1,066 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2018
    1. Under Darwin's hypothesis, there is variation among individuals at the start o

      Lamarckism = traits change amongst a population based on current needs--they then get passed down

      Darwinism = variation in traits are present at the beginning--the traits that permit survival are passed down

    2. expounded

      expound - to explain the meaning of something in detail

    3. random genetic drift

      Genetic Drift - a basic mechanism of evolution like natural selection, mutation, and migration

      When allele frequencies of a population change over generations by random chance

  2. Aug 2018
    1. infanticide - the crime of killing a child within a year of birth

      Not so fun fact - Mothers are much more likely to kill their young or other babies than their own than a paternal figure.

    2. Refresher on semiconservative replication

      -genetic replication in which a double-stranded molecule of nucleic acid separates into two single strands each of which serves as a template for the formation of a complementary strand--DNA is reused

    3. Does speciation occur because of divergence?

      Definition of speciation - the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution

      Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent mutations--often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.

      So yes. Speciation can be caused because of divergence.

    4. Adaptation is over generations whereas adjustments/acclimations are over one's lifetime.

    5. coral atolls - ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon

    6. propinquity- the state of being close to something

    7. Ontogeny - origination and development of an organism

    8. All of these questions have ultimate answers.

      Senesce - deteriorate with age

  3. Jun 2018
    1. The 80/20 Principle asserts that a minority of causes, inputs or effort usually lead to a majority of the results, outputs or rewards. Taken literally, this means that, for example, 80 per cent of what you achieve in your job comes from 20 per cent of the time spent. Thus for all practical purposes, four-fifths of the effort—a dominant part of it—is largely irrelevant. This is contrary to what people normally expect.
    1. Epistemic democratic theories refer to the capacity of the populace, either through deliberation or aggregation of knowledge, to track the truth and relies on mechanisms to synthesize and apply collective intelligence.
    2. Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
    1. Contrary to the definition we’ve chosen, the term poset frequently is used to meanpartiallyordered set, rather than preordered set. In category theory terminology, therequirement thatxyimpliesxyis known asskeletality. We thus call partiallyordered setsskeletal posets
  4. May 2018
    1. career is a noun describing a post-rationalised sequence of roles consisting of activities, events, and responsibilities that you negotiated according to a set of principles and practices that led you to your current position. In the context of your motoring, career is a verb entailing a barely controlled swerving from side to side, only maintaining a loose sense of intended direction. Imagine the straight, maybe upwardly angling line represented by the former. Imagine the undulating, perhaps violently, perhaps gently, oscillating line represented by the latter.
    1. According to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (n.d.), OER are "teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others" (para. 2). OER can be texts (including open textbooks), videos, assessments, lecture notes, slides, or other learning materials.
    1. minimum wagesfixed by the government exercising the minimum wage fixationpowers given to it by the Minimum wages Act, 1948. Once such a wage is fixed for a given employments the employers are boundunder law to pay such a wage.

      Explaining the concept of minimum wages and what it means

    1. chaise

      "A light open carriage for one or two persons, often having a top or calash; those with four wheels resembling the phaeton, those with two the curricle; also loosely used for pleasure carts and light carriages generally."(OED).

    2. tête-à-tête

      "A private conversation or interview between two people." (OED).

    1. whist

      "A game of cards played (ordinarily) by four persons, of whom each two sitting opposite each other are partners, with a pack of 52 cards, which are dealt face downwards to the players in rotation, so that each has a hand of 13 cards" (OED).

    2. connexions

      This word originated in the 17th Century, stemming from the original English verb “connex." It was replaced by our modern spelling of the verb form, “connect,” between the years 1725 and 1750. (OED).

    3. shillings

      "A former English money of account... of the value of 12d. or 1/ 20 of a pound sterling. No longer in official use after the introduction of decimal coinage in 1971, but still occasionally used to denote five new pence" (OED).

    4. accomplished

      "Of a person: highly trained, educated, or skilled; possessing many accomplishments" (OED).

    5. park

      “A large enclosed area of land or woodland maintained for the decoration of a castle or country house, or for pleasure or recreation, etc." (OED).

    6. lottery tickets

      "a numbered ticket bought in order to participate in a lottery," (OED). Resembling the modern version, "lottery tickets" is a game of chance. It is detailed in full by Edmond Hoyle in his guide, Hoyle's Games: Containing Laws & Directions for Playing the Various Games Now Prevalent : with Many Improvements and Additions.

  5. Apr 2018
    1. mend pens

      During and before the time Pride and Prejudice takes place, the quill feather pen was very popular. Mending a pen is to turn a plain feather into a quill pen.

      (Jane Austen: Celebrating Bath's Most Famous Resident).

    2. pianoforte

      "A formal term for a piano" (OED). Though, it is smaller than a grand piano. (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

    1. gaiety

      “The quality or condition of being gay; cheerfulness, mirth” (OED).

    2. undutiful

      “Lacking in the observance of duty” (OED).

    3. vestibule

      "In modern usage: A chamber or hall immediately between the entrance-door and the interior of a building or house (usually one of some size), to which it gives admittance; an ante-chamber, entrance-hall, or lobby” (OED).

    4. freedom

      “The overstepping of due or customary bounds in speech or behaviour; undue familiarity; an instance of this, a liberty” (OED).

    5. insist

      “To continue steadfastly or persist in a course of action, to follow steadfastly in (on) a person’s steps, etc; to continue with urgency; to preserve. Arch" (OED).

    6. desirable

      “Worthy to be desired; to be wished for. In early use often standing for the qualities which a thing is to be desired: Pleasant, delectable, choice, excellent, goodly” (OED).

