639 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2016
    1. little regard for motivation in the form of readers’goals, interests, and involvement in the learning experience

      And yet we know from David Sousa that emotion, motivation, and memory are so very connected.

    2. id not focus on identifying and eradicating thesource of readers’ errors. Rather, the goal was to ascertain how the unexpected re-sponses readers produced were reflective of their attempts at meaning-making

      Similar to how instructors identify ways students make miscues and gives insight into how students read. For example, overreliance one system may affect reading comprehension.

    3. e learner was cast in the role of an active par-ticipant, a constructor of meaning who used many forms of information to arriveat comprehension (Halliday, 1969). Learning to read was not so much a matter ofbeing taught, but a matter of arriving at facility as a result of a predisposition toseek understanding within a language-rich environment

      Getting closer to the idea of Louise Rosenblatt and efferent and aesthetic reading.

    4. reading during this period was conceptualized as conditionedbehavior, and just another process susceptible to programming

      Yet we now know that reading is one of the most complex activities we ask of our students.

  2. Aug 2015
    1. work together to protect the open Web

      how exactly?

    2. You cannot learn Web lit-eracy by separating the competencies contained in these strands from the act of doing (I

      Links to the braid of literacy of the chapter we read from Words their way

    3. Learning, especially build-ing the Web, involves constructing new content.

      great thought

    4. Educators and students need the latitude to play, ex-periment, fail, and have fun as they learn these Web literacies

      Gee, chapter 5. He talked about this when he talked about failing at one game and having the motivation to try again.

    5. So long as enough people are contributing to the project, it does not require any one organization or person to be sustainable.

      How do we get more people involved and how do we ensure that their contributions are creditable. I'm not sure if creditable is the word I'm looking for, but definitely in the word family. :-)

    6. This requires collaborating as both a mentor and an apprentice while sharing and creating resources in different spaces

      I like that this was added because people need to realize that we play dual roles. Everyone is an apprentice and everyone can be a mentor. But when you individualize these two ideas, you stop the flow of continued knowledge. No one knows everything and no one is too good to mentor and everyone has something to offer.

    7. allows for creativity everyone can share their ideas

    8. everyone is invited to join Mozilla ’ s #teachtheWeb community to help shape, teach, and make current and future versions of the Web Literacy Map

      I wonder how this process is going? If everyone has the ability to shape, teach, and make current and future versions, how do you navigate or should I say, streamline all these contributions?

    9. prior work in other areas did not al-ways allow for the multiple perspectives

      One of the ongoing barriers. Old ways of knowing. Maintain traditional ways even if it's is no longer the right or best way.

    10. But do all teachers know how to play themselves? I remember being in classes where the teachers were so boring. They had no life or excitement to them, so it made the subject lifeless and boring. I hated those classrooms. I think this begins when teachers are working on becoming teachers. If we have expectations of them prior to them entering into a classroom, we can encourage change.

    11. watches others

      How important is it that we place students in collaborative style classrooms where more advance kids can display good learning techniques? If we put all the smart kids in one class and all the low performing student in another classroom, neither group is fully learning because the perspectives of the others are left out. Furthermore, the lower performing students are only able to "watch" other low performing students.

    12. Seasoned webmakers learn to design accessible online spaces, code web-sites, script programs, and support the open Web infrastructure.

      Interesting.

    13. The Web Literacy Map attempts not to merely understand, but to builda better Web

      This could be so helpful.

    14. He was also asked how teach-ers could bring this into classrooms; how do teach-ers deal with students who learn openly on the Web?

      It will be interesting to see how this gets incorporated more and more into the curriculum over the next few years.

    15. For Garth, these connections formulate how he prefers to teach, learn, and social-ize. He also indicated that he did not find value in the reading and writing activities teachers assigned.

      This shows that in this day and age the use of technology is another mode of learning and teachers need to consider this when they are differentiating.

    16. The skills, strategies, practices, and dispositions students need to locate, evaluate, and synthesize in-formation during problem-based inquiry tasks

      "problem-based inquiry tasks" real, active, meaningful learning - not instruction

    17. literacy as a cultur-ally defined social act

      Reference back to Gee

    18. However, these frame-works have attempted to make sense of the Web us-ing previous metaphors, rather than understanding the explicit affordances of the Web as a networked medium.

