895 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. The decades before the Civil War in the South, then, were not times of slow, simple tradition

      It was times of tough competition between the land owners. The more money a land owner made the more slaves it needed to work on the fields.

    2. the average cost of an enslaved male laborer likewise rose

      the rise in the cost of the slaves tells us how successful the cotton business was

    3. skin color of those forced to work its fields

      the slaves were African and the skin color refers back to them

    4. The two moved hand-in-hand

      We are talking about slavery and cotton kingdom. The United States needed slaves to harvest the cotton crops.

    5. Some even sent their own agents to purchase cheap land at auction for the express purpose of selling it, sometimes the very next day, at double and triple the original value—a process known as “speculation.”

      Still this way today, somethings never change.

    6. Few knew that the seven bales sitting in Liverpool that winter of 1785 would change the world.

      Exactly. We still use this now, we use it for clothes, majority of what we use for our clothes is cotton. We should thank them.

    7. millions of dollars changed hands.

      Business is booming and everyone is getting their hands on good commodities.

    8. A single bad crop could cost even most wealthy, landed planter his or her entire life

      this puts slavery at risk

    9. slavery became a way of life,

      They had to adapt themselves to slavery.

    10. sucking up nutrients at a rate with which the soil could not compete

      I'm pretty sure that when the tobacco was booming that this was the main crop growing. With the tobacco treating the land poor, how much of the land did the farmers destroy.

    11. sending 6.5 million pounds of the luxurious long-staple blend to markets in Charleston, Liverpool, London, and New York.

      I can only imagine how much work this took to get 6.5 million pounds of cotton and how many people had worked on it.

    12. The change was astonishing.

      New land

    13. The explosion of available land in the fertile cotton belt brought new life to the South. By the end of the 1830s, “Petit Gulf” cotton had been perfected, distributed, and planted throughout the region.
    14. a machine developed by Eli Whitney in 1794 for deseeding cotton—more easily than any other strain. It also grew tightly, producing more usable cotton than anyone had imagined to that point.
    15. The discovery of Gossypium barbadense—often called “Petit Gulf” cotton—near Rodney, Mississippi, in 1820 changed the American and global cotton markets forever.
    1. Music

      Music can be someone's whole life. They sing how they feel, and that is still used today.

    2. Africans brought to the Americas the greatly varied cultures of their homelands, including folklore, language, music, and foodways

      They needed to have something they knew to keep them alive. They were taking away but they never let their culture leave them.

    3. For the enslaved, understanding the language of European and American slave traders and plantation owners was necessary to understand the new world of Atlantic slavery that legally determined so many aspects of their lives from life to death.
    4. Africans brought to the Americas the greatly varied cultures of their homelands, including folklore, language, music, and foodways.
    1. So, whether he has two little or too much, his approach to the gin- house is always with fear and trembling.

      I would fear too if I did not have the right amount back.

    2. The hands are required to be in the cotton field as soon as it is light in the morning

      Right when they wake up and open their eyes they have to start working. They don't get the slowly waking up process to get up for the day, they work right away.

    1. attacked and killed a French diplomat

      I wonder if this was intentional or if they were just trying to kidnap him.

    1. He is unwilling to submit to the laws of the States and mingle with their population.

      but can you blame him?

    2. have melted away to make room for the whites. The waves of population and civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and West by a fair exchange, and, at the expense of the United States, to send them to land where their existence may be prolonged and perhaps made perpetual. Doubtless it will be painful to leave the graves of their fathers; but what do they more than our ancestors did or than our children are now doing? To better their condition in an unknown land our forefathers left all that was dea

      I would not know how to handle this, handling to leave where you were suppose to be and being forced to leave.

    3. enable those States to advance rapidly in population, wealth, and power. It will separate the Indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites; free them from the power of the States; enable them to pursue happiness in their own way

      I agree.