    7. bright eyes

      "Alert and lively" (Oxford English Living Dictionaries).

    8. se’nnight

      "A period of seven (days and) nights; a week" (OED).

    9. laity

      "The body of the people not in orders as opposed to the clergy; laymen collectively” (OED).

    10. shoe-roses

      A ‘shoe-rose’ is a piece of shoelace or ribbon tied in a rosette pattern, and worn on one's shoe-front (Pemberly).

    11. amiable appearance

      The action or state of appearing or seeming to be (to eyes or mind) (OED).

    12. per force

      In weakened use: by constraint of circumstances; of necessity, inevitably, unavoidably; as a matter of course (OED).

    13. engaged

      To bind or secure by a pledge (OED).

  6. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. hack chaise.”

      According to the Oxford English Dictionary, “hack” means “a horse used for hire” (OED), and “chaise” means “a light open carriage for one or two persons” (OED), so Mrs. Long arrived in a hired carriage.

    2. chuse

      An old spelling of "choose"; To take by preference out of all that are available; to select; to take as that which one prefers, or in accordance with one's free will and preference (OED).

    3. “To-morrow fortnight.”

      Fortnight: A period of fourteen nights; two weeks (OED). Therefore, "To-morrow fortnight" would be two weeks from tomorrow.

    1. indifferent

      "In poor health, ailing, poorly"(OED).

    2. condescension

      "Voluntary abnegation for the nonce of the privileges of a superior; affability to one's inferiors, with courteous disregard of difference of rank or position; condescendingness"(OED).

    3. vouchsafed

      "To confer or bestow (some thing, favour, or benefit) on a person"(OED).

    4. “Yes, vanity is a weakness indeed. But pride — where there is a real superiority of mind, pride will be always under good regulation.”

      Darcy is splitting hairs. Most definitions of vanity and pride are nearly identical to each other: Vanity:"The quality of being personally vain; high opinion of oneself; self-conceit and desire for admiration." (OED) Pride: "A high, esp. an excessively high, opinion of one's own worth or importance which gives rise to a feeling or attitude of superiority over others; inordinate self-esteem.(OED) Only one definition of pride supports Darcy's interpretation: "A consciousness of what befits, is due to, or is worthy of oneself or one's position; self-respect; self-esteem, esp. of a legitimate or healthy kind or degree."(OED)

    5. vices

      Vice: a. Depravity or corruption of morals; evil, immoral, or wicked habits or conduct; indulgence in degrading pleasures or practices. (OED)

    6. follies

      Folly: The quality or state of being foolish or deficient in understanding; want of good sense, weakness or derangement of mind; also, unwise conduct. †to do folly: to act foolishly. (fond, etc.) to a folly, to an absurd degree. (OED)

    1. die-ins

      def: a demonstration in which a group of people lie down as if dead

    1. The other problem is conflating data release with “data publishing,” which has become popular terminology.

      They are not the same thing.

    1. Common Data Elements (CDEs) are standardized terms for the collection and exchange of data. CDEs are metadata; they describe the type of data being collected, not the data itself. A basic example of metadata is the question presented on a form, "Patient Name," whereas an example of data would be "Jane Smith."

      Definition of CDE.

  7. Mar 2018
    1. how people decide to allocate their scarce resources (e.g., time, money, attention, energy), how people interact to satisfy their needs, and how an economy works as a whole

      The 10 principles of economic can be summarized into 3 groups

      • how people decide
      • how people interact
      • how the whole economy works
    1. First Nations

      First Nations refers to the indigenous peoples of Canada south of the Arctic Circle. See here for a brief history of First Nations people.

      There is a First Nations Educational & Cultural Center at IUB for Native American activities, outreach, and research.

    1. No street vendor shall be evicted or, as the case may be, relocated till the surveyspecified under sub-section (1) has been completed and the certificate of vending is issuedto all street vendors.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7 as "The police department has issued a circular - no street vendor can be evicted or relocated until the BBMP conducts a survey of all the street vendors and issues ID cards. Any move to evict is against the new law"

      Also as

      Used in the booklet on Pg 19 as: " The BBMP too cannot evict street vendors. The law is clear that BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all street vendors, and then issue ID Cards. Till then, no one can be evicted ir relocated. The BBMP has also issued a note about this. While clearing footpaths, the BBMP cannot violate the Street Vendors Act. Any move to evict is thus against the law!"

    2. Each Town Vending Committee shall consist of

      Used in the booklet on Pg15 as: "To conduct the survey, BBMP will create a town vending committee, with at least 40% members as street vendors, and rest from the Municipality, police, NGOs, RWAS wtc. Therefore according to the law atleast 40% members should be street vendors"

    3. This Act may be called the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulationof Street Vending) Act, 2014.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7, Pg 10, Pg 12 as " In 2014, the government of India passed a law saying street vending is a lawful activity. No one can stop you from vending" -- This is the main point reiterated through out the booklet in different ways

    4. “street vendor”

      Definition of Street Vendors - Characters and stories in the graphic booklet conceptualized from this

    1. CLAVIER is more difficult to define than the acronym may appear, as I recall Simon and I discussed the choice of letters as I traveled back from a trip to London for a UCML meeting

      CLAVIER Difficulty to define.

    1. grotesques

      a very ugly or comically distorted figure, creature, or image.

    2. beset

      (of a problem or difficulty) trouble or threaten persistently.

    3. ludicrous

      so foolish, unreasonable, or out of place as to be amusing; ridiculous.