      Tried to fit web literacy into the framework of traditional literacy, without taking into account the unique features of web-based texts (and the skills needed to navigate those features)

    19. “Let us play, but guide us.”

      words every teacher should live by

    20. The Web Literacy Map provides a sense- check as well as a global plat-form upon which to build learning pathways. This allows educators to move beyond everyday experi-ence of siloed practice and provides a common lan-guage across time and space. It is an open- source project, meaning that it can be sustained and forked without the permission of the owner.

      I think it is so important to teachers to use the web during class. It shows the students just how easy it is to access information.

    21. Sharing is essential to creating the many small pieces of the Web (Alexander, 2006 )

      Thats why blogging became so popular.

    22. The core belief uniting the community is that exploring, building, and connecting online can never be taught in isolation.

      Each one is intertwined. It is true that each one must be taught in harmony.

    23. The goal is to encourage mentors to align their materials regardless of theory, perspectives, goals, or geography.

      I suppose this makes sense. It would be easier to find information.

    24. Many frameworks, such as digital literacy, media literacy, and information literacy have considered the skills required for the Web.

      This is very true. All my classes require all these skills

    25. A process by which students construct and redesign knowledge by actively encoding and decoding meaning through the use of ever-shifting mul-timodal tools.

      Students are a part of the process. They are the ones making meaning out of the various multimodal tools.

    26. A group of lo-cal or global learners who arrive at a common outcome via multiple pathways of knowledge.

      I love this. It doesn't matter how you get to the outcome, just as long as you get there. There is no "one size fits all" in education.

    27. The three strands of the Web Literacy Map are intertwined.

      Just as core subjects such as language arts, math, science, and social studies should be intertwined.

    28. The community of volunteers, teachers, and industry leaders continue to define and sustain the Map construction and development in the open. In fact, work of the next version has begun, and the com-munity will continue to openly iterate on the map.

      The field of technology is one that is always changing so it is important that we change along with it.

    29. In school he was often dismissed for his creative mind.

      This is hard to believe! We should be promoting creativity in students!

    30. His teachers did not see the value Garth found in exploring, building, and connecting online.

      I think as teacher's become more aware of the importance of web literacy, they will be more likely to support students like Garth.

    1. “always connected”

      misconception that simply because they are able to download apps or use social media that they are fluent with technology

    2. tudents are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      Very true, we have come so far in technology but that is often not reflected in the education world.

    3. Dr. McVerry, 13:40 Yes! We need to support ALL interests; every kid needs to be web literate, but not all kids will find their passion in the web; being web literate can support their passion whatever it might be

    4. dr. mcverry, 11:49 first steps for classroom teachers Thanks!

    5. "the web is a way to shape your life, not have your life shaped for you."

    6. the web is the 2% of literacy that makes the difference

    7. Thanks, Doug Belshaw, for recognizing that you have to meet learners where they are, not force them to meet you at the "cutting edge"

    8. difference between web literacy and digital literacy

    9. "a plurality of literacies" Doug Belshaw

    10. "become producers of the web instead of consumers of the web." Laura Hilliger Personally, this shift is tough for me, but for my kids (both my daughters and students) it's just the way the Web is - a place where people create, connect, and share their ideas

    11. students as teachers, teachers as students we all learn from each other

    12. Garth: "I'll go back to when I was really little." Technology captivates even the youngest of minds.

    13. history’s first generation of “always connected” individuals do not have the knowledge and skills to critically explore, build, and connect online

      Is that us teachers? : )

    14. unlimited amount of online information

      sometimes TOO unlimited!

    1. In classrooms students are segregated by things like grade level, ability, and skills more often than they are mixed together across the whole continuum of these. E

      The mixture is needed to build one's knowledge across all aspects.

    2. eaders are resources

      this does not mean to simply spill everything out to the learner, they will be completely overwhelmed. Guide students through their learning and actively make yourself and resources available to further their engagement in learning.

    3. not necessarily always fit classrooms,

      Hm, I always though of classrooms as little communities of a wider town "the school"

    4. What all this means is that the player learns in the tutorial just enough to move on to learn more—and more subtle things—by actually playing the game, but playing it in a protected way so that deeper learning can occur through playing. T

      Thank you, very difficult for me to understand because I have never played games at all besides Crash Bandicoot, that is it!