    4. What good man would prefer a country covered with forests

      It's an ugly truth how we are cutting down nature for the temporary pleasure of having more infrastructure. I think the human race has forgotten that the results of our actions are leaving permanent scars on earth and our future generations will be the victim of it.

    5. hailed with gratitude and joy.

      But then again, this would mean that they would have to leave their homeland.

    6. cruel in this Government

      It is cruel that someone has to purchase their own land.

    7. have melted away to make room for the whites.

      This is nice but I hope that they don't clear them out

    8. enable those States to advance rapidly in population, wealth, and power. I

      So then they won't have to go to war.

    9. he Indian is made discontented in his ancient home to purchase his lands, to give him a new and extensive territory, to pay the expense of his removal, and support him a year in his new abode?

      I don't agree with this statement, it seems unfair because he is Indian

    1. Free people of color would be referring to the fact of freeing black people and giving them the equal rights just as their white neighbor.

    2. I think everything was divided by colonies and it made the economic grow as well. The slave trade took a large part in this revolution it had negative effects on Louisiana

    1. We think of the ratification controversy as pitting Anti-Federalists against Federalists. Who were the Anti-Federalists? The traditional distinctions are largely unconvincing. Some scholars have emphasized wealth and poverty -- that is, rich people tended to support the Constitution and poor or working-class people tended to oppose it. That distinction breaks down, however, for there were many rich opponents of the Constitution (such as George Mason of Virginia) and the proposed document had many working-class supporters in cities such as Philadelphia and New York
  2. Oct 2015
    1. Who were the Anti-Federalists?

      They were the ones who were more concerned about the rights of the citizens more than the anyone else.

    2. While not easy, this goal was far easier to achieve than the unanimous consent of the states required by Article 13 of the Articles of Confederation.

      Taking consent was, is, and will always be one of the hardest goal to achieve.

    3. exercise that constituent power.

      At least they started somewhere.

    4. national political community; it helped to focus the American people's attention on the political component of their national identity.

      And had hopefully brought everyone together and be equal

    5. all except Rhode Island,

      But they were later forced to join everyone else.

    6. Who were the Anti-Federalists?

      They were the ones who created a strong government

    7. Thus, when the Federal Convention dissolved on 17 September 1787, it sent the proposed Constitution and its accompanying resolutions to the Confederation Congress.
    1. The delegates took even longer to decide on the form of the national executive branc

      The farmers probably were starving and the delegates were busy deciding on the form of branches

    2. As creditors threatened to foreclose on their property

      This creditor reminds me of the bank that had taken the lands of the farmers and was referred to as the "monster".

    3. The potter hath power over his clay

      Basically stating how the citizens would have more power over their country

    4. Anti-Federalists” argued that without such a guarantee of specific rights, American citizens risked losing their personal liberty to the powerful federal government. The pro-ratification “Federalists,” on the other hand, argued that including a bill of rights was not only redundant but dangerous; it could limit future citizens from adding new rights.

      Pros and cons to both side.

    5. critics of the Constitution organized to persuade voters in the different states to oppose it.

      Some voters were not happy during this ratification process.

    6. Shays’ Rebellion, generated intense national debate
    7. Shaysites as rebels who wanted to rule the government through mob violence

      I think Bowdoin was over thinking things and should have approached these men and asked what they wanted out of this.

    8. Thomas Jefferson, thought “a little rebellion now and then” helped keep the country free
    9. That November, Washington called his fellow citizens to celebrate with a day of thanksgiving, particularly for “the peaceable and rational manner”
    1.   "As to your extraordinary code of laws, I cannot but laugh.
    2. The right of women to vote was not recognized by the United States until 1920, more than 144 years after the Declaration of Independence.

      It took a very long time, but we women now have our rights.

    3. very liable to be broken;


    4. retaining an absolute power over wives.

      He wants to be in control

    5. I cannot but laugh.

      He should have taken some advice from his wife.

    6. attention is not paid to the ladies,

      She knows that as women, we have as much power as men.