    4. Andersonville prison

      Located in Georgia and is a Confederate prisoner-of-war prison

  8. Feb 2018
    1. La ontología política es una forma de contar relatos de manera diferente, de tal forma que, tal vez, puedan abrirse espacios para la realización de las múltiples ontologías que componen el pluriverso.
    2. En todas estas experiencias la ‘comunidad’ es entendida en términos profundamente históricos, abiertos y no esencialistas. En todo caso, hay un énfasis en la creación de nuevos espacios para lo comunal. De ello se desprende que la realización de lo comunal es, siempre, un proceso histórico abierto. En el lenguaje de Maturana y Varela las comunidades, como sistemas sociales, son entidades autopoiéticas de tercer orden definidas por un sistema particular de relaciones entre los componentes que, a través de su dinámica recursiva, crean el sistema que es la comunidad. Esta ‘clausura operacional’ (a menudo codificada por los lugareños en términos de ‘la defensa de nuestra cultura’) se mantiene a lo largo de la relación de la comunidad con su entorno (el contexto sociopolítico y ecológico, en términos generales). En esta forma de relacionamiento siempre en marcha (acoplamiento estructural), las comunidades pueden sufrir cambios estructurales de distintos tipos (e.g., mediante la adopción de las TIC); sin embargo, el sistema básico de relaciones tiene que ser mantenido por la comunidad para preservar su autopoiesis, es decir, su capacidad de autocreación. La autonomía es el nombre dado a este proceso
    3. Me parece útil pensar en la ‘organización’ en este contexto como un sistema de relaciones entre los componentes (e.g., biofísicos, celulares, bioquímicos, nerviosos, etcétera, sólo para pensar en términos biológicos) cuya interacción continua produce la unidad en cuestión.

    4. Su acercamiento a lo vivo es completo, desde el nivel celular a la evolución y la sociedad. Es un intento por explicar la vida ‘desde adentro’ (es decir, en su autonomía), sin depender, principalmente, de conceptos generados por el observador sobre lo que la vida es o hace, ya sea en términos de ‘funciones’ (como las funciones realizadas por una célula o un órgano), inputs o outputs, o la relación del organismo con su entorno. Su teoría se aparta de estos enfoques biológicos bien conocidos y trata de explicar los sistemas vivos como unidades auto-producidas y auto-contenidas cuya única referencia es a sí mismas. El enfoque se deriva de la idea de que la cognición es una operación fundamental de todos los seres vivos y de que no tiene que ver con las representaciones del mundo sino con la acción efectiva de un ser vivo en los ámbitos en los que existe (su entorno). A partir de aquí se deduce que el carácter esencial de lo vivo es tener una organización autónoma que permita esa efectividad operativa, para la que acuñaron el término autopoiesis: “nuestra propuesta es que los seres vivos se caracterizan porque, literalmente, están continuamente auto-produciéndose. Indicamos este proceso cuando llamamos organización autopoiética a la organización que los define”
    5. Varela dio una definición minimalista del concepto que podemos usar como una bisagra hacia una conceptualización más amplia: «de hecho, la clave para la autonomía es que un sistema vivo encuentre su camino hacia el momento siguiente actuando adecuadamente a partir de sus propios recursos» (Varela 1999: 11). Lo mismo ocurre con los mundos y las comunidades, aun, o quizás especialmente, bajo condiciones de ocupación ontológica.
  9. Jan 2018
    1. el término ‘desarrollo sostenible’ se definió por primera vez como “el desarrollo que satisface las necesidades del presente sin comprometer la capacidad de las generaciones futuras para satisfacer sus propias necesidades” (World Commission 1987: 8), los críticos han señalado el hecho

      de que esa definición es contradictoria porque los intereses del desarrollo y las necesidades de la naturaleza no se pueden armonizar bajo los modelos económicos convencionales

    1. elucidate

      elucidate= make something clear

    2. epiphenomenalism

      The position that experiences do not play any causal role, they are the "hum of the machine" (e.g., combustion drives a car engine, and combustion makes noise, but the noise is totally irrelevant to the working of the engine).

    3. This is an ignoratio elenc

      The logical fallacy of making a point that, while perhaps true or a valid argument, is irrelevant to the issue at hand.

    4. secondary qualities

      A secondary quality is one that depends upon the observer (color is the paradigmatic example).

    5. y a contingent

      Definition: contingent = not necessary.

    6. Such sensations would be "nomological danglers," to use Feigl's expressio

      "Nomological" means relating to natural laws, so to say that sensations would be nomological danglers is to say that they would not fall under any natural laws.

    7. Mainly because of Occam's razor

      Occam's Razor: one should prefer the simplest explanation of the phenomena.

    1. the CCC’s internal communicative figuration not only enables the Club to execute direct digital action in the form of hacking, but also allows the hacker organization to communicate with a diversity of relevant actors (including the larger public) in coherent ways. In the case of the CCC, the relations between hacking and the communicative figuration within the Club are best understood as interlocking arrangements (Kubitschko 2015). These, as will be argued below, have wider consequences for the Chaos Computer Club’s standing as a political actor

      Desde HackBo hemos tenido dificultad para emitir una voz coherente, lo cual tiene que ver con la falta de estructuras jerárquicas y voceros. Yo mismo afirmé que las personas no hablamos por HackBo, sino desde HackBo, para indicar que la pertenencia a un lugar no quiere indicar su vocería. A pesar de compartir ciertas apuestas políticas referidas a la desintermediación, la apuesta por los bienes comunes y su instauración en lo estatal, particularmente desde las infraestructuras, dicha mirada no ha configurado un discurso político unificadado a nivel local, y tampoco acciones a nivel internacional. El carácter personal de las formas de vincularse a lo hacker en el hackerspace, no constituye una forma de militancia.

    1. They are motivated by wishful thinking. This error leads the individual to stop gathering information when the evidence gathered so far confirms the views (prejudices) one would like to be true.

