379 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2015
    1. "compact cities are more economical in many ways"

    2. "Uncertainty of definition plagues the question of urbanization. Is land urbanized when..."

    1. "Cities are just a particular form of urbanisation."

      As more developments and modifications are implemented on the cities, cities evolve and improve for the better. But urbanization could also produce creative destruction that increase the vulnerability of the cities.

    2. physical landscape VS soft landscape

    3. who and what define the edge of the city?

    1. They succeed in doing so largely because the states underwhich they operate are the “soft-states,” in that despite their oftenauthoritarian disposition and political omnipresence, they lack the nec-essary capacity, the hegemony and technological efficacy, to impose full

      control over society."

      It's the people that push the boundaries who find out just how strong/weak they really are. It is more about the atmosphere of a disciplinary society aided by the people's fear that's being enacted throughout societies instead of actual and legitimate control.

    2. Over time, they have created massive communi-ties with millions of inhabitants, complex lifeworlds, economic arrange-ments, cultural practices and life-styles

      The people will find a way to survive.. they always do.. but we should be able to find easier ways to make that happen that will provide better situations for them.

    3. They are also venues where people forge collective identitiesand extend their solidarities beyond their immediate familiar circles toinclude also the unknown, the strangers.

      People are using their built environment to form connections with others who share the same passion or interest.. this can be seen almost anywhere, not just the streets.

    4. But forthose (such as the unemployed, housewives, and broadly the “informalpeople”) who lack such institutional power/settings, streets become acrucial arena to express discontent.

      Riots and defiant parades/organizational rebellions are led along streets... They're literally using their built environment in an abstract way that was probably never thought of being purposed in that way.

    5. I like to suggest that thisnew urbanity, the city-inside-out, not only it exhibits a profound processof exclusion, it also generates new dynamics of publicness that can haveimportant implications for social and political mobilization in terms ofwhat I have described as “street politics” and “political street”

      with new anything comes consequences/change.. it is to decide whether or not these consequences/changes have a beneficial or negative impact on society's well being.. is exclusion a consequence of capitalism?

    6. In other words, for the foreseeable future, the urbandisenfranchised are trapped in the structural web of the current capitalistsystem and the states that uphold it.

      Instead of reading the authour just restate questions and paraphrase, I'd like to read his proposal of solutions or an argument of how these questions could be answered/issues fixed.

    7. women and housewives have totake on many of the tasks traditionally assigned to men like paying bills,attending to bank business, dealing with car mechanics, daily shopping,taking children from school, or going to government offices.

      I think this is a good thing. It puts women closer to holding equal ground with men within the household and outside it.

    8. Here in the city-escapes, under bridges, ingraveyards and side streets, street children have formed “flourishing”outdoor communities, some with elaborate order, discipline, and an
    9. it is a cityshaped more by the logic of Market than the needs of its inhabitants;

      If we're thinking logically how to establish a city.. wouldn't we take into account the needs of the people?

    10. The “neoliberal city,” then, is a market-driven urbanity; it is a cityshaped more by the logic of Market than the needs of its inhabitants;responding more to individual or corporate interests than public con-cerns.

      Is this not what the United States has turned into under the guise of democracy? Because the power really is in the hands of the wealthy.

    11. reclaim their right to the city in a different fashion

      Here again we see how important people's "right to the city" is. The dialectic between the inhabitants and the city allows the people to change with the city and vise versa, which is am important social tool.

    12. the rich, now apprehen-sive of the physical presence and “social dangers” of the dispossessed,tend to seek their own enclosed and exclusive zones—the privatebeaches, exclusive neighborhoods, gated communities, securely-guardedbars, restaurants and places of sociability, work,

      How does this effect the children growing up in this type of culture? It seems that with the way things are like this, the rich will continue to be more closed off and therefore more disconnected than ever from the issues concerning the rest of their countries.

    13. The “neoliberal city,” then, is a market-driven urbanity; it is a cityshaped more by the logic of Market than the needs of its inhabitants;responding

      Is this not what the United States has turned into under the guise of democracy? Because the power really is in the hands of the wealthy.

    14. Thus, the gentrification of city centers toaccommodate global enterprises tends to push scores of low income andmiddle class families (state employees, teachers, professionals, or theworkers) to live the life of the poor in the expanding “planet of slums”and squatter areas where out-doors life constitutes an underlying feature.

      Do areas with higher rates of homelessness come about due to increased occurrences of dispossession by the states, or are those areas sought after by homeless individuals for a particular type of out-door public space?

