3,916 Matching Annotations
1. Mar 2020
2. nearpod.com nearpod.com
1. 1. Problem-Based The first puzzle piece in creating an amazing STEAM unit is to select a problem for students to solve. A problem-based project creates a setting for processing skills, such as collaboration, analyzing, and modeling, to take place. This can also help create a context for learning. Examples of problem-based STEAM scenarios: For Elementary Students: How can we create an outdoor “green” MakerSpace that will connect to our existing playground and be able to withstand our city’s year-round weather conditions?

To create a STEAM unit, you must first select a problem for students to solve: Step 1

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3. eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov
1. One study found that during unstructured free play, four- and five-year-old children spent almost half of their time engaged in math-related activity. Play often involves math language and thinking, even though math isn’t the focus of their activity. Children talk about things like, “How much is a lot?” and “How little is little?” They often use their body to show size, such as stretching their arms to show how big a pumpkin is or holding fingers close together to show that something was “a little bit sc a r y.”This early play with math ideas and concepts lay the foundation for the development of more complex math and science skills later on

STEAM and math concepts come from play and kids everyday questions about things.

2. Math is number and operations, measurement, patterns, geometry and spatial sense. From birth until age five, children explore everyday mathematics, including informal knowledge of “more” and “less,” shape, size, sequencing, volume, and distance. Math is a tool children use every day!

Math in STEAM

3. Music is also linked to STEAM skills such as pattern recognition and numeration. Research shows that early experience with creative arts supports cognitive development and increases self-esteem

Music is also part of the Arts in STEAM

4. Active and self-guided discovery is core to the arts and to STEAM learning. Children engage in painting, pretend play, music, and drawing. Art is sensory exploration.

Art in STEAM

5. Engineering applies science, math, and technology to solving problems. Engineering is using materials, designing, crafting, and building – it helps us understand how and why things work.

engineering in STEAM

6. the “T” in technology also stands for any type of man-made object. Technology includes simple tools such as pulleys, wheels, levers, scissors, and ramps. They support children’s cognitive development, because as children play with these tools, they observe and learn from the underlying cause and effect.These simpler technologies allow children to understand how tools help us accomplish tasks.

Technology is STEAM is any type of man-made object. It doesn't have to be a computer or something tech-y

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4. www.thoughtco.com www.thoughtco.com
1. The findings from this study suggest that students learn online reading comprehension skills best from other students, within the context of challenging activities designed by the teacher. Increased levels of challenge appeared to prompt students to try multiple approaches to making sense of complex information and encouraged them to think deeply about solving problems."

Students learn online reading comprehension best from other students in the context of a challenge

2. In short, online reading is online research. Second, online reading also becomes tightly integrated with writing, as we communicate with others to learn more about the questions we explore and as we communicate our own interpretations. A third difference that exists is that new technologies . . . are used online. Additional skills are required to use each of these technologies effectively. . . ."Finally, and perhaps most importantly, online reading may require even greater amounts of higher-level thinking than offline reading. In a context in which anyone may publish anything, higher-level thinking skills such as critical evaluation of source material and understanding an author's point of view become especially important online."

3. has found that good reading in print doesn’t necessarily translate to good reading on-screen. The students do not only differ in their abilities and preferences; they also need different sorts of training to excel at each medium. The online world, she argues, may require students to exercise much greater self-control than a physical book. 'In reading on paper, you may have to monitor yourself once, to actually pick up the book,' she says. 'On the Internet, that monitoring and self-regulation cycle happens again and again.'"

4. he found that several things had changed. On screen, people tended to browse and scan, to look for keywords, and to read in a less linear, more selective fashion. On the page, they tended to concentrate more on following the text. Skimming, Liu concluded, had become the new reading: the more we read online, the more likely we were to move quickly, without stopping to ponder any one thought. . . .

5. Online reading is the process of extracting meaning from a text that is in a digital format. Also called digital reading. Most researchers agree that the experience of reading online (whether on a PC or a mobile device) is fundamentally different from the experience of reading print materials. As discussed below, however, the nature and quality of these different experiences (as well as the particular skills required for proficiency) are still being debated and explored.

what is online reading and that reading online and in print are fundamentally different

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5. nautil.us nautil.us
1. Comprehension matters, but so does pleasure.

"Situation models" or mental representations that form while we read help guide our compresehension of and interest in the text. Novelists consider this when they write, especially online.

2. readers perceive paper as being better suited for “effortful learning,” whereas the screen is perceived as being suited for “fast and shallow reading of short texts such as news, e-mails, and forum notes.” They tested the hypothesis that our reading habits follow from this perception, and found it to be correct: Students asked to read a text on-screen thought they could do it faster than students asked to read the same text in print, and did a worse job of pacing themselves in a timed study period. Not surprisingly, the on-screen readers then scored worse on a reading comprehension test.

3. There’s no question that digital technology presents challenges to the reading brain, but, seen from a historical perspective, these look like differences of degree, rather than of kind.

The comparispons made following this statement are really interesting. Our brains are constantly "wandering off" and have always been presented with both challenges and opportunities to adavance as it relates to online reading.

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1. O f f l i n e r e a d i n g c a n t a k e m a n y f o r m s , w h e r e a s o n -line reading is typically much more focused on reading to solve a problem or answer a question

I think that reading a book is more for learning/school related but online reading is more for "why does my head hurt after blah blah blah..." Online reading is more accessible than offline because with offline we have to find the book, buy it/check it out, find the page and read it. Online reading we just type something in a push a few buttons, takes less than 5 minutes to do.

2. favoring West Town students in offline reading scores, offline writing scores, and online research and comprehension scores.

I feel like we all knew that the advantaged students were going to score higher because they have access to better schooling and parents who can provide tutors for them.

3. Until and unless online research skills are more visible in both standards and assess-ments, economically challenged schools may be less likely to incorporate them into their curriculum.

But, as explained in the next paragraph, standards and assements raise potential for an increase in the achievement gap concerning online reading.

4. Online research and comprehension is important to learning across all disciplinary areas, in addi-tion to reading.

Important to remember that online reading tests are not always true, accurate reflections of online reading abiility (due to achievement gap)

5. We also wanted to evaluate whether income inequality was associated with online reading achievement. It was.

HIgher online reading mean scores with higher achieving score school.

6. Particularly troubling is that income inequality in the United States is also increasing (Congressional Budget Office, 2007 ), suggesting that the offline reading achievement gap may get even larger over time. R e a d i n g i s a n i m p o r t a n t g a t e w a y t o l e a r n i n g a n d success in school (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985 )

Income inequality affects so much. This is just talking about offline achievement gaps… As educators, we need to assess our classrooms and not assume that our students are on equal levels of comprehension based off of what they may or may not have access to at home. Adequate reading comprehension is essential for future achievement milestones - not attainable for all students.