      Good explanation

  10. Dec 2017
    1. Humanphysiologyis the scientific study of the chemistryand physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which they work together to support the functions of life. Muchof the study of physiology centers on the body’s tendency toward homeostasis.

      In other words, whereas anatomy involves the study of the parts (structures) of the human body, physiology is the study of how those parts work.

      Here's a video that introduces anatomy and physiology - video

    1. en together, recent theoriza-tion and research highlights the ever more substantial role hackers play for contemporary social and political arrangements. overall, it can be said that recent investigations of hacker cultures bring forward a multi-layered and revealing characterization of hackers by looking closely at who they are, what they do and why they do it, instead of preserving ste-reotypes or proclaiming generalizations. It is this latter conceptual posi-tioning of hackers, hacking and hacktivism that this research is drawing on and aims to expand by adapting a figurational approach
    2. . Tim Jordan (2013) characterizes hacktivism as an explicitly political form of computing. Leah Lievrouw (2011) pictures hacking as ‘alternative computing’ to describe a range of activities that focus on constructive political, social and cultural purposes
    1. How does an insubstantial word like “apple” lead you to think of a real thing—an object of a certain size that is red, round, sweet, and has a shiny, thin-peeled skin? How could a plain acoustic sound produce such complex states of mind, involving all those qualities of color, substance, taste, and shape? Presumably, each different quality involves a different agency. But then—in view of all we’ve said about why different agents can’t communicate—how could such varying recipients all “understand” the selfsame messages? Do language-agents have unusual abilities to communicate with different kinds of agencies?

      What article doesn't bring up is the context of the environment that the person grew up in. If we were to describe the word apple to someone who has never seen or tasted it, they would not be able to visualize what it is with just the word. The mind would try to relate it to an object that you have already experience to fill in what an "apple" may be.

  11. Nov 2017
    1. Accordingly, the correct instrumental definition of technology still does not show us technology’s essence.

      Technology's essence is more than the ability of humans to control it, as thought with most previous technologies. While establishing definitions in the introduction, Heidegger finds it important to establish a distinction between what was instrumental to technology in the past and what we will find technology can become without definitions that limit technology to something outside of the basic, instrumental necessities.

    1. Atanyrate,thisbringsustothesecondgroupwementionedearlier:hacktivists.Thetermisnotanelegantone,andithashadalimitedtraction,probablyforthatreason.Butitintroducesavitaldistinctionintermsofunderstandingtheeffectsofwhathackersdoinorbysayingsomethingandthusdoingsomethingwithcode.JordanandTaylorcapturedthisvitaldifferencebydesignatinghacktivistsasrebelswithacauseandyetposingthisstatementwithaquestionmarktoindicatethattheeffectsarenotstraightforwardtointerpret.

      For example, they admit that although hacktivism arises from hackers, it is difficult to draw the line between the two: ‘[B]ecause hacktivism uses computer techniques borrowed from the pre-existing hacker community, it is difficult to identify definitively where hacking ends and hacktivism begins.’[55] They understand hacktivism as ‘the emergence of popular political action, of the selfactivity of groups of people, in cyberspace. It is a combination of grassroots political protest with computer hacking. Jordan and Taylor also provide a historical overview of dissent and civil disobedience as repertoires of politics, which we would call ‘acts of digital citizens’. They discuss how, for example, electronic civil disobedience by Zapatistas, the Mexican dissident group, changed the terms of policies by engaging incipient Internet technologies in the 1990s to argue that Zapatismo—the convention combined of grassroots and electronic activism—was in many ways the birthplace of hacktivism as a disruptive convention. [...] At this point in time it is difficult to know how much of a disturbance these acts of electronic civil disobedience specifically make. What we do know is that neoliberal power is extremely concerned by these acts.’

      En el caso de La Gobernatón, lo que hicimos fue auditar los términos de la contratación pública usando técnicas de verificación de integridad de software, basadas en firmas de integridad criptográfica (una combinación alfanúmérica única asociada a un archivo, que se modifica bastante, si el archivo cambia en lo más mínimo, por ejemplo, agregando un espacio). Fue el hecho de aunar técnicas computacionales clásicas, como seas las que activaron la idea de la Gobernatón y luego del Data Week. Esto ocurrió localmente, al margen de las prácticas anteriores y paralelas que hacían los zapatistas, o los peiordistas de datos. Era una idea cuyo tiempo había llegado y se empezaba a originar e distintos lugares, con las variaciones propias de cada contexto).

    2. Whataretheeffectsofdigitalactsofhacking?Whatconventionsdotheseactsbreak?Whatconventionsdotheseactsresignify?Theyareasbroadastherearetypesofhackers

      [...] We want to consider these combined and diffuse effects of acts of hacking in terms of actions against closings such as filtering, tracking, and normalizing. These actions that feed the imaginary force of acts of hacking perhaps explain the joy of the deep hack mode that Coleman documents. Yet a generalized conclusion cannot be reached since hackers can create dangerous effects that also participate in closings of the Internet.

      Valdría la pena mantener la definición de Hacker como diversa y abierta, (Coleman), pero también como cotidiana (Schrock), pero con algún acto distintivo que la haga valiosa (no todo es "hackear"). La ruptura y resignificación de la convención a través de la técnica sería el acto determinante de Hackear. Dicho entrenamiento en la técnica ocurre de manera cotidiana, apreciando y apropiando otras técnicas (licenciamiento, programación, instalación de software, trabajo con arduino, activismo político, etc). Es la diversidad de dicha técnica y la posibilidad de romper o rehacer la condición la que le da el caracter diverso al acto del hacking a la vez que lo mantiene abierto y sin embargo no lo hace corresponder a cualquier cosa.