    15. heyhave spread among educated young people with higher status, aspirationsand social skills—government employees, teachers, and professionals

      Changes in the environment are reflected by the characteristics of society.

    16. Neoliberalism is broadly understood as an ideology that advocatesthe economy and society be freed from the state regulations, and becontrolled, instead, by individuals and corporate bodies in accordancewith their self interests, mediated through the invisible hands of themarket

      Neoliberalism Definition: an economic ideology centered around the values of a global economy, or globalization: free market, free trade, and the unrestricted flow of capital.

      Neoliberals advocate minimal government spending, minimal taxation, minimal regulations, and minimal direct involvement in the economy.

    1. Under these conditions, ideals of urban identity, citizenship and belonging—already threatened by the spreading malaise of a neolib-eral ethic—become much harder to sustain.
    2. Wealthy neighbourhoods provided with all kinds of services, such as exclusive schools, golf courses, tennis courts and private police patrolling the area around the clock intertwine with illegal settle-ments where water is available only at public fountains, no sanitation system exists, electricity is pirated by a privileged few, the roads become mud streams whenever it rains, and where house-sharing is the norm.

      Example of how the built environment reflects society. Upper class society is represented by exclusive services, while lower class society is represented by the lack of public services.

    3. Even the incoherent, bland and monotonous suburban tract development that continues to dominate in many areas now gets its anti-dote in a ‘new urbanism’ movement that touts the sale of community and boutique lifestyles to fulfill urban dreams. This is a world in which the neoliberal ethic of intense possessive individualism, and its cognate of political withdrawal from collective forms of action, becomes the tem-plate for human socialization
    4. the government’s right of eminent domain has been abused in order to displace estab-lished residents in reasonable housing in favour of higher-order land uses, such as condominiums and box stores.

      The government taking people out of their homes to built new infrastructures, the sad thing is that we gave the government that right, their power. We are the ones that want to change our built environment to things "we" want so people are loosing their homes because of us...

    5. One step towards unifying these struggles is to adopt the right to the city as both working slogan and political ideal, precisely because it focuses on the question of who commands the necessary connection between urbanization and surplus production and use.
    6. The answer to the last question is simple enough in principle: greater democratic control over the production and utilization of the surplus.

      Is that really the best answer?! Greater control and surplus may be costly in regards to the social stability, don't you think?

    7. Through a system of highways and infrastructural transformations, suburbanization and the total re-engineering of not just the city but also the whole metropolitan region, he helped resolve the capital-surplus absorption problem.
    8. The right to the city had to mean the right to command the whole urban process, which was increasingly dominating the country-side through phenomena ranging from agribusiness to second homes and rural tourism
    9. We live, after all, in a world in which the rights of private property and the profit rate trump all other notions of rights.
    10. I here want to explore another type of human right, that of the right to the city.
    11. The right to the city had to mean the right to command the whole urban process, which was increasingly dominating the country-side through phenomena ranging from agribusiness to second homes and rural tourism

      Relating back to the main idea and title that we have the right to change our own built environment. This is just expanding on that idea.

    12. to create a movement to build another kind of world—including a dif-ferent kind of urban experience.

      Again showing the dialectical relationship between society and our built environment.

    13. social consequences,

      Maybe the social consequences arose by not included the African Americans in?! I understand its a different era...but its something to look at.

    14. The democratization of that right, and the construction of a broad social movement to enforce its will is imperative if the dispossessed are to take back the control which they have for so long been denied, and if they are to institute new modes of urbanization.

      Is this just becoming more of a competition between who ends up with control? I thought we were working towards beneficial social and urban reform here..

    15. This project successfully absorbed the surplus and assured social stability, albeit at the cost of hollowing out the inner cities and generating urban unrest amongst those, chiefly African-Americans, who were denied access to the new prosperity.

      Here it shows the difference in social status. Sounds like the surplus and social stability was only found within the white communities. African Americans were ignored and not seen.

    16. The urban crisis that is affecting millions would then be prioritized over the needs of big investors and financiers.

      Would the affected "millions" have the power/force to go up against these "big investors and financiers" though?

    17. A ‘Financial Katrina’ is unfolding, which conveniently (for the developers) threatens to wipe out low-income neighbourhoods on potentially high-value land in many inner-city areas far more effectively and speedily than could be achieved through emi-nent domain.

      unplanned change that will allow the government to overcome initial resistance

    18. The right to the city, as it is now constituted, is too narrowly confined, restricted in most cases to a small political and economic elite who are in a position to shape cities more and more after their own desires.