    7. new code

      I believe this code she is talking about is women rights.

    8. "This is rather too coarse a compliment, but you are so saucy, I won't blot it out
    9. I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors.
    1. Before the evening was over, much of Hutchinson’s home and belongings had been destroyed.16
    2. Dunmore began to convince some slave owners that a new independent nation might offer a surer protection for slaver
    3. Slaves could now choose to run and risk their lives for possible freedom with the British army, or hope that the United States would live up to its ideals of liberty. 

      I'm positive they that the slaves chosed their freedom.

    4. Lord Dunmore issued a proclamation declaring martial law and offering freedom to “all indentured servants, Negros, and others” if they would leave their masters and join the British.


    5. “may be publicly known,

      Putting them to shame

    6. Some women also took to the streets as part of more unruly mob actions, participating in grain riots, raids on the offices of royal officials, and demonstrations against the impressment of men into naval service. The agitation of so many helped elicit responses from both Britain and the colonial elites.

      These women stepped up on their rights.

    7. The colonial economy improved as the postwar recession receded

      Colonies are starting to come together.

    8. Declaratory Act, was left, in part, to save face and assert that Parliament still retained the right to tax the colonies.
    9. The soldiers were tried in Boston and won acquittal, thanks, in part, to their defense attorney, John Adams.

      John Adams

    10. Non-importation, and especially, non-consumption agreements changed colonists’ cultural relationship with the mother country. Committees of Inspection that monitored merchants and residents to make sure that no one broke the agreements.
    11. Women, too, became involved to an unprecedented degree in resistance to the Townshend Acts.

      They put these women to work

    12. By November 16, all of the original twelve stamp collectors had resigned, and by 1766, groups who called themselves the “Sons of Liberty” were formed in most of the colonies to direct and organize further popular resistance.

      They were not good leaders.

    13. Violent riots broke out in Boston, during which crowds burned the appointed stamp distributor for Massachusetts, Andrew Oliver, in effigy and pulled a building he owned “down to the Ground in five minutes.”15

      Rioters were not happy

    14. The Sugar Act of 1764 was an attempt to get merchants to pay an already-existing duty, but the Stamp Act created a new

      I don't believe everyone should be paying for the price of the war especially to the ones that did not want no part in it. I think this is for all selfish reasons and to cover up what they had caused.

    15. “The colonists are entitled to as ample rights, liberties, and privileges as the subjects of the mother country are, and in some respects to more.”3

      If they come together as a colony, they can outrule the person that are calling all shots.

    16. hey sought to eliminate Britain’s growing national debt by raising taxes and cutting spending on the colonies.

      This will lead to controversial over raising tax.

    17. The most famous of the anti-Stamp Act resolutions were the “Virginia Resolves,” passed by the House of Burgesses on May 30, 1765,
    18. The Seven Years’ War culminated nearly a half-century of war between Europe’s imperial powers
    1. Behaviour of the traders towards our Women

      They should not disgrace one another

    2. worthy cannot bear to be disgraced without a fault
    3. With respect to the Land I was not Consulted in it, if I was to deliver my Sentiments evil disposed People might impute it to Motives very different from those which actuate me,
    4. the English went they caused disturbances for they lived under no Government and paid no respect either to Wisdom or Station.
    1. colonies are governed

      If the colony were being lead in a wrong direction, then maybe they need of change of govern.

    2. change

      It is always one person that wants to come in and believe that they will make a change.

    3. defending their Liberties, as they call them.
    4. commander of the British North American forces, arrived in New York City on July 22, 1756

      john campbell

    1. would continue to employ this strategy to consolidate their power in North America


    2. settled for peace.

      I believe that if they did not have any shortage, they would have went to war.

    3. influential in its development.

      one person can be such an impact

    4. exposed divisions within the newly expanded empire, including language, national affiliation, and religious views.