    3. Levydrewamorenuancedandpanoramicviewofhackersyetstillpracticallyreproducedtheclandestineimage.Critiquingthisimage,TimJordanandPaulTaylorarguethatvariousclassesofhackersemergedovertimeandneedtobedistinguished.

      Coleman (Coding Freedom) dice lo mismo.

      [...] By the 1990s, hackers were already functioning in at least four ways: original hackers (dissident and libertarian), microserfs (subservient and submissive), a growing group of open-source software developers (critical and resilient), and politically motivated hacktivists (political and subversive).[44] These two last groups—open-source developers and hacktivists—constitute the most significant groups for understanding the emergence of citizen subjects in cyberspace.

    4. whatdifferentiateshackersfromprogrammersisthatinorbysayingsomethingthroughcode,hackerschallenge,ifnotsubvert,conventionsinwhichtheyfindthemselves.Hackersarethosewhoseactssubvertconventionsgoverningthemselvesanddigitalcitizens.Colemanrecognizesthat‘manyhackersarecitizensofliberaldemocracies,andhavedrawnonthetypesofaccessibleliberaltropes—notablyfreespeech—asameanstoconceptualizetheirtechnicalpracticeandsecurenovelpoliticalclaims.’ButgiventheextensityoftheInternet,whilethisstatementmayhavebeentrueinthepast,itwouldbehardtosubstantiatetodaythathackersareonlycitizensofliberaldemocracies,meaningtheyarelegalholdersofcitizenshipstatusinliberaldemocraticstates.
    5. Colemanarguesthatbymostlycircumventingcopyrightlawswiththeircommitmenttothefreecirculationofintellectualproperty,hackerscontradicttheexistingliberalconceptionofintellectualpropertyastherighttoexcludeandcontrol.Yetbyadvancingvaluesofcivillibertiesandpromotingindividualautonomyand,aboveall,acommitmenttofreespeech,hackersarethemostardentpromotersofliberalvalues.Thus,forColeman,hackersoccupybothacentralandmarginal—wemightsayaparadoxical—placewithintheliberaltradition.

      [...] Coleman says that hackers ‘tend to value a set of liberal principles: freedom, privacy, and access.’ It is difficult for us to see freedom, privacy, and access as either values or principles, though they express certain values. From our point of view, things such as freedom, privacy, and access are rights, and, like all rights, they are born of social and political struggles, and these struggles both predate and are wider than what liberalism implies. Thus, we wonder whether it is possible to understand hacking cultures in ethical and aesthetic terms without also considering their broader politics. The joy (deep hack mode) that hackers experience in creating a collaborative culture by sharing their skills and talents is wonderful, but understanding the ways in which this joy can be assimilated into obedient, submissive, or subversive ways of being hackers requires a broader perspective.

    6. Forus,probablythemostpertinentdistinctionisbetweenprogrammersandhackers.Inorbysayingsomethingincodeperformsbothillocutionaryandperlocutionaryacts.

      The difference between programmers and hackers is, however, the effects of their acts, which have dramatically changed over time. Programmers are those— either employed by software companies or working independently—who make a living by writing code, which includes anything between snippets (short code) and apps. Hackers may also program code in this fashion, but the culture that gives them the name emanates from a distinct set of ethical and aesthetic values that combine to create a different kind of politics than programming does. This difference is hard to express, but it is also the difference that is of interest to us. It is hard to express perhaps because so much has been said and written about hackers—mostly negative. As a consequence, a unified, typically clandestine, selfish, young, male, and outlaw image has become dominant, which more recent studies have shown is grotesquely simplified. We want to argue that hackers are those whose acts break conventions of programming.

  12. Oct 2017
    1. definition of field: The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementa- tion, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of set- tings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Professionals in the field of instructional design and technology often use systematic instruc- tional design procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals. More- over, in recent years, they have paid increasing atten- tion to non-instructional solutions to some performance problems. Research and theory related to each of the aforementioned areas is also an important part of the field. (Reiser, in p

      Definition of instructional design by Reiser

  13. Sep 2017
    1. Thefieldbeginswithcitizenshipdefinedasrights,obligations,andbelongingtothenation-state.Threerights(civil,political,andsocial)andthreeobligations(conscription,taxation,andfranchise)governrelationshipsbetweencitizensandstates.Civilrightsincludetherighttofreespeech,toconscience,andtodignity;politicalrightsincludevotingandstandingforoffice;andsocialrightsincludeunemploymentinsurance,universalhealthcare,

      and welfare.



    1. I retain hacker because hackers pace members draw upon hacker culture, broadly considered, even though the sites that identify as HMSs vary widely.

      Estos términos son auto-denotativos. Es una manera en que los miembros de la comunidad se refieren a sí mismos.

    2. Hacker and maker spaces arise from grassroots networks through a shared interest in maintaining a semi-permanent space for solo and collaborative work. They generally employ democratic and meritocratic conventions rather than ''top-down" organizational practices. These conventions evolve over time as they are reflexively modified by members through communication (McPhee & Zaug, 2009) and practices (Cox, 2005; Wenger, 1998) in and around physical space. This loose organizational structure and plurality of participant identities results in a tremendous variety of spaces that are best thought of as having a family resemblance (Wittgenstein, 1953) of organizational conventions and shared histories rather than consistency in interests or ideology. Some are firmly entrenched in information security (infosec) while others maintain a focus on artistic endeavors involving welding and woodwork. Several have arisen with an overtly feminist orientation and push back against the often male-dominant nature of these spaces.
    3. Hacker and maker spaces (HMSs) are open-access workshops devoted to creative and technical work. Their growing numbers (over 500 worldwide) make them a significant grassroots movement supporting informal learning. Scholars have found pedagogical benefits of tinkering and hacking, but the cultural contexts from which these practices arise remain under-studied.