7. L o w e r c a s e t h e o r i e s e x p l o r e a s p e c i f i c a r e a o f n e w literacies and/or a new technology, such as the social communicative transactions occurring with text mes-saging (e.g., Lewis & Fabos, 2005 ). Lowercase perspec-tives also include those that explore a focused disciplinary base, such as the semiotics of multimodal-ity in online media (e.g., Kress, 2003 ); a distinctive con-ceptual approach, such as new literacy studies (Street, 1 9 9 5 , 2 0 0 3 ) ; o r o n l i n e l i t e r a c i e s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c d e v e l -opmental level (e.g., Alvermann, Hutchins, & McDevitt, 2012 ; Marsh, 2011

lowercase theories

8. . These lowercase theories are better able to keep up with the rapidly changing nature of lit-eracy in a deictic world because they are closer to the specific types of changes that are taking place

lowercase theories

9. How can adequate theory be developed when the object that we seek to study is itself ephemeral, continuously being redefined by a changing context? Recently, a dual-level theory of New Literacies has been proposed to re-spond to this problem (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, Castek, & Henry, 2013 ). It conceptualizes new literacies on two levels: uppercase (New Literacies) and lowercase (new literacies). We used both levels of New Literacies theory to frame this study

Dual-level theory of New Literacies: uppercase (New Literacies) & lowercase (new literacies)

10. Is there an achievement gap for online reading ability based on in-come inequality that is independent of the achievement gap in traditional, off line reading?

Is there an achievement gap for online reading due to inequality? "Analyses on reading achievement gaps have only evaluated differences in offline reading."

11. ). Despite attempts at policy remedies, a sub-stantial gap based on income inequality continues to exist in students’ reading achievement levels (National Center for Educational Statistics [NCES], 2011b , 2013 ), and evidence indicates that it is growing, over time (Reardon, 2013 ).

The reading gap due to income inequality is growing

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6. ncte.org ncte.org
1. Explore and engage critically, thoughtfully, and across a wide variety of inclusive texts and tools/modalities

Texts that vary in format, genre and medium - analyzing purpose, being intentional with selection and interpretations

2. . Cooperation is not collaboration

This is a very important statement. I think that people do not think about this when they are working on a project, or when they assign a project. Collaboration is when people work together on the same project, or the same idea, and cooperation is when people help someone else's goal. The goal is not theirs, but they support is and can provide help

3. Learners need communicative skills in order to work collaboratively in both face-to-face and virtual environments to use and develop problem-solving skills

If a student cannot effectively communicate in person, then the will not be able to communicate online. If we want students to be successful, we have to help them learn how to communicate

4. Having knowledge and understanding of the various texts and tools available is important for using them intentionally. Being literate means making choices and using texts and tools in ways that match purpose. It also means thinking about texts and tools in new ways. Do learners seek out texts that consider multiple perspectives and broaden their understanding of the world? Do learners critically analyze a variety of information and ideas from a variety of sources? Do learners choose texts and tools to consume, create, and share ideas that match their need and audience? Do learners create new ideas using knowledge and insights gained? Do learners analyze the credibility of information, authorial intent, and its appropriateness in meeting their needs? Do learners use information and the ideas of others to solve problems and make decisions as informed citizens? Do learners strive to see limitations and overlaps between multiple streams of information? Do learners gain new perspectives because of the texts they interact with? Do learners use tools to deepen understandings, to share ideas, and to build on others’ thinking? Do learners develop new skills strategies to meet the challenge of new texts and tools?

Explore & engage critically, thoughtfully, and across a wide variety of inclusive texts and tools/modalities.

5. The internet is one of the primary information sources of the modern era, making it a necessity for learners to understand how to participate and navigate the networked world. Building and utilizing connections between people, ideas, and information provides opportunities for them to be critical consumers of information, builds agency in their own work, and prepares them for the global world beyond the classroom. Do learners select, evaluate, and use digital tools and resources that match the work they are doing? Are learners critical, savvy producers and consumers? Do learners build and utilize a network of groups and individuals that reflect varying views as they analyze, create, and remix texts? Do learners analyze information for authorial intent, positioning, and how language, visuals, and audio are being used? Do learners find relevant and reliable sources that meet their needs? Do learners take risks and try new things with tools available to them? Do learners, independently and collaboratively, persist in solving problems as they arise in their work? Do learners use a variety of tools effectively and efficiently? Do learners select and use appropriate tools and modalities for audience and purpose? Do learners take responsibility for communicating their ideas in a variety of ways with different modalities and clear intentions?

-Participate effectively and critically in a networked world

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7. www.mentalfloss.com www.mentalfloss.com
1. Although Yahoo!, Alta Vista, and Excite were all in the market, Gruener felt Ask Jeeves set itself apart with its interface. His team had spent months building a library of "knowledge capsules," snapshots of answers to questions they felt would be most commonplace. If a question wasn’t addressed in their content, the site would default to a more general search

it was snapshots of info which would lead to further searching if it wasnt answered right away.

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8. journals.sagepub.com journals.sagepub.com
1. M

ways to use technology to make the process of reading and accessing text easier

2. found that 43% of Americans and 48% of those between the ages of 18 and 29 read lengthy texts, such as newspapers or books, digitally—a number expected to increase exponentially (Stephens, 2014). These figures raise the fundamental question of how the use of such digital reading materials might potentially alter perceptions of what it means to read and the comprehension that results, for better or for worse.

Will our perception of reading and comprehension change due to the growing shift towards digital reading?

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9. Feb 2020
10. www.edweek.org www.edweek.org
1. Successful online research and comprehension requires the ability to generate effective keyword search strategies (Bilal, 2000 ; Eagleton, Guinee, & Langlais, 2003 ; Kuiper & Volman, 2008 ), to read and infer which link may be most useful within a set of search engine results (Henry, 2006 ), and to scan efficiently for relevant information on website

What are effective ways that we can teach our students to filter their searches and be sure they are receiving relevant and helpful information?

2. The rapidly evolving nature of literacy presents an important challenge for theory development

3. new literacies

relevant to our what is text post

4. The results of the questionnaire indicated that West Town students had greater access to the Internet at home and were required to use the Internet more in school. These results suggest that a separate and independent achievement gap existed for online reading, based on income inequality.

The achievement gap is multifaceted, so as educators, we need to attack it in more ways. Getting children library cards (internet access) and technology experiences from a younger age can help close this gap, but only if it is in a equitable way.

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11. ncte.org ncte.org
1. As society and technology change, so does literacy.