    5. earners need to see this type of thing in action, not to be given static rules, if they are really to understand. I

      Often happens,

    6. We see clearly how each piece of information we are given and each skill we are learning (and doing) is interconnected to everything else we are learning and doing. W

      Gradually, education is becoming so rushed there is no time for the learner to connect the pieces to understand

    7. earning differs from individual to individual, so we need to base our discussions of learning around actual cases of actual people learning. Thi

      not seen through standardization.

    8. ith the current return in our schools to skill-and-drill and curricula driven by standardized tests, good learning principles have, more and more, been left on the cognitive scientist’s laboratory bench and, I will argue, inside good computer and video games

      Yes, focused to much on the skill-and-drill where are the students learning? Where are the hands on? Why are children now OWNING their learning as they do with games. The fun is missing, the adventure, the questioning.

    9. ther it is about communicating perspectives on experience and action in the world,

      links to students having to defend their thinking or reasoning.

    10. or humans, language, perception (including emotion), and action in the world are all tightly connected together.

      Yes, body language for texts also play a role I believe in how words are understood

    11. I am playing a game when I am being an academic, because I need to make certain sorts of moves to get recognized as being an academic, For example, I have to write and talk in a certain way. I

      We all play the game. Academics is one language, home is another language, with friends is another language. Our language is constantly changing based on the audience.

    12. Yes. The best way to learn is trial and error.

    13. But once you have one set of links relating various items and actions in your mind, another drops out just as you need it and you’re back to turning pages.

      I have done this a few times

    14. he only realistic chance students with poor vocabularies have to catch up to their peers with rich vocabularies requires that they engage in extraordinary amounts of independent reading. F

      Gee is confusing me. I understand he is stating various researchers finding but what is he getting at?

    15. ultural learning always involves having specific experiences that facilitate learning, not just memorizing words.

      their life experiences don't stop at the door, they are brought into the classroom

    16. In an affinity space no one is stopped from gaining intensive knowledge because someone else thinks they are “my low students” or “struggling.”

      It is important that students realize that everyone has strengths and weakness and different needs.

    17. Furthermore, rarely is the core generator (e.g. the textbook or the curriculum guide) modified (“patched”) in an ongoing way based on student desires, pleasures, displeasures, actions, and interactions.

      Important to take students interests into consideration.

    18. pick up these practices through joint action with more advanced peers, and advance their abilities to engage and work with others in carrying out such practices

      The advantages of heterogenous groupings!

    19. Computer and video games have a built-in advantage in the creation of motivation for an extended engagemen

      Agreed, but this sort of engagement can be integrated into the classroom.

    20. Shortening and dumbing games down is not an option, since most avid players don’t want short or easy games.

      YES! the same thought should apply when teaching those young or struggling readers.

    21. There are spaces that are mixtures of the real and the virtual, such as a meeting in which some people are physically together in a room and others are interacting with the group via the Internet or over a video conferencing system.

      I like that Gee points out that there are many different ways for people to interact in our world today.

    22. let me collect together here in a list some of the learning principles that are built into RoN and reflected in my interaction with the game.

      This appears to be a complicated way to view the process.

    23. Children play games early in life to prepare themselves for real life.

      This is true, but once exposed to the academic environment, this is often forgotten.

    24. Research has long shown that people with poor vocabularies are poor readers.

      Which is why vocabulary instruction is essential!

    25. they learn through action and talk with others, not by memorizing words outside their contexts of application

      Action coupled with learning is key!

    26. extensive and not intensive

      breadth, not depth - something Common Core was supposed to "cure"

    27. he best-known efforts here perhaps were Ann Brown and Joseph Campione’s classroom “learning communities” (see Brown 1994 for an overview)

      Note the date - we are over 20 years removed from the best-known example of "affinity spaces"

    28. If we start by talking about spaces rather than “communities,” we can then go on and ask to what extent the people interacting within a space, or some subgroup of them, do or do not actually form a community.

      communities imply inherent exclusion, while spaces are more inclusive? there can be community within a space, but not necessarily for all there? it is a fact of life that sometimes you will be art of a group, sometimes you will not. I'm not sure where Gee is going with this.