      Nótese que también se habla de espacios creativos y no sólo técnicos.

    1. Initially at least, civic hackathons were initially positioned as a form of public outreach for civic hackers, a loose-knit community interested in applying technology for social good. James Crabtree (2007) defined “civic hacking” as “the development of applications to allow mutual aid among citizens rather than through the state.” In particular, he suggested an extra-institutional definition, thatcivic hacking filled in where e-democracy had failed. The meaning of “civic” at this stage leaned towards a libertarian perspective, which remains a persistent critique of hacking among critical studies scholars (Golumbia, 2013).
    1. They tried to preserve some of their world within the interstices left by conquerors. Direct confrontation was seldom successful, but infiltra-tion could be practiced in everyday life, in many aspects of cultural production. Power was always at stake.The baroque practice originated in Europe, where it was encouraged by Rome within a Counter-Reform strategy in which movement, dance, and popular art were used to counteract protestant rigor. In the Americas, the baroque took on a new life as it infil-trated spaces intentionally left vacant by the Iberian conquerors (Zamora and Kaup, 2010) and created an opportunity for the oppressed to state their presence, insert their messages, and suggest their views of the universe.



    1. .Theopendatadefinitionthatemergedfocusedoneightqualitiesofdata:completeness,pri-macy,timeliness,easeofphysicalandelectronicaccess,machinereadability,non-discrimination,useofcommonlyownedstandards,licensing,permanence,andusagecosts.
    1. The open data definition drafted at Sebastopol describes data’s completeness, primacy, timeliness, ease of physical and electronic access, machine readability, non-discrimination, use of commonly owned standards, licensing, permanence, and usage costs. This description made it clear what the proper-ties of data were, even as outcomes, fitting with an open-source model, were more

      [...] ambitious

    2. In 1902’s What is Publicity? political professor Henry Adams described publicity as “an essential agency for the control of trusts” (p. 895).
    3. Civic hacking can broadly be described as a form of alternative/activist media that “employ or modify the communication artifacts, practices, and social arrangements of new information and communication technologies to challenge or alter dominant, expected, or accepted ways of doing society, culture, and politics” (Lievrouw, 2011: 19). Ample research has considered how changes in technology and access have created “an environment for politics that is increasingly information-rich and communication-inten-sive” (Bimber, 2001). Earl and Kimport (2011) argue that such digital activism draws attention to modes of protest—“digital repertoires of contention” (p. 180)—more than formalized political movements

      La idea de tener "repertorios de contención" es similar a la de exaptación en el diseño.

    4. Other definitions capture broader notions of civil society. A 2010 study backed by the Open Society Foundation described civic hackers as “deploying information technology tools to enrich civic life, or to solve particular problems of a civic nature, such as democratic engagement” (Hogge, 2010: 10).
  14. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. anthology

      The definition of "anthology" is "a collection of selected literary pieces or passages or works of art or music". Interestingly enough however, the Ancient Greek words of this word are "ἄνθος" (anthos), which means "flower", and "λέγειν" (legein), which means "to pick" or "to say". This formed the word "ἀνθολογία" (anthologia), which initially meant "the gathering of flowers". It eventually evolved in Greek to also mean its current definition because of Meléagros of Gadara comparing anthologized poets to flowers in one of the first anthologies ever, "The Garland". This is why the New Latin meaning of the word became "a collection of epigrams" and got was adopted by romance languages.

      Sources: https://el.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B8%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%BF%CE%B3%CE%AF%CE%B1 , http://perseus.uchicago.edu/perseus-cgi/morph.pl?id=905329&prev=true&lang=greek , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthology , https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anthology , my knowledge of Ancient and Modern Greek.

  15. Aug 2017
    1. We propose that, in order to be cited as a data author, a person must have made substantial contributions to the original acquisition, quality control, and curation of the data, be accountable for all aspects of the accuracy and integrity of the data provided, and ensure that the available data set follows FAIR Guiding Principles, which instruct that the data and metadata meet criteria of findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability

      Definition of what constitutes authorship; does not preclude other forms of contributions

    2. data author

      I disagreed with this before I attended the workshop that discussed this proposal, but have now come to support it. It broadens out the concept of authorship to these other types of digital works.

    1. These receptors are known as cannabinoid receptors (CBs), and along with their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids (ECs), and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, constitute the endocannabinoid system [6, 7].

      Definition of endocannabinoids

  16. Jul 2017
    1. Machine readable is not synonymous with digitally accessible. A digitally accessible document may be online, making it easier for humans to access via computers, but its content is much harder to extract, transform and process via computer programming logic if it is not in machine-readable format.

      Good distinction to make

    1. egalitarianism

      Definition of egalitarianism

      1: a belief in human equality especially with respect to social, political, and economic affairs

      2: a social philosophy advocating the removal of inequalities among people


    1. We propose, therefore, to combine three elements—data transformed into RDF, which is described by Triple Descriptors, and served via TPF-compliant URLs. We call this combination of technologies a ”FAIR Projector”.
    1. Utilitarianism as a philosophical system states that the most moral action is the one that maximizes utility
    2. Meritocracy is the idea that individuals can and should be measured on the basis of their intellectual contributions, divorced from identity, social status, gender, race, religion, or other distinguishing characteristics.
  17. May 2017
    1. house was handsome and handsomely fitted up

      This saying refers to a home in the eighteenth or nineteenth century that had elegant furniture throughout the home; and elegant dishes and dinnerware. The servants lived in brand new liveries. (janeaustens world)

    2. elucidation

      "Throwing light upon, making plain or intelligible" (OED).