2. Do learners seek out texts that consider multiple perspectives and broaden their understanding of the world? Do learners critically analyze a variety of information and ideas from a variety of sources? Do learners choose texts and tools to consume, create, and share ideas that match their need and audience? Do learners create new ideas using knowledge and insights gained? Do learners analyze the credibility of information, authorial intent, and its appropriateness in meeting their needs? Do learners use information and the ideas of others to solve problems and make decisions as informed citizens? Do learners strive to see limitations and overlaps between multiple streams of information? Do learners gain new perspectives because of the texts they interact with? Do learners use tools to deepen understandings, to share ideas, and to build on others’ thinking? Do learners develop new skills strategies to meet the challenge of new texts and tools?

These are the goals of digital literacy.

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12. nautil.us nautil.us
1. It’s true that studies have found that readers given text on a screen do worse on recall and comprehension tests than readers given the same text on paper

I know this to be the truth... But I really think it has more to do with the fact that digital tests are more or less timed. That timer is the killer. I also think it could be the fact that there is more distraction. I know that I get little pop ups in the bottom corner of my screen when I receive a notification if I haven't logged off of something and that can pose a problem during a test.

2. The fear of technology is not new. In the fifth century B.C., Socrates worried that writing would weaken human memory, and stifle judgment. In fact, as Wolf notes in her 2007 book Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain, the opposite happened: Faced with the written page, the reader’s brain develops new capacities.

I think it is interesting that writing was thought to weaken human memory when it's taught that we should take notes to help us memorize.

3. here’s no question that digital technology presents challenges to the reading brain, but, seen from a historical perspective, these look like differences of degree, rather than of kind. To the extent that digital reading represents something new, its potential cuts both ways. Done badly (which is to say, done cynically), the Internet reduces us to mindless clickers, racing numbly to the bottom of a bottomless feed; but done well, it has the potential to expand and augment the very contemplative space that we have prized in ourselves ever since we learned to read without moving our lips

I feel as though most of the time the internet does have that feeling of mindless clickers looking down a bottomless feed but at the same time it's not the case for everyone. its an option to stay connected and read what others are saying but there is much more to digital reading then that.

4. To read silently is to free your mind to reflect, to remember, to question and compare. The cognitive scientist Maryanne Wolf calls this freedom “the secret gift of time to think”: When the reading brain becomes able to process written symbols automatically, the thinking brain, the I, has time to go beyond those symbols, to develop itself and the culture in which it lives.

To read silently is to envision what your reading. I love that Maryanne Wolf called this the secret gift of time to think.

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13. www.researchgate.net www.researchgate.net
1. NEW LITERACIES 5CENTRAL PRINCIPLES OF AN UPPERCASE THEORY OF NEW LITERACIESAlthough it is too early to deﬁne a complete uppercase theory of New Literacies emerging from the Internet and other ICTs, we are convinced that it is time to begin this process by identifying the cen-tral principles upon which it should be built. Our work is pointing us to these principles of New Literacies that appear to be common across the research and theoretical work currently taking place:1. The Internet is this generation’s deﬁning technology for literacy and learning within our global community.2. The Internet and related technologies require additional new literacies to fully access their potential.3. New literacies are deictic.4. New literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted.5. Critical literacies are central to new literacies.6. New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new literacies.7. New social practices are a central element of New Literacies.8. Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms.

I disagree with the 8th principle. I think that teachers are just as important if they use technology or if they don't.

2. How are we to solve the conundrum posed earlier, where the nature of literacy changes even faster than we can develop adequate theory, especially within a context where there are so many com-peting theoretical perspectives that have emerged to direct separate lines of research?

This is a good question. We are unable to see the effects of technology because new forms of literacy are being created every day. This does not allow for people to truly study the impact that they have.

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14. journals.sagepub.com journals.sagepub.com
1. to determine how participants’ comprehension was gauged. Our intention was to chart the levels of comprehension (i.e., locate and recall, integrate and interpret, and critique and evaluate; NAGB, 2008) assessed within each study. This decision was informed by the assumption that medium may play a more influential role when comprehension questions move beyond gist understanding

Considering some people just kind of know something but can't speak past just that they know of the thing having a better assessment of understanding makes sense.

2. broadly defined reading as the dynamic process of understanding and drawing meaning from written text. We regarded this general conception as relevant whether the process of reading occurred in print or digitally.

to comprehend is to understand so....yeah

3. all signs point to a growing presence of digital reading in the lives of students and their teachers. One reason for our conviction regarding this trend is that there are now a plethora of devices to employ when reading digitally, from computers to other mobile devices such as iPads, Kindles, and even smart watches

This is a trend that has grown on even myself. It just seems easier to read on my phone than to carry a thick book around. I still sometimes prefer to read an actual book but it's not always the easy option.

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15. www.scholastic.com www.scholastic.com
1. What Is an Essential Question?

Good section on Essential questions and inquiry units

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16. www.cesa2.org www.cesa2.org
1. North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Kindergarten Mathematics AssessmentKindergarten Summative Assessment Page 89The Kindergarten PortfolioThe tasks included in this section are meant as culminating events that are given atthe end of the academic year.As students progress through the enormous changes that a year in Kindergarten impliesit is of great importance that their struggles, progress and successes be well-documented. Research tells us that students at this age make enormous, uneven stridesin both social and academic development. This fact alone demands that schools keepaccurate records of students’ work and convey these documents to subsequent teachers

North Carolina's Kindergarten Math Summative assessment

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17. cmrweb.gfps.k12.mt.us cmrweb.gfps.k12.mt.us
1. 54 different examples of formative assessment.

examples of how to do formative assessments and the definition of formative assessment

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18. www.thingstoshareandremember.com www.thingstoshareandremember.com
1. Printable Apple Taste Test & Coloring Page

Apple tasting chart for kindergarteners

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19. www.scienceforkidsclub.com www.scienceforkidsclub.com
1. Fun facts about apples Apple trees are 4 or 5 years old before they actually have apples. Apple are members of the rose family. The first apple tree in the United States was planted by the pilgrims when they came to the United States from Europe. It takes about 36 apples to make 1 gallon of apple cider. Apple trees can live to be about 100 years old. China grows more apples than any other country in the world. Apples have to be picked by hand when it is time to harvest them. Apples are amazing!

Fun apple facts

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20. learninginhand.com learninginhand.com
1. The criteria you put in your assessment will guide students toward the content and skills you want them to learn. You might even want to get their input before you finalize the project’s assessment.Be sure that your assessment gives students lots of leeway in how they investigate and share their projects. Every project should turn out differently. As Chris Lehmann says, “If you assign a project and you get back 30 of the exact same thing, that’s not a project, that’s a recipe.”

assessments and project based learning

2. Below is a checklist to help you refine your question. You might not be able to check off all the items, but the more the merrier! ‼️ The question is appealing to students.🗜 The question is concise. 💦 The question has no easy answer. 😍 The question taps into students’ interests and passions. 💤 The question does not sound like a test question. 💗 The question leads to more questions. 🔀 There is more than one answer to the question. 🔰 The topic is personal or local.🏡 Students can relate to the question in their daily lives.🤔  Students will have choices for end products. 💬 There is an authentic audience for the project.🕵️‍♀️ The question requires serious investigation. ℹ️ Students will learn important skills and content.💥 The project will somehow make a difference in the world.