      Does everyone deserve a right to the city?

    19. bringing new products from housing to refrigerators and air conditioners, as well as two cars in the driveway and an enormous increase in the consumption of oil.

      Looks pretty similar to the world, rather lifestyle, we live in today.

    20. Raising the proportion of the surplus held by the state will only have a positive impact if the state itself is brought back under democratic control.
    21. establishing democratic management over its urban deployment constitutes the right to the city.

      easier said than done.. but what are some suggestions for how this could succeed?

    22. contagious

      interesting choice of word here.... second meaning..? relatable to our most recent reading about panopticism?

    23. Signs of rebellion are everywhere: the unrest in China and India is chronic, civil wars rage in Africa, Latin America is in ferment.

      People aren't just unhappy for no reason.. are we taking into account everyone's response to these movements? I know not all societies are governed by a democracy, but it's still important to take into account how citizens will react to changes implemented by the government

    24. Above all, it entailed the reconfiguration of the urban infrastructure of Paris.

      This shows how the economic situation is a factor in the decisions to change our built environment.

    25. precludes

      to prevent something from happening

    26. that the clear distinction which once existed between the urban and the rural is gradually fading into a set of porous spaces of uneven geographical development, under the hegemonic command of capital and the state.

      Is this result what society had in mind during the planning or not so planning and action driven part of the process of this development?

    27. a more insidious and cancerous progression took hold through municipal fiscal discipline, property speculation and the sorting of land-use according to the rate of return for its ‘highest and best use’.

      greed seems to be an apparent theme throughout the development of urbanized areas and "economic growth"... are we really improving if our economy is only getting "better" because we're borrowing the money to make it do that

    28. A great deal of energy is expended in promoting their sig-nificance for the construction of a better world.

      This can relate to Foucault's, Panopticon, when showing how a disciplinary society uses alot of force to keep people in check which is costly and takes a lot of energy to run.

    29. it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city.

      This connects with the idea that our built environment is a dialectical relationship. We have the "right" to create it, yet through time the environment shapes how we react, which then allows us to reshape the environment to that of our new understanding that our environment gave us.

    30. The parallels with the 1970s are uncanny—including the immediate easy-money response of the Federal Reserve in 2007–08, which will almost certainly generate strong currents of uncontrollable inflation,

      Sometimes there isn't an easy fix for the repercussions of an easy fix we made before to a previous issue.. Instead of a band aid, we need to input the necessary monetary/other resources to completely fix the issue, or it will be a constantly recurring issue

    31. This global scale makes it hard to grasp that what is happening is in principle similar to the transformations that Haussmann oversaw in Paris.

      We should take a microeconomic analytical approach to this situation to focus more on specifics of individual countries and their businesses that might be contributing to the situation

    32. Vast infrastructural projects, including dams and highways—again, all debt-financed—are transforming the landscape.

      "all debt-financed" .... have we thought about the long term effect of this system?

    33. American urban expansion partially steadied the global economy, as the us ran huge trade deficits with the rest of the world, borrowing around $2 billion a day to fuel its insatiable consumerism and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

      America's debt is much higher than $2 billion today.. somewhere in the trillions.. is our hunger being fulfilled worth the debt its costing us?

    34. including a dif-ferent kind of urban experience.

      what kind of different "urban experience" could we expect?

    35. this process played a crucial role in stabilizing global capitalism after 1945

      around this time, the US was pretty self-sustainable

    36. o create a movement to build another kind of world—including a dif-ferent kind of urban experience

      Changing the built environment changes the way society interacts and experiences life.

    37. he helped resolve the capital-surplus disposal problem by setting up a proto-Keynesian system of debt-financed infrastructural urban improvements.

      what are the pros and cons of a proto-Keynesian system? How closely related in our economic system today to this system?

    38. The economic situation he dealt with by means of a vast programme of infrastructural investment both at home and abroad.

      the economic situation is a deciding factor in the level of growth in urbanization a society experiences

    39. The system worked very well for some fifteen years, and it involved not only a transformation of urban infrastructures but also the construc-tion of a new way of life and urban persona.

      By redesigning neighborhoods, Haussmann redesigned the way of life. Another example of the dialectical relationship between man and the built environment.

    40. it entailed a radical transfor-mation in lifestyles

      Are we ready for another change as big as this in our society? I mean this question more specifically in terms of our overall built environment and our gradual shift over to a more sustainable life style.

    41. it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city.

      Isn't this what we did originally in putting in cities?