    3. Pall Mall

      "The name of a street in central London (running between St James's Street and Haymarket) which developed from an alley [in the 17th century] in which the game of pall-mall was played"(OED). The game: players attempt to get wooden ball with a mallet down the alley and through a raised iron ring in as few strokes possible. Smith’s New Map of London, 1809, showing the Palace between the Mall and Pall Mall

  18. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. sanguine

      "Hopeful or confident with reference to some particular issue" (OED).

    2. disapprobation

      "The action or fact of disapproving; the feeling or utterance of moral condemnation; disapproval" (OED).

    3. indecorous

      "Unbecoming, inappropriate" (OED).

    1. ext, story, and fabula, eac

      Looked it up--we've got this as an ebook in the library. Text is the literal text of the book, and different variations have different texts, but the same story. The fabula is the "world" the story takes place in--so if there's a revelation in flashback, the fabula is how the story holds together that that flashback information was always in the story world, even when the reader didn't know what was up.

  19. Apr 2017
    1. ontological

      Def. adj. 1) relating to the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.

      2) showing the relations between the concepts and categories in a subject area or domain.

    2. communication, community, and interaction

      Communication: the imparting or exchanging of information or news; means of connection between people or places, in particular. Interaction: reciprocal action or influence. At first glance, these words tend to have similar meanings or be sub categories of each other. I just found odd and interesting that Bay/Rickert chose both words rather than one or the other.

    3. modus vivend

      definition: a feasible arrangement or practical compromise; especially one that bypasses difficulties; manner of living https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/modus%20vivendi

    1. ardour

      "Heat of passion or desire, vehemence, ardent desire; warmth of emotion, zeal, fervour, eagerness, enthusiasm. Const. for. (The earliest sense in English: formerly used of evil passions, but now only of generous or noble impulses)" (OED).

  20. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. noblemen

      "A man who belongs by rank, title, or birth to the aristocracy" (OED).

    2. curricle

      "A light, open, two-wheeled carriage pulled by two horses side by side" (OED).

    3. muslin

      A thin, cotton material imported from India by England in the 17th and 18th century ("Vic", Muslin: A Beautiful & Versatile Cloth for Regency Fashion, https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2011/09/08/muslin-muslin-versatile-cloth-for-regency-fashion/)

    4. accomplishment

      "Embellishments, elegance, ornament of mind or body" (Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language).

    5. baronets

      "A member of the lowest hereditary titled British order, with the status of a commoner but able to use the prefix 'Sir'" (OED).

    1. In short, the microservice architectural style [1] is an approach to developing a single application as a suite of small services, each running in its own process and communicating with lightweight mechanisms, often an HTTP resource API
    1. heliotropism

      I know it's defined within the text, but look at the second definition in this set:

      he·li·ot·ro·pism ˌhēlēəˈtrōpizəm/

      noun BOTANY the directional growth of a plant in response to sunlight.

      ZOOLOGY the tendency of an animal to move toward light.

    1. sine qua non

      definition: something absolutely indispensable or essential


    2. phenomenological

      Surprised nobody's beat me to this post, but Phenomenology is the philosophy of consciousness and experience. Like the video summary of Hume v. Descartes, phenomenology looks at things and consciousness as "bundles" of experiences, though more than Hume's pure sensory approach, since it includes the larger elements of "experience" as well.

    3. xigence,

      an urgent need or demand.

    4. melioristic
    1. kairos

      The definition of kairos is "a propitious moment for decision or action," but I was wondering if the etymology would yield anything interesting. Nope.

      Etymology: "1930s: Greek, literally ‘opportunity.’"

    1. milieu

      noun. a person's social environment.

    2. interlocutors

      noun. formal. pl people who take part in a dialogue or conversation.

    3. paideia

      definition: "system of broad cultural education" origin: ancient Greece https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/paideia

    4. Dictionary definitions give us an idea of how unstable the concepts are that can be signified by Signifyin(g).

      I imagine this instability results from signifyin as being a living rhetorical mode, something that is constantly evolving as it is practiced; I think it also suggests how oral and everyday it is--signifyin' and its different forms are in practice in everyday conversations among African Americans. It's difficult to capture something so oral and performative in something as rigid as definitions.

    5. antiphonal

      definition: "(of music, especially church music, or a section of a church liturgy) sung, recited, or played alternately by two groups" https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/antiphonal

    6. catechresis

      "use of a word in an incorrect way, for example the use of mitigate for militate" https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/catachresis

    7. antanaclasis
    8. vertiginous
    1. Data citations are formal ways to ground the research findings in a manuscript, upon their supporting evidence, when that evidence consists of externally archived datasets.

      Nice definition of data citation

    1. crinoline

      Crinoline is the name of a stiff fabric made of a mix of threads and horsehair. It is most often used for giving structure to petticoats and is a common lining for garments. Hoop skirts are also referred to as a crinoline, due to the majority of its frame support being comprised of the material. Strips of crinoline would be attached to a starting hoop (normally the top hoop that sits at the waist) with heavy thread, wire, or rope. Subsequent hoops of increasing size could be attached while the crinoline is bent down and outward to achieve a noticeable “bell” shape. Cheaply made frames could be fragile and easily damaged by applying pressure to the structure, making sitting and moving around a constant concern for the wearer. Stronger frames were more expensive, but were also much heavier due to the types of materials used. Where lighter frames could be made of soft wood or leather hoops, others were made of whalebone or steel, making for a very cumbersome garment.