Suggestions on how to refine a driving question

Types of Driving Questions with examples

4. Driving questions pose simply stated real world dilemmas. They pose predicaments that students find interesting and actually want to answer. The question drives students to discuss, inquire, and investigate the topic. It should push them toward a production or solution. In the process of investigating the question and sharing their answers, students learn important content and skills.

Driving Question

5. it’s not surprising that we have a variety of other terms for a question or statement that is the project’s driving force. These terms include essential question, challenge, prime question, WILD HOG question, focus question, and smart question. I’ll stick with driving question, but do know that sometimes the driving question is not interrogative. It might be a statement, but I’ll still refer to is as a question.

Other "names" for a Driving Question

6. Projects begin with a driving question—an open-ended question that sets the stage for the project by creating interest and curiosity.

What is a driving question in project based learning?

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21. www.verywellfamily.com www.verywellfamily.com
1. Here are a few guidelines for parents to consider: In terms of social interaction, a child who is kindergarten-ready should be able to play and work well with others and know how to cooperate and share (both with physical objects and with ideas). While some children are slow to warm to others, particularly if they don't have siblings, it's best if they are at least willing to participate in group activities such as singing, rhyming, and talking. For the most part, a child who is in kindergarten will be expected to listen to the teacher and to other children, be able to pay attention and follow directions, and have some level of self-control, particularly in a group setting.

General Social Skills for kids in kindergarten

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22. www.verywellfamily.com www.verywellfamily.com
1. understanding of other cultures, and other people seems to be more critical than ever. In addition to learning about other countries and cultures, children need to learn early about the ways in which countries and people are connected. This includes an understanding of history and economics. It's not that children will learn all about world history or even all about the history of their own country and certainly not that they will learn all about economic theory. However, they can begin to learn some basics. We can think of this learning as "social science readiness."

General Social Science learning in Kindergarten

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23. www.verywellfamily.com www.verywellfamily.com
1. Usually, before kindergarten, most children can use words they've learned from conversations with others or by being read to. Throughout the academic year, your child's speech will become more structured and understandable, and reading and writing skills will emerge and advance. As the school year goes on, children should be able to understand basic sentence structure and punctuation. They will learn, for example, that the first word in a sentence is capitalized and that sentences end in periods, question marks, or exclamation points. Most kindergarteners learn to print letters in both lower- and uppercase. During kindergarten, children also learn to use question words, such as who, what, when, where, why and how, as well as how to make words plural by adding an 's' or "es". They also learn how to use common nouns and prepositions. By the end of kindergarten, most children can learn to read age-appropriate books by themselves, and your child might like to have you listen while he or she reads out loud at home.

What kindergartener's generally learn in language arts

2. In kindergarten math, children learn the names of numbers and how to count them in sequence. They begin to become familiar with numbers 11-19. They should also be able to count objects and begin an introduction to geometry by learning to recognize and name shapes such as triangles, rectangles, circles, and squares. Kindergartens begin to learn the concepts of addition and subtraction, respectively, as "putting together and adding to" and "taking apart and taking from," according to the Common Core State Math Standards.

What kindergartener's generally learn in math

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24. www.verywellfamily.com www.verywellfamily.com
1. What can you expect your child to learn about science by the end of kindergarten? In general, they will learn some basics of the physical sciences, Earth sciences, life sciences, and scientific principles of investigation and experimentation. Children are encouraged to develop their curiosity about the world around them and to make observations. As they are introduced to science, children develop organized and analytical thinking as well as problem-solving skills.

what kindergarteners learn in science generally

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25. www.edutopia.org www.edutopia.org

Examples of how to integrate the 16 habits of mind into your classroom

2. The Habits of Mind by Art Costa and Bena Kallick don't simply represent fragments of practice to "add on" to what you already do, but rather new ways to think about how people learn.

How people learn = Habits of Mind

3. the Habits of Mind that (often predictably) lead to success or failure in the mastery of given standards. In fact, it is not in the standards or assessments, but rather these personal habits where success or failure -- in academic terms -- actually begin.

Habits of Mind are really more personal habits on how people learn

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26. www.teachthought.com www.teachthought.com
1. Habits of Mind are dispositions that are skillfully and mindfully employed by characteristically intelligent, successful people when they are confronted with problems, the solutions to which are not immediately apparent. When we draw upon these mental resources, the results are more powerful, of higher quality, and of greater significance than if we fail to employ those habits.

Habits of mind. How we handle things when we are confronted with a problem.

2. What Are Habits of Mind? According to Kallick and Costa, the Habits of Mind are less about behavior and more about intent. A “Habit of Mind” means having a disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known. When humans experience dichotomies, are confused by dilemmas, or come face to face with uncertainties–our most effective actions require drawing forth certain patterns of intellectual behavior. When we draw upon these intellectual resources, the results that are produced through are more powerful, of higher quality and greater significance than if we fail to employ those patterns of intellectual behaviors.

Habits of Mind definition

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27. www.chsvt.org www.chsvt.org
1. HABITS OF MIND

A list of the 16 Habits of Mind

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28. k12teacherstaffdevelopment.com k12teacherstaffdevelopment.com
1. Expectations for instruction, assessment, and student work are called Performance Standards. These incorporate Content Standards and define the level of work that demonstrates achievement of the standards. Performance standards isolate and identify skills needed for problem-solving, reasoning, communicating, and making connections with other information. They provide all constituents with the evidences that students have met the content standards, helping teachers define what level of work is satisfactory.

Performance Standards defined/ explained

2. Broad statements that describe specific content areas that groups of students should learn at each grade level are called Content Standards. They define the knowledge within each discipline.

Content Standard definition

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29. www.thoughtco.com www.thoughtco.com
1. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages through verbal or nonverbal means, including speech, or oral communication; writing and graphical representations (such as infographics, maps, and charts); and signs, signals, and behavior.

Definition of communications

2. To break it down, in any communication there is a sender and a receiver, a message, and interpretations of meaning on both ends. The receiver gives feedback to the sender of the message, both during the message's conveyance and afterward. Feedback signals can be verbal or nonverbal, such as nodding in agreement or looking away and sighing or other myriad gestures. There's also the context of the message, the environment it's given in, and potential for interference during its sending or receipt.