      I believe this is how the war ended

    5. invasion, a massive coalition of France, Austria, Russia, and Sweden attacked Prussia and the few German states allied with Prussia

      This was probably the only way that they thought they would win the war.

    6. The French defeated Britain’s German allies and forced them to surrender after the Battle of Hastenbeck in 1757.
    7. French seemed to easily defeat British attacks,

      They went burning their things down

    8. Seven Years War was tremendously expensive and precipitated imperial reforms on taxation, commerce, and politics

      This will only help with the finances to their colonies.

    9. Defiant slaves could legally be beaten, branded, mutilated, even castrated.

      pure sadness.

    10. By 1750, slavery was legal in every North American English colony, b

      crazy to think owning someone was legal to do once upon a time.

    1. 两会


    2. 风暴

      风暴 fēngbào ②名 比喻气势猛烈、震动全社会的事件。 政治风暴 | 金融风暴

    3. 开启

      inaugurer; ouvrir

    4. 老虎
    5. 外媒


    6. 班子

      班子 bānzi ③名 指领导机构。 班子换届

    7. 警醒

      警醒 jǐngxǐng ①动 警觉醒悟。 这场大火应该使你们警醒了。 ②形 形容睡觉不沉,容易醒来。 夜里要警醒些,不要睡得太死。

    8. 官僚主义


    9. 形式主义

      !主义:-isme, une idéologie formalisme

    10. 群众

      la masse / polulace

    11. 脱离

      脱离 tuōlí 动 离开;断绝。 脱离危险期 | 脱离夫妻关系

    12. 贪污

      贪污 tānwū 动 国家工作人员利用职务上的便利,非法占有公共财物。 贪污和浪费是极大的犯罪 | 贪污腐化

    13. 亟待

      亟待 jídài 动 急切地等待。 珍稀物种亟待保护 | 亟待商讨 用法说明 跟“急待”不同。“亟待”文言色彩较浓,语意也较重,多用于较庄重的场合;“急待”较口语化,多用于一般场合。

    14. 鼓掌


    15. 严峻

      严峻 yánjùn ①形(神情、态度)严厉;严肃。 严峻的目光 ②形(情况)严重。 形势严峻

    16. 开诚布公

      开诚布公 kāichéng-bùgōng 《三国志蜀书诸葛亮传》:“开诚心,布公道。”后用“开诚布公”形容诚恳待人,坦白无私。 用法说明 跟“推心置腹”不同。“开诚布公”侧重于公开、坦率;“推心置腹”侧重于真心、诚挚。

    17. 总书记


    18. 常委


    19. 当选

      当选 dāngxuǎn 动 选举或选拔中被选上。 她当选为人民代表。

    20. 十八届一中全会


    21. 抛出

      抛出 pāochū 动 投掷出去;比喻把某事物公之于众。 他们终于抛出一份宣言。

    22. 别有用心

      别有用心 biéyǒu-yòngxīn 另有不可告人的企图。

    23. 不时

      ⚠️ 不是否定的意思,而是说“时不时”。=“时时” 不时 bùshí ①副 时时;常常。 不时从街上传来吆喝声。 ②副 随时;不定什么时候。 法庭在审理案件中不时传唤证人。

    24. 舆论

      opinion publique 舆论 yúlùn 名 公众的议论。 制造舆论 | 舆论谴责 用法说明 跟“言论”不同。“舆论”强调议论的公众性;“言论”既可指公众的,也可指个人的议论。

    25. 查阅

      查阅 cháyuè 动 查找翻阅(书刊、文件等)。 查阅资料 | 便于查阅

    26. 高层

      高层 gāocéng ①名 高的等级或层次。 位居高层 | 他住高层,我住低层。

    27. 随即

      à la suite 随即 suíjí 副 表示紧接着前一动作或情况之后立即发生,相当于“随后就”。 接到报警后,消防队员随即赶赴火灾现场。

    28. 停顿

      pause ③动 语流中的间歇。 讲话要注意停顿

    29. 说道


    30. =到

    31. 避罪

      néologisme, construction similaire à "避税": 避免承担罪责

    32. 避税

      避免交税。和“逃税”不同:“逃税”是非法的,“避税”是合法的。 避税 bìshuì 动 在不违反税法的前提下,纳税人利用税法的漏洞或税法允许的办法,规避某些税负。 瞒报销售收入的做法不是避税,而是逃税 | 依法避税