    29. i.e. what they do there and what they get from that space (e.g. import or export from it).

      but isn't this just another way of grouping (and ultimately) labeling people?

    30. At the very least they may demand an argument for “Why school?”

      Unfortunately, we have kids saying this phrase often. Gee's take on affinity spaces may be what schools need to recapture our student's interest.

    31. In an affinity space no one is stopped from gaining intensive knowledge because someone else thinks they are “my low students” or “struggling.”

      We should hold high expectations for all of our students and give them the opportunities to gain any type of knowledge.

    32. and race, class, gender, and disability are often much more foregrounded than they are in an affinity space

      Definitely!

    33. They involved the use of multiple sorts of mediating devices (computers and email to outside experts), distributed knowledge as students worked in teams with those mediating devices, dispersed knowledge as students drew on expertise outside the classroom, intensive knowledge as individual students chose to “major” in some aspect of the curriculum and help other students in that respect, and extensive shared knowledge as the students taught each other different parts of a common curriculum (via the jigsaw method, Aronson 1978).

      This sounds like a very effective learning environment!

    34. Businesses in the new capitalist era (Gee et al. 1996) of cross-functional, dispersed, networked teams and project-based work often seek to create affinity spaces to motivate, organize, and resource their “partners” (they seek to avoid the term “worker” which implies a traditional boss-worker relationship in which one party “bosses” the other).

      This is interesting to read. I like the term "partners" as it reflects that learning is experienced by both individuals.

    35. This feeling of the game being highly challenging, but ultimately doable, gives rise to a feeling of pleasurable frustration, one of the great joys of both deep learning and good gaming.

      We need to push students just outside of their comfort zone in order to experience this "pleasurable frustration."

    36. The Quick Start tutorial is a sandbox. The sandbox feels like the real world to a child, but is guaranteed not to destroy the child’s trust and ego before he or she is strong enough to face more significant challenges.

      The failure that some students experience in school can destroy their trust and ego. Unfortunately these students will be unlikely to meet the growing demands of their school work as a result of this failure.

    37. This is all “at risk” needs to mean in schools too, though there it often means giving “at-risk” learners a special dumbed-down curriculum meant to catch them up on “basic skills”—a curriculum that all too often is a bad learning experience for these students.

      Very true!

    38. So when I say it was “too hard,” what I really mean is that I failed to engage with it in a way that fully recruited its solid design and learning principles.

      This can definitely be related back to the classroom!

    39. In the end, I hope to convince you that today’s young people often see deeper and better forms of learning going on in the games they play than in the schools they attend.

      This is kind of scary.....

    40. How do children learn how words and grammar line up to express particular perspectives on experience? Here, interactive, intersubjective dialogue with more advanced peers and adults appears to be crucial.

      Another example of the importance of high-level conversations between parents and their children.

    41. Even words that seem so clearly to have clear definitions, like the word “bachelor” that we used as an example at the beginning of this section, do not. Meaning is not about definitions, it is about simulations of experience.

      I like the example Gee gives below. Our experience with the word "bachelor" could vary.Therefore we could construct different meanings of that sentence based on the experiences we had with the word bachelor."

    42. If the player waits, the tutorial prints a hint about what to do on the top left of the screen and says the hint orally and explains what it means. There are also, from time to time, remarks about how the game works: for example, the remark above about how to see more of the map. The tutorial is a nice dance of the player’s actions and designers’ guidance and instructions

      scaffolding

    43. “winners”, i.e. people who can repeat back verbal details they remember well when they don’t fully understand them in any practical way.

      and often times these details are memorized for a short span of time (until a test is given) and once that test is over, the information disappears. This is not an effective process.

    44. Such literal understandings are precisely what kids who fuel the fourth-grade slump have.

      These students can "read" the words, but they are not gathering meaning from them because they are not being "experienced."

    45. knowing the general meaning is nearly worthless, unless you can recognize the word’s applications in specific cases.

      Agreed. Words can take on many different meaning depending on the situation.

    46. So, poor readers cannot become good ones unless they improve their vocabularies. They can’t improve their vocabularies unless they read a lot, but reading a lot is not a particularly effective way to increase one’s vocabulary. So what, for heaven’s sake, can be done? Are poor readers just fated to stay poor readers?