Explanation of communications

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30. medium.com medium.com
1. Impacts of TPACK:Impact on the Teacher: It is important for the teacher to be completely up to date and knowledgeable with the curriculum and the components of TPCK to effectively incorporate it into their lessons.Impacts on the Students: Students of the millennium work better through technology and quite often find the content and direct teaching quite stale. Therefore by adding the technology component to the already existing PCK model the students become more engaged in their learning.

Impacts of TPACK

2. TPACK is an essential part of the education system today as it incorporates the growing demand on the use of technology in the classroom as well as continuing the focus on the content and how we teach it. Therefore it sets up education for the future as well as setting up the students for their future.

Importance of TPACK

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31. home.edweb.net home.edweb.net
1. The SAMR model considers four levels of integration: substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition. The TPACK model addresses the interaction of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge and how they relate to teaching in a technology-enhanced learning environment.

SAMR vs TPACK SAMR- the levels of integration TPACK- how pedigogy, content and techology knowledge interact and relate to teaching in a tech-enhanced learning environment

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1. The SAMR model was created by Ruben Puentedura, and provides some context for assessing the quality of the technology task that we integrate into learning.

A way to assess the quality of a technological task wanting or is being used by a teacher for a lesson

2. Filtering instructional planning through the TPACK model should serve to eliminate frivolous or irrelevant use of technology, and inspire teachers to make deeper connections to all aspects of effective instruction.

TPACK is good for filtering instructional planning to make better use of technology for instruction

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33. clalliance.org clalliance.org
1. Without educational alternatives that expand and diversify meaningful life options and pathways available to young people, we risk reinforcing an educational system that only serves the interests of elites, breeding a culture of competition for scarce opportunities.

This is the sad realty that we're hoping to change. We need educational alternativies without isolating one group of students from the other.

2. Today’s educational institutions are struggling to fulfill their mission of providing pathways to opportunity for all youth

Overarching problem - dropout rates, charter/magnet school alternatives.

3. he reality for too many youth, however, is that they see a shrinking set of options and little guidance towards new kinds of learning opportunity, community contribution, and diverse careers.

A challenge to collaborating through onlines forms of education and translating it to reality without the proper resources

4. What would it mean to consider an educational agenda that includes more flexible, informal, diverse, and interest-driven learning environments? Can we do this in a way that elevates all youth rather than serving the privileged minority?

Elevating all youth, despite their socioeconomic status. Sharing parts of the world and opportunities through connected learning that may have not been accessible otherwise.

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1. Academically Oriented Connected learning recognizes the importance of academic success for intellectual growth and as an avenue towards economic and political opportunity. When academic studies and institutions draw from and connect to young people’s peer culture, communities and interest-driven pursuits, learners flourish and realize their true potential.

2. Openly Networked Connected learning environments link learning in school, home and community because learners achieve best when their learning is reinforced and supported in multiple settings. Online platforms can make learning resources abundant, accessible and visible across all learner settings.

Connected Learning- Openly networked

3. Peer Supported Connected learning thrives in a socially meaningful and knowledge-rich ecology of ongoing participation, self-expression and recognition. In their everyday exchanges with peers and friends, young people fluidly contribute, share and give feedback. Powered with possibilities made available by today’s social media, this peer culture can produce learning that’s engaging and powerful.

Connected Learning- Peer Supported. Exchanges with peers, even thru social media, produces engaged and powerful learning

4. While wealthy families are embracing the potential of new technologies for learning, and investing more and more in out-of-school and connected learning, less privileged kids are being left behind

The Haves vs the Have Nots

5. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them. It is a fundamentally different mode of learning than education centered on fixed subjects, one-to-many instruction, and standardized testing. The research is clear. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

Connected learning definition/ explanation

6. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes.

Teachers should find ways to create an interest to learn a topic, they should incorporate more hands on and technology rather than just lecture and notes.

7. While connected learning is not new, and does not require technology, new digital and networked technologies expand opportunities to make connected learning accessible to all young people.

Tech is not required but is an aid to the learning process and educational experience.

8. Principles of Connected Learning

-Interest powered -Production centered -Peer Supported -Shared Purpose -Academically Oriented -Openly Networked

9. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes. Connected learning views interests and passions that are developed in a social context as essential elements.

The desire to learn is fostered by a students interest

10. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them. I

Definition of connected learning

11. We need to harness these new technologies for learning rather than distraction.

This is a great point. Sometimes we find ourselves abusing the technology we are gifted by using it to distract ourselves instead of fully engage the potential.

12. The “connected” in connected learning is about human connection as well as tapping the power of connected technologies.

This is an important clarification.

13. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

This is very true. Even adults are more attuned when they know that they are recognized for their accomplishments.

14. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them.

Definitely pinpoints the collaborated learning or connected learning. Collaboration depends on support.

15. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them

I really like this definition. It shows that individuals are actually pursuing something that is interesting to him or her while also showing others their passions by connecting through learning.

16. Openly Networked

5th Principle of Connected Learning

5th Principle of Connected Learning

18. Shared Purpose

4th Principle of Connected Learning

19. Peer Supported

3rd Principle of Connected Learning

20. Production Centered

2nd Principle of Connected Learning

21. Interest Powered

1st principle of Connected Learning

22. less privileged kids are being left behind

We can see schools today that are barely funded and lacking the new technologies for learning. This effects the children in these schools and their academic career.

23. failing to engage many students

I think that this is important to note that tradition education is lacking many things to engage students more.

24. Connected learners have a web of relationships and organizations that support their learning, beyond the formal educational pipeline.

There is a big emphasis on relationships outside of the formal classroom.

25. supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments

Encouragement and support from teachers, peers, and family is very important to the development of a child.

26. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them.

Clearly stated definition of "connected learning"

27. learners achieve best when their learning is reinforced and supported in multiple settings.

not only this, but it allows those who may struggle in some settings to thrive in others!

28. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes

the reason why it is so important to alter your lesson plans to the students of that year or semester or class period!! minor changes = huge results!

29. support

uses this specific word choice a lot

30. open up opportunities for them.

our job as educators

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35. www.schoology.com www.schoology.com
1. technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

Redefintion: global connection, online working and communicating

2. Instead of replacement or enhancement, this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?

Modification

3. The technology is again directly substituted for a traditional one, but with significant enhancements to the student experience.

Augmentation: augmenting a student's productivity or potential

4. At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement

Substitution. Think online textbook

5. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts.

Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefintion: created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura Framework and spectrum

6. The last stage of the SAMR model is Redefinition and represents the pinnacle of how technology can transform a student’s experience. In this case, you ask yourself if the technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

SAMR Model- Redefinition

7. At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement.

SAMR Model- Substitution

SAMR Model- Substitution

9. Augmentation The technology is again directly substituted for a traditional one, but with significant enhancements to the student experience. In other words, you ask yourself if the technology increases or augments a student's productivity and potential in some way.