    42. Thus, indirectly, and without any clear sense of the nature of his task, in making the city man has remade himself.

      An exact description of the dialectical relationship between the individual and their built environment.

    43. I argue here that urbanization has played a particularly active role

      The competition of capitalism leaves behind issues like resource waste, unemployment, inflation, but through urbanization, society is able to take these left over pieces and produce growth from them

    44. Capitalists must also discover new means of production in general and natural resources in particular, which puts increasing pressure on the natural environment to yield up necessary raw materials and absorb the inevitable waste.

      Sometimes, capitalists can be too focused on yielding up necessary raw materials that they ignore the fact that some of these resources are limited. There's no way to make more silver or gold, but an example of not drying up our resources is to plant two trees for every tree cut down.

    45. The result of contin-ued reinvestment is the expansion of surplus production at a compound rate
    46. since urbanization depends on the mobiliza-tion of a surplus product, an intimate connection emerges between the development of capitalism and urbanization.

      the development and success of capitalism benefits urbanization by contributing resources over time that spur its growth.

    47. The freedom to make and remake our cities and ourselves is, I want to argue, one of the most precious yet most neglected of our human rights.

      This seems to be Harvey's thesis and what he plans to argue for throughout his piece. He is arguing for our freedom and its relationship with our built environment.

  2. Sep 2015
    1. This Elevator Being Monitored by Camera Thanks, Les!

    2. sutprising that prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, hospitals,

      Interesting hypothesis...which sounds to be true. Very interesting!

    3. There is no risk, therefore, that the increase of power created by the panoptic machine may degenerate into tyranny;

      I find this hard to believe. Where there is power, there are people trying to gain that power?!

    4. Panopticon

      First time panopticon is mentioned...relates back to title. Main idea.

    5. The Panopticon, on the other hand, must be understood as a generalizable model of functioning; a way of defining power relations in terms of the everyday life of men.

      It must be understood this way? But is it really understood as a generalization of power of the mans everyday life?

    6. Power has its principle not so much in a person as in a certain concerted distribution of bodies, surfaces, lights, gazes; in an arrangement whose internal mechanisms produce the relation in which individuals are caught up.

      Power is not based on specific people but rather on the "space" or situation that power is necessary?!

    7. this architectural apparatus should be a machine for creating and sustaining a power relation independent of the person who exercises it;

      How will this power relation last in a long run when everyone is getting used to everyone else in the architecture?

    8. space of exclusion

      Could a space of exclusion compare to a space that is unoccupied?

    9. space of exclusion

      Could a space of exclusion compare to a space that is unoccupied?

    10. the assignment to each individual of his 'true' name, his 'true' place, his 'true' body, his 'true' disease.

      What does it mean to be "true"?! This idea of true sounds contradicting. Being true to oneself is being able to have control of ones own opinions and thoughts but that is not that case here in this prison...there are only certain things that are "true".

    11. major effect of the Panopticon: to induce in the inmate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the auto-millic functioning of power.

      Visibility increases awareness of the surroundings and self-consciousness. Everyone feels that they are being "watched" at some point of the time therefore will restrict certain kinds of behaviors. Thus, effective use of monitoring will establish inevitably strong power.

    12. plague

      Who is testing and monitoring the "upper class," the integrants, syndics, and guards, from this "plague"?

    13. The Panopticon immediately reminds me of the Fujian Tulou in southern China and the Tietgenkollegiet in Copenhagen. Fujian Tulou has the same concept as the Panopticon but it is used as residential housings for community living, and also protecting the families against the enemies in the olden days. While the Tietgenkollegiet's design referenced the concept of the Tulou, and it is one of the most popular dorms in KU, where students live in a community and share the common space in the center of the architecture.

    14. It lays down for each individual his place, his body, his disease and his death, his well-being, by means of an omnipresent and omniscient power that subdivides itself in a regular, uninterrupted way even to the ultimate determination of the individual, of what characterizes him, of what belongs to him, of what happens to him.

      This may be the little control they have for themselves...knowledge of their disease and illness gives them some power as opposed to not knowing anything...

    15. magistrates have complete control over medical treatment

      The average person doesn't even have control of their own biological illnesses...they are being controlled by other people who seems to not care about them and sounds like they would let that person die...

    16. Everything that may be observed during the course of the visits -deaths, illnesses, complaints, irregularities-is noted down and transmitted to the intendants and magistrates.

      Why are only deaths, illnesses, complaints, and irregularities noted down?

    17. those who live overlooking the courtyard will be allo-cated a window looking onto the street at which no one but they may show themselves);

      So does this mean the home owners can't even look out their own windows without permission?