      Moving in one of these stronger frames would be even more difficult, not only does the weight slow down the wearer; the unbending frames often make sitting or even passing through narrow openings nearly impossible. Though certain artisans could make changes and generate more user friendly designs, these crinolines would remain burdensome. Many women began to forgo them for lighter and more open options, sometimes referring to them as cages or weights. There are even notable print and stage parodies of these frames that highlight the bulky nature of the frames. Characters comically bump into others, knock over furniture, get stuck in odd places, or are vain caricatures with impossibly wide frames that match their egos.

    2. termagant

      Literally just a word for a “violently” scornful woman, in this context it is probably poking at a demeaning prudishness. However, in other literary sources that predate Fern, “termagant” appears to reference ranting in a belligerent manner, like that of a nag or a bully. There are even references to old medieval plays, where a fictional deity embodies the more negative aspects of the term by asserting itself as a moral authority whilst acting shrewdly.

    3. Turkish trousers

      “Turkish trousers” are the European name for the culturally adopted Ottoman dimije. Dimije are baggy pants that gather just above the ankle, which aid in dispelling heat with their flowing material and breezy nature. Normally worn by common folk in the areas of Turkey, India, and the Middle East, the European empires had influenced widespread cultural mixing via trade and colonization that brought many new styles back West. Fashion began to shift into being a form of self-expression (more like our modern interpretation of the use of clothing) instead of a marker of class level. Women’s movements took in these new cultural styles in order to address oppression by linking traditional clothing models to ideas of confinement, restriction, and encumbrance. These changes of clothing were like shedding of shackles, they became visual political statements that can be made publicly that could harken to the larger movements passively.

  21. Mar 2017
    1. axiology

      nonun - 1) the study of the nature of value and valuation, and of the kinds of things that are valuable.

      2) a particular theory of axiology. "all consequentialists start with an axiology which tells us what things are valuable or fitting to desire"

    2. hermeneutical
    3. grapheme?

      def. noun, the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.

    4. polysemy

      I would define polysemy here, but I think that would be missing the point.

      One possible meaning of the word, though, is a word that has multiple meanings. I can't find any other meanings, which seems like a remarkable oversight

    1. specious
    2. sundered
    3. definition of "literature"

      written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit.

    4. heuristic,

      The definition of heuristic is roughly "allowing someone to learn something for themselves" but I was interested in the etymology.

      Apparently, it's "early 19th century: formed irregularly from Greek heuriskein ‘find.’" I wonder if this is where we get the phrase "to find out."

    5. desideratum

      def. noun something that is needed or wanted.

      (synonym, requirement)

    1. Dogma

      a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted

    2. the common sense he shares with his fel-lows would teach

      Booth really emphasizes "common sense" as "the sense that is common between parties," rather than the gee-shucks folksy wisdom it's often defined as.

    1. y. Writing and talking are not merely tools of our trade; they are our product and our raw material and the subjects of our investiga- Patrick W. Conner is Professor of English at West Virginia University where he teaches and researches Anglo-Saxon language and literature. He is the author of Anglo-Saxon Exeter (Boydell and Brewer, 1992) and the editor of The Abingdon Chronicle, volume 12 in the Collaborative Edi- tion of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (forthcoming). He is also creator of The Beowulf Workstation, a HyperCard application to aid students in studying Beowulf. tion

      On the work of the humanist

    1. remonstrance

      This is a form of protest or a specific document outlining the reasons for protest/opposition, mainly used in political and theological context. Simply put, “the ‘protest’ of the Apostles” refers to disagreements the followers of Jesus had with human law that contradicted or attempted to supersede the rules put in place by God through Jesus as a teacher. These instances are found all throughout scripture, and they always point back to the holiest and highest authority as being the right and just ruler of the people.

    1. dyspeptic

      Normally referring to indigestion, it can also be a synonym for irritability. In this sentence, “with a(n) ‘irritable’ nervousness” would be better phrased as “with anxiousness” or “with distress”.

    2. luny

      A shorter slang version of lunatic, which is an adjective meant to describe insanity or great foolishness. It is a sibling of the more commonly used adjective form of loon or loony. All of these words share an ancestor in luna, a Latin word referencing the moon. Lunacy and thusly lunatic are derived out of the old pseudoscientific belief that the phases of the moon controlled the mental states of man and beast, and these terms grew around this notion.

    1. imperious

      assuming power or authority without justification; arrogant and domineering.

    2. matrix

      This is a very loaded word. So for procreation, Aristotle thought that the man actively imprinted on the passive woman, and one of the definitions for matrix is a "mould in which something, such as a record or printing type, is cast or shaped." (It's also the "cultural, social, or political environment in which something develops.") https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/matrix

      Reading Cixous reminds me of cyberfeminism, which is often about "writing the feminine" through technology. I think VNS Matrix (their manifesto is below) is often considered a pioneer of cyberfeminism.

    3. Let the priests tremble, we're going to show them our sexts!

      I looked at this for a long time. At first I assumed I misread it. Then I laughed a lot. I know she couldn't have known how the word "sext" would change, but it's damn funny.

      On a serious note, though, I assume she meant something like "sexed texts"? As in, texts written in women's writing?

      PS Apparently sext as a noun is "a service forming part of the Divine Office of the Western Christian Church, traditionally said (or chanted) at the sixth hour of the day (i.e., noon)." So now I'm more confused than I was before.

    4. Pe11i.me

      Fancy word for "penis envy," which is a concept that did need a fancy word. Interesting Google results!

    1. This probability—the probability that a score at least as large as the observed score would occur in data drawn according to the null hypothesis—is called the P-value.

      A good description of p-value.

  22. static1.squarespace.com