SAMR Model- Augmentation

10. beginning to move from enhancement to transformation on the model. Instead of replacement or enhancement, this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?

SAMR Model- Modification

11. a group of students might collaborate in a cloud-based workspace to propose a modern definition of equal protection under the law and solicit feedback on their proposals from classmates.

SAMR Model- Modification

12. The SAMR model is made up of four steps—Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. Substitution and Augmentation are considered "Enhancement" steps, while Modification and Redefinition are termed "Transformation" steps. Think of the difference between seasoning an old family recipe (Enhancement) and creating an entirely new, original dish (Transformation).

SAMR model Transformation vs Enhancement

13. The SAMR Model is a framework created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura that categorizes four different degrees of classroom technology integration. The letters "SAMR" stand for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts.

SAMR Model definition

14. Layering technology into antiquated tasks isn’t going to improve the learning experience. But purposefully altering the substance of these tasks to address the skills students need today (and those they’ll need tomorrow) will improve learning.

avoid the "textbook to e-book"; be PURPOSEFUL

15. better to think of the SAMR model more as a spectrum

I made the staircase assumption too #guilty

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36. www.citejournal.org www.citejournal.org
1. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones. By simultaneously integrating knowledge of technology, pedagogy and content, expert teachers bring TPACK into play any time they teach. Each situation presented to teachers is a unique combination of these three factors, and accordingly, there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching. Rather, solutions lie in the ability of a teacher to flexibly navigate the spaces defined by the three elements of content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex interactions among these elements in specific contexts.

TPACK

2. TPACK is an emergent form of knowledge that goes beyond all three “core” components (content, pedagogy, and technology). Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge.

TPACK

3. Thus, TPK requires a forward-looking, creative, and open-minded seeking of technology use, not for its own sake but for the sake of advancing student learning and understanding.

TPK

4. An understanding of the affordances of technology and how they can be leveraged differently according to changes in context and purposes is an important part of understanding TPK.

TPK

5. TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies. To build TPK, a deeper understanding of the constraints and affordances of technologies and the disciplinary contexts within which they function is needed.

TPACK component- Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)

6. TCK, then, is an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the subject matter they teach; they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.

TPACK component- Technology Content Knowledge (TCK)

7. FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology. FITness, therefore, requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy. Acquiring TK in this manner enables a person to accomplish a variety of different tasks using information technology and to develop different ways of accomplishing a given task

TPACK component- Technology knowledge (TK). Hard to define because TK becomes outdated quickly

8. Understanding the impact of technology on the practices and knowledge of a given discipline is critical to developing appropriate technological tools for educational purposes.

Technological Content Knowledge

9. the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.

Helps the teachers understand how students aquire knowledge and expand cognitive development. relationship with content knowledge

10. PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content. Central to Shulman’s conceptualization of PCK is the notion of the transformation of the subject matter for teaching. Specifically, according to Shulman (1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge. PCK covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy.

TPACK component- Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

11. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.

TPACK component- Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)

12. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should understand the deeper knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines in which they teach.

Essential for content knowledge; being thorough to avoid misunderstandings and to be as accurate as possible.

13. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

TPACK framework

14. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

Content Knowledge (CK) definition.

15. Equally important to the model are the interactions between and among these bodies of knowledge, represented as PCK, TCK (technological content knowledge), TPK (technological pedagogicalknowledge), and TPACK. Figure 1. The TPACK framework and its knowledge components.

TPACK mondel

16. newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.

Each digital technology has its own affordances and contraints; social and contextual factors can prohibit successful tenchology integration in the classroom (unsupported institutional efforts); lack of training

17. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

The core components to TPACK

18. An approach is needed that treats teaching as an interaction between what teachers know and how they apply what they know in the unique circumstances or contexts within their classrooms. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts. Honoring the idea that teaching with technology is a complex, ill-structured task, we propose that understanding approaches to successful technology integration requires educators to develop new ways of comprehending and accommodating this complexity.

TPAC- integrating technology in classroom should be creative and done by subject matter

19. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology

What is needed to be an effective teacher

20. Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function) (Simon, 1969).

21. Thus, effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

Effective teaching

22. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.

This is definitely important you need organization for the students to grow and succeed

23. Understanding how these affordances and constraints of specific technologies influence what teachers do in their classrooms is not straightforward and may require rethinking teacher education and teacher professional development

Access to different technologies and understanding the constraints of each is important. It's necessary to limit what technology is in the classroom and how long the students will spend on it. It's also important that there is balance.

24. Over time, these technologies achieve a transparency of perception (Bruce & Hogan, 1998); they become commonplace and, in most cases, are not even considered to be technologies

This is accurate. I would not consider a pencil to be technology.

25. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

This is important. You want your students to be encouraged and engaged. In order to do that you need to understand what's important to them and how they learn.

26. Social and institutional contexts are often unsupportive of teachers’ efforts to integrate technology use into their work.

I too find myself guilty of judging educators for their use of tech at times; I think I focus on how heavily a teacher relies on it versus how much they contribute as a content expert

27. Also complicating teaching with technology is an understanding that technologies are neither neutral nor unbiased

I, personally, took this in many other ways: content bias, access bias, etc

28. Teachers practice their craft in highly complex, dynamic classroom contexts (Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) that require them constantly to shift and evolve their understanding

no 2 kids or 2 classes or 2 years are the same

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37. cft.vanderbilt.edu cft.vanderbilt.edu
1. In the revised taxonomy, knowledge is at the basis of these six cognitive processes, but its authors created a separate taxonomy of the types of knowledge used in cognition: Factual Knowledge Knowledge of terminology Knowledge of specific details and elements Conceptual Knowledge Knowledge of classifications and categories Knowledge of principles and generalizations Knowledge of theories, models, and structures Procedural Knowledge Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures Metacognitive Knowledge Strategic Knowledge Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge Self-knowledge

The types of knowledge used in cognition in the revised taxonomy

2. The authors of the revised taxonomy underscore this dynamism, using verbs and gerunds to label their categories and subcategories (rather than the nouns of the original taxonomy). These “action words” describe the cognitive processes by which thinkers encounter and work with knowledge: Remember Recognizing Recalling Understand Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Apply Executing Implementing Analyze Differentiating Organizing Attributing Evaluate Checking Critiquing Create Generating Planning Producing

Revised Bloom's Taxonomy using verbs instead of nouns to label the categories and subcategories

3. consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The categories after Knowledge were presented as “skills and abilities,” with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice. While each category contained subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract, the taxonomy is popularly remembered according to the six main categories.