    18. Only the intendants, syndics and guards will move about the streets and also, between the infected houses, from one corpse to another, the 'crows', who can be left to die: these are 'people of little SUbstance who carry the sick, bury the dead, clean and do many vile and abject offices'. It is a segmented, immobile, frozen space.

      Why can only these three break the rules? Maybe, this is showing the different class status. Only the intendants, syndics, and guards are aloud to break the rules maybe because they are the upper class as opposed to the lower class citizens who are locked in their homes.

    19. power of mind over mind

      This panoptic institution never intervenes because the constant pressure of being watched hangs over head; therefore, there is a power of mind over mind. Force is not necessary when people are submissive from the idea of power and discipline.

      Is this panoptic institution of ideal power realistic in its form? Does something like this actually exist?

    20. penitentiary

      Penitentiary: a place for imprisonment, discipline, or punishment

    21. It is polyvalent in its applications;

      Polyvalent: serving more than one purpose; capable of different reactions

      Panoptic institutions are versatile as far as the potential population being served.

    22. In view of this, Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unveri-fiable.

      When people are able to see the source of power but cannot tell if they are being watched it results in the best behavior at all times.

      This is the same idea that many parents tell their children as they are growing up, "always be on your best behavior because you never know who could be watching you."

      Panoptic institutions would be a strong factor in influencing groups of people to behave in a desirable manner without using force.

    23. regulation into even the smallest details of everyday life

      The quarantine of the town resulted in regulation of the smallest details of life with the syndics and intendants acting as prison guards, which relates to the title of the article "The Birth of the Prison."

    24. Generally speaking, all the authorities exercising individual control function according to a double mode; that of binary division and branding (mad/sane; dangerous/harmless; normal/abnormal); and that of coercive assignment, of differential distribution (who he is; where he must be; how he is to be characterized; how he is to be recognized; how a constant surveillance is to be exercised over him in an individual way, etc.).

      What forms of binary branding do we see today?

    25. 3. Panopticism

      Panoptic: permiting the viewing of all parts/elements; all inclusive

    26. My thing isn't letting me highlight and comment...

    1. had placed herself, a female, in the role of ques­tioning the right of these males to enter the bar.

      She had questioned them in their own territory. How could she do that knowing its not her territory to control?

    2. It is an affront to be mistaken for a boy instead of the man he so obviously is.

      This is quite a different view for women. In fact women like to get carded when they are older because it makes then feel young again...in a way.

    3. They came looking for girls, for action, and they feel no compulsion, once inside this place, to remain.

      Reassuring the idea that this built environment needs women in order to run properly!

    4. This does not mean women are not highly valued at Brady's Bar; in one sense they are required ifthe ceremonial life is to function properly.

      Hypocrite! In Brady's bar women are seen as inferior to men yet the bar NEEDS women in order for the men atmosphere to "function properly"? Hypocritical? I think so!

    5. As our research progressed we began to discover more and more ways that space reinforced the way our culture defines masculinity and femininity. Territoriality reflected the basic definitions of sexual gender as expressed in the division of labor and social structure of Brady's Bar.

      Spaces can define the different gender roles. Sexual gender can be expressed by the different in territories. Would this different in gender roles still be prevalent in todays era?!

    6. You know my uncle doesn't like women behind his bar!"

      Difference in gender roles...women are inferior to men? I think not..

    7. Wherever people work, live, or play they stake claims on space and attach meanings to them.

      In my social psychology course we are learning this very topic about Hall's argument of social uses of space. A great example of this is when students pick a seat on the first day of classes and continue to use that same seat for the whole semester.

    8. Inside our houses space is divided up and allocated so that even young children mayjj;el a kind of private owner­ship over certain territory.

      In the 20th century even the children of the world have their own territory to claim. Before territory was not so equally divided.

    9. culturally learned responses

      An interesting and truthful point that how we use our senses are culturally and socially learned responses.

    10. Territoriality in humans refers to the means by which space is defined, allo­cated, and maintained; it is a cultural phenomenon.

      The definition of territoriality in humans is that of space. Would it be public or private spaces? I assume both.

    11. The ebb and flow of social life in every society occurs in the context of place:

      There is a common denominator in every society that our social lives are defined by a significant place.

    12. The dispersal of these people in Brady's is not random, and where people choose to sit or stand in Brady's is closely related to their sex and status in the Brady social hierarchy.

