” They recommend surrounding the head with pillows to prevent it from turning.

    8. They recommend to, “Sleep with your head elevated… Mucus pools in your sinuses at night when your head is down, so have your head propped up during sleep.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      They recommend to, “Sleep with your head elevated… Mucus pools in your sinuses at night when your head is down, so have your head propped up during sleep.”

    9. Women’s Health Magazine recommends sleeping on your “pain-free side with your legs slightly bent”.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Women’s Health Magazine recommends sleeping on your “pain-free side with your legs slightly bent”.

    10. However, WebMD recommends to simply lay flat ‘on your back’. They explained: “When sleeping on your back, place a pillow under your knees. You also can put a small, rolled-up towel under the curve of your back.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      However, WebMD recommends to simply lay flat ‘on your back’. They explained: “When sleeping on your back, place a pillow under your knees. You also can put a small, rolled-up towel under the curve of your back.”

    11. These are just a few of the ways sleeping posture can benefit your health.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      These are just a few of the ways sleeping posture can benefit your health.

    12. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. And this seems to make sense, because our stomachs are positioned slightly on the left side of our bodies. Hence, laying on the left side allows gravity assist the digestive process.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      And this seems to make sense, because our stomachs are positioned slightly on the left side of our bodies. Hence, laying on the left side allows gravity assist the digestive process.

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    18. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    19. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    20. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Slightly justified

    21. Hub’s Health Expert

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 4

      Highlight:

      Hub’s Health Expert

    22. Harvard Medical School.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 3

      Highlight:

      Harvard Medical School.

    23. Women’s Health Magazine

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      Women’s Health Magazine

    24. WebMD

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      WebMD

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    26. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    27. 9 sleeping positions to improve your health and life

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Listicle (“6 Tips on …”)

      Highlight:

      9 sleeping positions to improve your health and life

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat low credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. The National Sleep Foundation also recommends a consistent bedtime routine.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      The National Sleep Foundation also recommends a consistent bedtime routine.

    3. Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

    4. This may seem like common sense, but science has confirmed its truth with the Growing Up in Australia study, during which researchers tracked thousands of families beginning in 2004. Every two years, these families took part in a series of interviews that allowed researchers to check in on the state of their physical and mental health.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      This may seem like common sense, but science has confirmed its truth with the Growing Up in Australia study, during which researchers tracked thousands of families beginning in 2004. Every two years, these families took part in a series of interviews that allowed researchers to check in on the state of their physical and mental health.