Bloom's Taxonomy- what is it

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38. www.edsurge.com www.edsurge.com
1. The rationale behind a great deal of personalized learning technologies is that, once complexity is minimized for the user, then teachers are freed up to use their time for other, more important tasks. Whether it’s conferencing with students, analyzing assessment data, or even taking some time for self-care, technology is intended to help us become more powerful and increase our potential as teachers and learners.

Berkeley county has been doing online learning days this school year to allow for teachers to have staff development days and parent teacher conferences. They give out a detailed plan of what the children should do through out the day all revolving around apps.

2. This is the intention behind a great deal of personalized learning technologies, which oftentimes individualize instruction on the students’ behalf, using assessment data to determine which activities are appropriate. Doing so minimizes the complexity of the role an educator plays, because they are no longer making decisions about content, but instead allowing the technology to take over that responsibility.

I think this is hit or miss really. I hear the kids talking about what level they are on in prodigy and in reflex and how advance they are. They start to discuss who is smarter... But I think that the content is still on par with the grade level. If it stays on grade level then is it really taking over what content is being taught in the classroom? I think the Teacher still has a role.

3. The problem with many personalized learning tools is that they live mostly in realm of Substitution or Augmentation tasks. While there may be some functional improvement with regard to delivering content and collecting assessment data, there is little to no redefinition of the learning experience, which still sees students simply consuming and regurgitating materials, albeit through more efficient digital means.

I agree with this. The kids I babysit no longer bring home math sheets where they write out the problem to solve it. Instead they do something online through an app called reflexmath. They can't tell you how they did the problems just that they did them.

4. When redefining learning experiences, we cannot do so at the expense of human connection. The most powerful technologies known to human did more than simply minimize complexity or do something new and catchy: they enhance communication, making it easier for individuals to connect with one another

Will technology preserve or enhance human connection in the classroom is by far a great question. Technology does make it easier to connect you leave an imprint everywhere you go online. I think as much as it enhances communication it also hinders it.

5. It consists of four steps: Substitution (S), Augmentation (A), Modification (M), and Redefinition (R).The SAMR Model. Source: Wikimedia Commons

SAMR is a model to guide how to integrate technology into classrooms. Substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition are all aspects of this model.

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39. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org
1. The image depicted in these sculptures originally was for the teaching of the Biblical story of creation to natives in the early colonial period

Tree of life as text

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40. tianakai.com tianakai.com
1. L’arte sa nuotare, meaning art knows how to swim, is about two ways one can live life, like eros and love or life and death. We can choose to be stuck with fear due to the crisis or we can choose to take it as an opportunity to overcome our limitations while being confidence in the future and in our potential. So, even though it seems like we are all underwater it is time to learn how to swim! Renaissance art in Florence is still strong and hides today’s art that is alive and contemporary, so by using icons of the past with diving masks the theme presents a mix between the past and the contemporary world. There is no need to deny the past in order to look at the present, but at least acknowledge it.

scuba mask art in florence, italy

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41. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org
1. In literary theory, a text is any object that can be "read", whether this object is a work of literature, a street sign, an arrangement of buildings on a city block, or styles of clothing. It is a coherent set of signs that transmits some kind of informative message.[1] This set of signs is considered in terms of the informative message's content, rather than in terms of its physical form or the medium in which it is represented.

What is text?

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42. www.ushmm.org www.ushmm.org
1. Teaching the Holocaust to Grade Six and Above Students in grades six and above demonstrate the ability to empathize with individual eyewitness accounts and to attempt to understand the complexities of Holocaust history, including the scope and scale of the events. While elementary age students are able to empathize with individual accounts, they often have difficulty placing them in a larger historical context. Such developmental differences have traditionally shaped social studies curricula throughout the country. In most states, students are not introduced to European history and geography—the context of the Holocaust—before middle school. Elementary school can be an ideal place to begin discussing the value of diversity and the danger of bias and prejudice. These critical themes can be addressed through local and national historical events and can be reinforced during later study of the Holocaust.

Age Appropriateness for teaching the Holocaust

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43. www.weareteachers.com www.weareteachers.com

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44. www.pbisrewards.com www.pbisrewards.com
1. SEL consists of five key skills: Self-awareness – recognition of one’s own emotions, personal goals, and values Self-management – regulation of one’s own emotions and behaviors Social awareness – understanding of and compassion for others’ backgrounds or cultures Relationship skills – ability to establish and maintain healthy relationships Responsible decision-making – making positive choices involving one’s own behavior

important skills for every human being

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1. esigners in education must be mindful of their audiences.

We have to understand out students to be able to have an impact on them and to know how to help them best.

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1. Unlike previous years, where Lee was pulled out of the classroom for tutoring or to complete worksheets that focused on isolated skills, she is now able to work alone, with a partner, or with a small group, or engage in whole‐group conversations that support her emerging ideas and give her space to consider other perspectives and the context surrounding the information

Key to providing the least restrictive enviorment

2. we promote constructing learning experiences based on the fluctuating needs of students that attend to the social, political, and economic realities of being labeled as special education, bilingual, at‐risk, struggling, or below grade level

providing what the student needs

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47. www.brighthorizons.com www.brighthorizons.com
1. According to Common Sense Media, digital citizenship addresses the following concepts:  Thinking, acting, and being online  Thinking critically  Acting responsibly  Being safe  Discerning the truth

Digital citizenship and what its concepts for early education

2. According to the Technology in Early Childhood Center, digital citizenship is a term for the skills children need to choose high-quality, developmentally-appropriate technology—and use it safely.

digital citizenship definition for early education

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48. mediasmarts.ca mediasmarts.ca
1. we use media to inform ourselves, to help shape our opinions, to interact with our communities and to make our voices heard. Models for digital citizenship are generally framed around elements such as rights and responsibilities, participation or civic engagement, norms of behaviour or etiquette, and a sense of belonging and membership.

Being a "critically engaged user and consumer of media", or a "digital citizen" is a form of active citizenship. This point really interests me, as I am known to often express my opinions online. I never thought about tech as a form of "civic engagement" until more recently with more and more social media movements.

2. a curriculum framework

Developed by MediaSmarts to promote speicifc concepts of digital literacy that they find are essential for students in classrooms; cover topics of ethics/empathy, pivacy/security, community engagement, digital health, consumer awareness, finding/verifying, & making/remixing.

3. key concepts for digital literacy are essential both in providing a common language for theorists and educators and in being a guiding principle for teachers in a rapidly changing technological landscape.