      Clearly, Brady's Bar is only for a select group of people who enjoy being in that atmosphere that focuses on "social hierarchy".. If we're still forming perceptions and making judgments on how we serve customers (and treat co-workers) based off of gender and status.. are we really doing our jobs as socially responsible citizens to improve our society for everyone's benefit?

    13. Waitresses must rely on the bartenders to give them the things they need to serve customers at the tables.

      Is this the most efficient way of managing the environment of the bar..?

    14. "If you leave those there it will make a mess and make me spill things. That's one reason we don't let you bitches behind the bar."

      Well.. that's a little over the top.. Was the waitress ever told previous to this situation to make sure to remove the bottle caps? If you want the waitress to use the space like you do out of routine, then teach the waitress the rules of keeping the area clean before you leave the bar unattended and she has customers to serve.

    15. The invis­ible barrier between the bar and the tables is extremely difficult to cross and for most girls, sitting at the bar is trespassing: only the waitresses seem to have the right or the audacity to do so.

      When I turn of legal age I'm sitting at the bar. Women have every right to occupy that part of the "built environment" just like the men.

    16. Sandy, as well as the other girls, adapt to ritual displays such as these while most female customers would find it intimidating to find themselves in the midst of such male-oriented talk.

      I get that Brady's Bar is typically a place for men or college football players to go which I think is acceptable, but there should still be a line (non-physical) of what is and isn't respectable behavior customers should adhere to.

    17. It used to embarrass me at first but you get used to it.

      Male or female, you shouldn't have to "get used to it". The work environment which is basically an area of the "built environment" that we are using to perform jobs should be one where employees are comfortable.

    18. she is merely an artifact used by men to display their prowess.

      Women should not be objectified regardless of what the "built environment" is. We have the ability to influence our "built environment" so let's do it in a way that helps to evolve it.

    19. Territorial displace­ment is often found in primate societies such as baboon troops.

      It's clear to see that being "territorial" is a natural way of expressing one's position in society whether it be an animal based group or a human based society. Baboon troops actually have very complex social structures within their groups including more characteristics than just being territorial.

    20. When it is crowded, they don't complain, but customers often choose to stand in the aisles and on the steps when there is other space available.

      Regardless of the fact that other space is available, they chose to occupy an area of the bar that has some sort of significance to them personally or with the crowd they typically go to the bar with

    21. The girls unanimously agree that this is a constant problem in their work and they feel helpless to combat it.

      But they're okay with it...... ??? They seem to just accept the fact that these are the working conditions and it's "a part of the job"..

    22. The girls hesitate to use such tactics against some men and fall back on feminine displays of weak­ness and helplessness to get them to move.

      Ladies... this is exactly the opposite of "tactics" we want to use to help society understand we deserve gender inequality.. Fight the urge to give in the easy way out

    23. the customer won't leave her alone and she must do her best to ignore him....

      This is interesting because it counteracts the original problem presented about the waitress being ignored. It seems because of the way the social structure influences the atmosphere of the bar, the waitress is essentially in a losing position each time..

    24. emphasizes the importance of the use of space in social interaction and posits a relationship between social status and space.

      Refers to how we are making use of the "built environment" when interacting with our peers or people from different social classes

    25. Three policemen are in the kitchen drinking.

      Why do the policemen drink outside of the bar?

    26. "Hey, watch it. There's a lady present."

      Marriage raises women to a higher ground as long as they are accompanied by their husband.

    27. it is easier and more comfortable for women to simply avoid the bar altogether.

      Avoid an element of the built environment in order to escape the behavior associated with that area.

    28. sentient

      Sentient (adj) Able to perceive or feel things.

      Men treat women as though they do not experience emotions.

    29. A man would never order a frozen daiquiri, and women seldom order scotch or bourbon."

      Gender stereotypes based on drink preference. Even if a man enjoys drinking daiquiris he most likely would not in public due to embarrassment or feeling less masculine.This is not extreme as some of the other elements are in this article regarding male territory. It seems less extreme because it is true of most bars. In an average bar you will see men with beer before you will see them with a fruity drink.

      Why do we as a society place such an emphasis on gendered drinks?

    30. Male Territory," but such a claim is written into the customs and mores that guide male and female behavior alike.

      Unspoken understanding of the culture in this bar.

    31. Territoriality reflected the basic definitions of sexual gender as expressed in the division of labor and social structure of Brady's Bar.

      Women are allowed to be waitresses, but cannot be behind the bar where the men work.

    32. "literally thousands of experiences teach us unconsciously that space communicates. Yet this fact would probably never have been brought to the level of consciousness ifit had not been realized that space is orga­nized differently in each culture.'"