    33. 分子

      分子 fènzǐ 名 属于一定社会群体或具有某种特征的人。 作家协会的一分子 | 投机分子

    34. 追逃


    35. =和/与/跟

    36. 纸牌屋
    37. 顺应


    38. 苍蝇


    39. 说/表示

    40. 以往


    41. 各界


    42. 查处


    43. 腐败


    44. 微信

      WeChat, marque de messagerie instantanée.

    45. 政事儿

      Affaires politiques. Néologisme homophonique de "正事儿”, chose solennelle.

    46. 首站


    47. 西雅图


    48. 谈及

      =谈到 及:达到 ex.: 及格(达到要求的成绩)

    49. 访美


    50. 对美


    51. 国事访问

      visite d'État

    52. 微信


    53. 反腐


  3. classicliberal.tripod.com classicliberal.tripod.com
    1. egislative or supreme authority cannot assume to itself a power to rule by extemporary arbitrary decrees

      laws were made, thankfully.

    2. men when they enter into society give up the equality, liberty, and executive power they had in the state of Nature into the hands of the society,

      society for you.

    3. Thirdly, in the state of Nature there often wants power to back and support the sentence when right, and to give it due execution.


  4. Sep 2015
    1. it made me tremble to see the Sight

      This would have scared the bee-jesus out of me.

    2. – It pleased God to bring on my Convictions more and more, and I was loaded with guilt of Sin, I saw I was undone for ever; I carried Such a weight of Sin in my breast or mind, that it seemed to me as I should sink into the ground every step; and I kept all to my self as much as I could;
    3. Poor me

      Everyone has these days but I think that everyone should make everything positive out of a negative situation.

    4. I was possesst with a notion that if I had it I would die and goe right to hell,

      I don't believe because you have a disease that you will go to hell. What I do believe is that everyone has a day where their gonna leave whether it's to heaven or hell.

  5. classicliberal.tripod.com classicliberal.tripod.com
    1. he seeks out and is willing to join in society with others who are already united

      Safety in Numbers

    2. But government, into whosesoever hands it is put, being as I have before shown, entrusted with this condition, and for this end, that men might have and secure their properties, the prince or senate, however it may have power to make laws for the regulating of property between the subjects one amongst another,
    3. power to punish the crimes committed against that law

      Sometimes laws are not understandable by some people but without law, society is at risk.

    4. every man his equal

      As well as women

    5. equal to the greatest and subject to nobody

      Everyone at an equal level.

    1. Whitefield was a former actor with a dramatic style of preaching and a simple message.

      This is not surprising.

    2. only elite members of society eligible to serve in elected positions

      Of course, they were the only ones who could buy the elections.

    3. . One of the major differences between modern politics and colonial political culture was the lack of distinct, stable, political parties. The most common disagreemen
    4. peace and prosperity

      If people were not greedy and selfish, this world would've already been at peace.

    5. The Seven Years’ War pushed the thirteen American colonies closer together politically and culturally than ever before.
    6. preparation for war

      Only to protect themselves. I don't think that it was fair for them to just rule out the Natives because of that because there are plenty other colonies that have shed blood on their hands from victims.

    7. urged greater Atlantic trade

      Coming in contact with newcomers.

    8. This gave the British a larger empire than they could control, which contributed to tensions leading to revolution.

      They were not happy so they had to favor a new system.