      It's not looking too good at this point.... I'm interested to see what Gee will suggest.

    47. production of cakes within the family,

      all linked back to her grandmother birthday falling on friday the 13th

    48. rganization in Leona’s story

      evident

    49. hese new technologies and media may well recruit forms of thinking, interacting, and valuing that are quite different from—and, again, more compelling and motivating than—those children find in today’s schools.
    50. is just such texts that children who experience the fourth-grade slump have trouble reading, fo

      CC has noticed this pitfall and built much more informational texts into the primary years.

    51. Second, she adopts a frame that mimics story book reading as it is often done by teachers and other teacherly adults: “

      students are aware of the components.

    52. nteractive slot-and-filler activity centered around adding more and more descriptive and lexically explicit detail around a single topic.

      Intriguing.

    53. Any variety of a language uses certain patterns of resources, and to know the language you have to be able to recognize and use these patterns. T

      Not only learn the skill but use the skill daily to build on vocabulary

    54. ways with words” th

      using the vocabulary in daily conversations

    55. He is at the beginning of an apprenticeship that some children don’t seriously start until the later grades, when the academic-like demands made on their reading, writing, and listening skills swamp them

      This is so important to start early to prevent that swamp of information.

    56. sters (physicists) allow learners to collaborate with them on projects that the learners could not carry out on their own.

      building a culture of era in which learners feel safe making and discussing mistakes.

    57. instructed process.”

      students are not doing enough heavy lifting of their own learning -- they are able to with pokemon cards because they have to figure out and be coached or guided on how to advance pokemon figures to the next stage -- almost as if we are crippling the students ability to learn because we think they can't do it when in fact they can

    58. we need to spend billions of dollars on government-sponsored reading initiatives (l

      too many chiefs not enough Indians

    59. t the majority are poor or come from minority groups whose members have faced a history of prejudice and oppression (

      I wonder if it is because the resources are not available or strategies are not continously practiced in the home

    1. f some of the students are already making well-founded predictions regularly, they do not need this instruction.

      mini-lesson for those struggling

    2. found that an interactional read-aloud style resulted in greater gains in amount of vocabulary and reading compre-hension across both grade levels.

      the activities that are built within read alouds truly drives students comprehension and vocabulary

    3. present information again.

      visual, in a new form in which a different style learner may be able to better comprehend due to the way information is differently represented.

    4. graphic organizers,

      forever and always the best tool, haven't heard anyone critic this yet

    5. ecome set in stone.

      a lesson is not set in stone which I think teachers focus to much on. A lesson is a guide of the content, within the lesson should be areas of misconceptions that may need to be addressed or questions to be asked (but do not have to be asked)

    6. who provide explicit teaching but expect students to independently apply strategies too soon.

      no, do the opposite

    7. will ask each of you to stop and make a prediction. We will talk about your predictions and then read on to see if they come true.”

      I've always enjoyed this

    8. o accomplish this goal, students are engaged in reading and writing daily, all in the service of learning about the con-ceptual theme

      What learning is all about cross-curricular but requires teachers to be all on the same page. Active communication!!!

    9. didn’t do this using interesting texts alone.

      well I mean yes I knew to use interesting text and I knew you weren't going to stick just to that

    10. qually as important are informational genres, whose primary purpose is to convey information about the natural or social world (

      especially since we are pushing for college ready students in which 95% of texts are informational

    11. In addition to volume as an influencing factor, the quality and range of books to which students are exposed (e.g., electronic texts, leveled books, student/teacher published work) has a strong relationship with students’ reading comprehension

      How in urban communities when they are given year old texts that libraries do not want. I mean a book is a book, meaning can be gathered no matter what. However, there is a difference of knowledge within newer and older books for young children.

    12. Thus, skilled readers are more readily able to integrate broader arrays of relevant elements from the text base and bring wider and deeper knowl-edge to the task of constructing a situation model.