      How does space in our culture compare to space in other cultures? Does any one have an example of an uncomfortable moment due to differences in cultural perceptions of space?

    33. Wherever people work, live, or play they stake claims on space and attach meanings to them.

      Similarly, on the first day of class most students sit in the desk that they will continue to sit in for the entire semester even though seats are not assigned. We claim our seats and on the occasion that someone sits in the seat you are accustomed to it is a moment of confusion, feeling lost in the classroom.

    34. such perceptions are always filtered through the culture we have learned.

      We look at the world through a cultural lens, everyone's perspective is different.

    35. likely smile, listen to his jokes, and play the coy flirting games

      Are they allowing themselves to become a part of this sexist built environment? How are their actions intertwined with the environment?

    36. attach meaning to space in ways that reflect their cultural knowledge of the world.

      Is there a way to define the built environment across the globe? Or, is it too culturally specific?

    37. filtered through the culture we have learned.

      Further explanation that the built environment is only how we perceive it, and how we perceive it is more than just physically.

    38. The physical world is not presented to all humans in the same way

      And yet, it is our combined built environment. Is this reason enough to expand our definition of the built environment to mean more than just physical surroundings?

    1. Phenomenological Perspectives

      the phenomenological approach shows our relationship to identity, to ones self.

    2. people expect not to have privacy

      Cultures can vary so much. In our culture, privacy is expected and respected but, as stated here, that's not true everywhere. Was that desire for privacy from our built environment? Or did we create that in response to our built environment in our culture in the U.S.?

    3. enable and constrain certain types of behaviors

      What types of behaviors would you expect to see in our immediate awareness because of the changes so rapidly taking place?

    4. spatial environ- ment as integral to the psychological concept of the self

      you are what you surround yourself with? This seems like it could be expanded to refer also to who you surround yourself with. Which seems to go back to what we were discussing in class about boundaries of the term "built environment" and how we define it.

    5. panopticon

      Panopticon- a building, as a prison, hospital, library, or the like, so arranged that all parts of the interior are visible from a single point.

    6. Society produces build- ings that maintain and/or reinforce its social forms.

      The built environment is impacted by society's ideas, activities, beliefs, and values.

    7. Perhaps of more interest to anthropologists is the current exploration of the meaning of privacy as a cultural construct of Western society

      The meaning of privacy is culturally constructed. How does our idea of privacy differ from other cultures?

    8. Gregor suggests that in a society where people expect not to have privacy, the construction of solid housing or the separation of residences would increase suspicions and hostil- ity (144)

      When privacy is not the cultural norm it can create suspicion of hostility.

    9. Ul- timately, the spatial dimension of behavior has communicative features: "Space speaks

      We build walls rather than temporary partitions, and there does seem to be a sense of discomfort when our privacy is removed, an example of that being dorm rooms.

      What does our manipulation of space say about us?

    10. Conceptualized as a bubble surrounding each individual, personal space varies in size according to the type of social relationships and situation

      Idea that the personal space between a significant other versus a professor or colleague varies. Personal space also varies depending on the social situation, private versus public.

    11. Psychocultural approaches, developed primarily by environmental psychologists, have inte- grated the concept of culture into explorations of the spatial dimensions of human behavior and human interactions with the built environmen

      Integration of human behavior and interactions with the built environment.

    12. imbue

      To imbue- to impregnate or inspire, as with feelings, opinions, etc.

    13. In addition to providing shelter against the elements, the par- ticular forms themselves were seen to mirror the cultures that produced them.

      This would support the idea that we are influencing the built environment.

      Contrasts to a point made in the introduction about the built environment influencing us..

    14. Such relationships are interactive, in that people both create, and find their behavior influenced by, the built environmen

      Are we influencing the built environment or is it influencing us... ?

    15. Architecture is typically defined to encompass the built forms, often monumental, characteristic of civilizations, and self-consciously designed and built by specialists

      Monumental adj.

      great in size or importance

    16. broadest sense to any physical alteration of the natural environmen
    17. abstract concep
    18. by humans

      Can it be said that the term "built environment" refers to how humans are implementing their presence throughout nature?

    19. through construction by human

      we are changing the environment

    20. The spatial order, including the built environment, is not only the product of classificatory collective representations based on social forms but also a model for reproducing the social forms themselve

      Are we allowing the technology we use to build around us reform the way society interacts with itself and its surroundings?

    21. Another began to examine built forms as metaphors for complex social and symbolic relationships: the Irish country- men's "west room" (21) or the French peasant "parlour" (393).