    9. The Seven Years’ War ended with the peace treaties of Paris in 1762 and Hubertusburg in 1763. The British received much of Canada and North America from the French, while the Prussians retained the important province of Silesia.
    10. Raiding parties would destroy houses and burn crops, but they would also take captives

      Seemed like they wanted to show them that they had more power and destructive.

    11. wives asserted more control over their own bodies.

      As a women, they should be able to make their own decision from their family to their own bodies.

    12. more people to marry earlier in life

      This has had to have been a mistake for them. Taking on this type of responsibility is a lot of work.

    13. women’s role in the family became more complicated

      A women role will always be complicated.

    14. a group of about 80 slaves set out for Spanish Florida under a banner that read “Liberty!,” burning plantations and killing at least 20 white settlers as they marched.

      Fighting for Justice!

    15. idea that government was put in place by the people

      This would only be fair because they are able to keep tabs on them while they do the same.

    16. many of these assemblies saw it as their duty to check the power of the governor and ensure that he did not take too much power within colonial government.

      It only shows that they were not to trustworthy of their governor as well.

    17. charter colonies had the most complex system of government, formed by political corporations or interest groups who drew up a charter that clearly delineated powers between executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of government.
    18. These crown governors could veto any decision made by the legislative assemblies in the provincial colonies.
    19. cared for the poor in their communities

      It's nice of them to care for their community. Their trying to build their community up.

    20. colonial government also had more power in a variety of areas.

      This gave them the upper hand to make decisions. As if they were process of making new laws for their colony.

    21. sizeable free black community that made up about 10% of the city’s population

      Slaves are in the process of winning their full rights.

    22. South Carolina also banned the freeing of slaves unless the freed slave left the colony.

      But they could not free the slaves.

    23. Virginia planters used the law to maximize the profitability of their slaves and closely regulate every aspect of their daily lives.

      Money can sure bring the evil out in a lot of people.

    24. By 1750, slavery was legal in every North American English colony,

      This is disgusting, how could that even be?

    1. chains and fettered two together.

      They been already been ripped away from their pride, why humiliate them more?

    2. Africans still resisted:

      They fought for their rights and they deserve it.

    3. violently affected by the seasickness than the Europeans

      Europeans were the ones to spread the disease and at the time, why not blame the Africans when they're already physically harmed

    4. and cut one of his legs so round the bone, that he could not move, the nerves being cut through; others cut our cooks throat to the pipe, and others wounded three of the sailors, and threw one of them overboard in that condition, from the forecastle into the sea.


    5. I have seen some of these poor African prisoners most severely cut for attempting to do so, and hourly whipped for not eating.

      I don't understand.

    6. us arm'd, they fell in crouds and parcels on our men, upon the deck unawares, and stabbed one of the stoutest of us all, who receiv'd fourteen or fifteen wounds of their knives, and so expir'd. Next they assaulted our boatswain, and cut one of his legs so round the bone, that he could not move, the nerves being cut through; others cut our cooks throat to the pipe, and others wounded three of the sailors, and threw one of them overboard in that condition, from the forecastle into the sea.
    1. transatlantic slave trade provided such a workforce.

      Slaves didn't have much of a choice.

    2. New laws gave legal sanction to the enslavement of people of African descent for life.

      African deserves to be treated as human beings

    3. desperation that drove some slaves to suicide

      this is heartbreaking. How can anyone be so inhumane as to be completely unapprehensive of others' basic needs.

    4. Wars offered the most common means for colonists to acquire Native American slaves

      In that case can we say that waging wars were just a tactic to gain more slaves for the labor that was in high demand for plantations?

    5. Events across the ocean continued to influence the lives of American colonists. Civil war, religious conflict, and nation building transformed seventeenth-century Britain and remade societies on both sides of the ocean

      Needed to gain control. In the seventeen century the greed would get worse.

    6. Native Americans saw fledgling settlements turned into unstoppable beachheads of vast new populations that increasingly monopolized resources and remade the land into something else entirely. 

      right infront of them they saw all that was going to disappear. Sad.