Important for students to apply their learning to different conexts. The key concepts are: Digital media are networked/persistant/searchable/shareable, have unknown or unexpected audiences, don't always feel real, and are influenced by their creators

4. As Douglas Belshaw puts it, “Digital literacies are transient: they change over time, may involve using different tools or developing different habits of mind, and almost always depend upon the context in which an individual finds herself.”[

The Media world is always changing, we must stay up to date. Specific skills vary from person to person, but the key concepts of using, understanding, and creating hold true for all to achieve fluency, contexualize, and communicate effectively.

5. basic access, awareness and training to inform citizens and build consumer and user confidence to highly sophisticated and more complex creative and critical literacies and outcomes.

Outlined by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

6. As increasing numbers of businesses, services and even democratic processes migrate online, citizens who lack digital literacy skills risk being disadvantaged when it comes to accessing healthcare, government services and opportunities for employment, education and civic participation

Technology is starting to play a pivotal role in day-to-day social life and essential tasks to live comfortably. Yes, the benefits of technology inside of a high school classroom are evident, but we can't forget about the use of tech after those students graduate and start their own lives.

7. generation of youth who are not fully digitally literate, yet are deeply immersed in cyberspace. Therefore, “it is not… enough to assume that young people automatically have all of the skills, knowledge and understanding that they need to apply to their use of technology.

Why digital literacy is important. Being online and using technology to our advantage is so second-nature to some that they (we) can forget about those that are not as informed. Maybe they're exposed to the technology world and understand its benefits, but it means nothing if one can't apply knowledge to actually profit from it.

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49. www.ictliteracy.info www.ictliteracy.info
1. Most obviously, schools, colleges, universities and other formal educational institutions are key sites where people learn to use ICTs.

When we integrate technology into our classes, we are helping our students learn how to work these technologies to be more successful in the future.

2. Digitally literate women and men form the foundations for the inclusive, knowledge societies we need for the twenty-first century

So true! Unfortunately, we need to work more in less fortunate societies to educate them in regular curriculum, but also digital citizenship, so they can spread the word.

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50. www.literacyworldwide.org www.literacyworldwide.org
1. Even more important, the information resources and opportunities avail-able on the Internet provide individuals with opportunities to make their personal lives richer and more fulfilling.

When we use technology, we are giving people the ability to learn about things that could help them in the future. Technology can help make all pf our lives better.

2. Global economic competition within economies based increasingly on the effective use of information and communication.2. The rapid appearance of the Internet in both our professional and personal lives.3. Public policy initiatives by nations that integrate literacy and the Internet into instruction.

Social factors that influence and are influenced by literacy changes; almost like reciprocal determinism

3. According to one of the most systematic evaluations of worldwide Internet use, over 2.4 billion individuals now use the Internet—more than one third of the world’s population (Internet World Stats, 2011). Moreover, at the current rate of growth, Internet use will be ubiquitous in the world within the next decade.

Is it by now?

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51. cohort21.com cohort21.com
1. The more I read and research, the more fundamental I see digital citizenship being to what we do as educators. However, I also get more and more curious about where this type of learning fits in with the Ontario curriculum. In my research, I came across a document by the Ministry of Education entitled A Shifting Landscape: Pedagogy, Technology, and the New Terrain of Innovation in a Digital World, that reads:

Digital citizenship

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52. www.americanboard.org www.americanboard.org
1. 10 Social Media Rules for Teachers

Tips for teachers and social media use. Decide how much I want to be viewed and connected to my school, its staff and students.

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53. andersoncollege.com andersoncollege.com
1. Rather than engaging one-on-one with a device or program, whole classrooms can create projects online using a range of software. One teacher uses computers to create digital stories with his students. Each child contributes ideas and adds images to the text, or takes turns attaching audio files as narrators.  The final product belongs to everyone – and can be shared online with parents and administrators. This approach takes the early childhood training principle of fair play and effective teamwork to the next level, demonstrating to toddlers that by collaborating well they can create something lasting and quite impressive!

Teach kids that technology is not a single person activity but group collaboration. Have fun with it.

2. One teacher decided to use technology to build on a lesson plan where toddlers construct a copy of their own house using play blocks of different shapes. To enhance the lesson, the educator used Google Earth to bring up images of her students’ houses as references for their models. Students had fun manipulating the tool, and it actually helped them complete the task more effectively.

Start small and make it a part of the lesson plan to help them learn and have fun

3. Educators should strive to integrate technological tools where they complement and enhance an existing, carefully conceived lesson plan. These tools aren’t a substitute for thinking through learning goals, and making sure students understand key concepts. Nor does randomly adding a digital device to your classroom add up to effective technological integration – the tool must be built into your plan, have a clear purpose, and be accessible to all students.

Basic thoughts on how to integrate technology into early edu. It must be thought out and built into a lesson plan and complement it.

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54. www.midanmasr.com www.midanmasr.com
1. This is the most accurate thing I have read being an artist. it is truly a challenge. The difference between the digital art form and the physical art form can be overwhelming. Its also an overwhelming task to be original in this digital world we live in.

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55. cft.vanderbilt.edu cft.vanderbilt.edu
1. Backward Design Template with Descriptions (click link for template with descriptions).

Stages of backward design: identify desired results, determine acceptable evidence, plan learning experiences and instruction. Would be a great hyperlink source.

2. encourages intentionality during the design process.

I really liked the term "intentionality," It stuck out to me - I want my future assignments to be intentional in a way that I know will satisy a goal of my students. Learning > teaching, but it depends on it. Transparency in the classroom & being deliberate.

3. backward design approach has instructors consider the learning goals of the course first. These learning goals embody the knowledge and skills instructors want their students to have learned when they leave the course. Once the learning goals have been established, the second stage involves consideration of assessment.

Answers "What is backward design?" I feel that recent research has made this approach more common as many of my teachers have been very adamant about what we're expected to learn for the day, week, semester. But how many teachers actually work backwards...?

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56. mozilla.github.io mozilla.github.io
1. “21C Skills” refers to a broad set of knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are important to succeed in today’s world, particularly for college and career readiness and in the workplace. Examples of these skills include collaboration, communication, creativity, and problem-solving.

I've never heard of these qualities be called by this term. Very applicable and essential qualities to have, as it includes problem solving, collaboration (conflicts, cultural competency, productivity), creativity, managing communications.

2. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world.

Essentially the outline of this source. How we read (search, navigate, synthesize, and evaluate) on the web, write (design, compose, code, revise, remix) online, and participate (share, contribute, connect, protect) with others

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57. wiobyrne.com wiobyrne.com
1. The Mozilla Foundation and community of volunteers have worked to address this paradox by creating a Web Literacy Map.

From text: Mozilla Foundation is a global non-profit that created Firefox browser; goal: to offer descriptive guidance for educators on defining skills and competencies to participate on a large networked Web; across various theories, perspecitives, and geography; "internet as literacy"