      "complex social and symbolic relationships"

      touches on how we are giving an identity to what we have built around us; we've found a specific purpose for each thing.

    22. holistic

      to look at something as a whole and take all detail into account

    23. Architects continue to be fascinated with finding and describing parallels between symbolic structures and architectural forms.

      As mentioned by someone else in a previous comment, the red archway on Whittier College's campus is supposedly a "symbolic structure" and its architectural characteristics offer an interesting representation of something that looks flexible, but is in fact extremely rigid. What could be relatable to this?

    24. regarding the interactions of the built environment with social organization and spatial behavior

      "social organization and spatial behavior"

      how we structure our society and interact with our built surroundings

    25. when the built environment ceases to accommodate behavioral requirements, people seek to correct the problem through construction, renovation, or moving to a different building

      Stauffer Science Building transitioning into the new and improved Science and Learning Center is an example on Whittier College's campus of this idea.

    26. A system of relationships among the physical attributes is often shown to imitate or represent-by their configuration, content, and associations-conscious and unconscious aspects of social life.

      What are some of these "physical attributes" and what "aspects of social life" are they representing?

    27. However, not every change in built form causes or is caused by a corresponding change in social behavior (49, 326).
    28. In the youngest, least urbanized city of Zaria he finds most dwelling construction stemming from generational changes in size and com- position of the resident kin group (341). In the two older cities where land and housing are scarce, he finds most new construction is to accommodate renters who make up close to half of the household population
    29. Another key area of research has focused on the relationship between individual or group identity and housing

      Depending on how many people are involved in the use of an area, the dynamics can change

    30. Some combine structuralist interpretations of house form and culture with the metaphor of the human body

      Our body is the home for our soul and mind, but our body needs a home as well.. Depending on our individualistic needs and wants that can influence how we develop and use the structure.

    31. Ritual performances may also be viewed as the principal mechanism by which meaning in the built environment is activated (175) or as the key to investing domestic spaces with meaning and transforming their meaning

      Can what we build come alive through ritual performances?

    32. Other studies have focused on how ritual activities can create or recreate community boundaries

      community boundaries are usually present in village settings

    33. Cogni- tive and linguistic approaches consider the built environment in terms of systems of knowledge and understanding

      Trying to find the best ways to implement the uses of said "built environment" within our society

    34. In fact, he finds privacy is achieved more often through rules regulating interpersonal behavior rather than by direct manipu- lation of the environment

      Maybe instead of actually building things that provide privacy, creating a societal structure that respects the need for privacy..?

    35. This research has been important in breaking down conceptual boundaries between tradi- tional disciplinary approaches to the built environmen

      Example that challenging tradition can be a good thing

    36. Particularly noteworthy are studies on the struggle over recreational space in Worcester parks (328), the relationship of the automobile to the reorganization of rural American space (176), the changing use of space in charity hospitals (330), and the American depart- ment store (30).
    37. relationship of power and space

      Is this a direct relationship?

    38. illustrates how architecture as an institu- tion contributes to the maintenance of power of one group over anothe

      Countries with better technology can build bigger cities, hence having an advantage by sheer size

    39. Rabinow links the growth of modem forms of political power with the evolution of aesthetic theories and shows how the

      the quote continues on to discuss how the French showed their superiority through the presence of their architecture

    40. Much research in social production has focused primarily on theoretical development, or, when it has focused on empirical details, deals with them at an abstract level.

      This research seems to have a tinge of philosophical influence to it..

    41. structural-functionalis

      What is "structural-functionalism"?

    42. how culture generates built form (306, 307) and explores how meaning is transmitted as nonverbal communication through the built environmen

      Every built environment has multiple layers of meanings and functions behind their designs. One particular built environment can be interpreted variously by different eyes because each individual has their own ways of looking and feeling the ambience.

    43. manifestation of culture

      I don't know why I have never thought of it this way, but it seems almost obvious that over time structures have been built as representations of the times they were constructed in.

    44. last several decades,

      What sparked the interest in this decades ago?

    45. society and culture and the built environment persisted

      Could this relationship ever not be dialectical? It seems it would have to be, down to the very core.

    46. "The rightness of the form depends . .. on the degree to which it fits the rest of the ensemble"

      What does it say about the culture of Whittier College that our campus has artistic sculptures, such as the red archway, which appear to be primarily for aesthetic purposes? Do these sculptures fit in our Whittier College society?

    47. The Built Environment and Spatial Form

      Here is an example post