      Less skilled readers can learn much from their skilled reader peers. Some may not agree, but I do believe that in discussion there should be all level readers involved within a small group discussion to be able to hear the wider and deeper knowledge of the high skilled reader peers to build on the low skilled readers knowledge

    13. These new constructs will modify or replace those currently in long-term memory.

      metacognition

    14. read closely to determine what the text says explicitly”

      a difficult task for many students to read between the lines

    15. Engage students in discussion.

      Pose one question, a "meaty" question and have students interact with each other.

    16. trong teach-ers of reading comprehension for two consecutive years.

      consistency, rare within urban school districts

    17. If learning to read effectively is a journey toward ever-increasing ability to comprehend texts, then teachers are the tour guides, ensuring that students stay on course, pausing to make sure they appreciate the landscape of understanding, and encouraging the occasional diversion down an inviting and interesting cul-de-sac or byway.

      Yes! I love how this is put, I have been saying students should de the heavy lifting and the teachers are their guide.

    18. comprehension instruc-tion be conducted in small groups or individually based on students’ needs

      It's ok for each group to be working on a different strategy

    19. The model we recommend for teaching any comprehension strategy is the gradual release of responsibility

      Students become more and more independent.

    20. teachers were assigned at random to introduce a set of strategies briefly and then quickly move students to applying or juggling multiple strategies simultaneously, which resulted in students with stronger performance on some measures.

      I never thought to do it that way, sounds a little overwhelming!

    21. For example, it is a rare day when a book about shark attacks or one by Steven Jenkins does not garner great interest in many students.

      I personally always found non-fiction texts to be very low-interest!

    22. teachers will have to employ a variety of instructional strategies, such as partner reading and collaborative strategy use, to pro-vide the extra measure of scaffolding needed to support students’ com-prehension of more challenging text

      It is possible for students to read texts above their level if the right supports are in place.

    23. In providing exposure to a range of texts, one important dimension to consider is the genre of the text, particularly its communicative purpose.

      This is something I need to do more of. It is important for students to learn genre features and strategies for comprehending specific genres. And it's important for students to learn what their reading likes/dislikes are.

    24. replaces literacy instruction with a two-hour block of inte-grated science–literacy instruction.

      I think this is a great idea. I hate how teaching science has become a "when I get to it" kind of thing. It's not prioritized because it's not tested as heavily as math and ELA.

    25. comprehension of the expository text, in contrast to the narrative text, was significantly related to the student’s amount of world knowledge

      I have had students who comprehend expository better but I always thought it was because expository is more concrete and requires less inferencing.

    26. Skilled readers are also more motivated and engaged readers, reading more actively and more voluminously, thus further developing their knowledge and skill

      We have to make sure all kids feel confident in their ability to read.

    27. integration of the text base with relevant prior knowledge from readers’ store of knowledge in long-term memory.

      Teachers have to activate prior knowledge.

    28. We use our knowledge of the world, along with our knowledge of how language and text work, to make all the local inferences required to connect the sentences to one another—to build, if you will, a coherent representation of what the text says.

      Inferencing is critical to reading comp.

    29. A Tool for Evaluating Your Fostering and Teaching of Reading Comprehension

      This is a great tool for teachers to use to self evaluate their own teachings.

    30. 1) when, why, and how to apply strategies, and (2) that by being able to pull out just the right tool to get over a hurdle at just the right moment, students become smarter, more effective, and more strategic readers.

      Such a hard concept to teach students, but an important one!

    31. We certainly want readers to have opportunities to read texts that are not difficult for them, but we also want readers to have access to texts that challenge them.

      This is my standing on leveled books. Yes we should have leveled books but students should also have the freedom to read something for enjoyment!

    32. n providing exposure to a range of texts, one important dimension to consider is the genre of the text, particularly its communicative purpose.

      Great description of the importance of each genre.

    33. Figure 3.3. A Tool for Evaluating Your Fostering and Teaching of Reading Comprehension

      I like the idea of this quick reference checklist to help assure all elements of reading comprehension are included in instruction.

    34. Results showed that students in classrooms in which teachers administered the assessment showed greater growth as measured by the comprehension assessment as well as by an assessment of informational writing; this transfer effect is important because it sug-gests that what students learned was not driven by narrowly teaching to the test.

      While this is limited research, it supports what most teachers know about instruction and assessment, but lack the time to practice it.

    35. Vocabulary impacts comprehension.• It is learned incidentally while reading and listening to books.• Repeated exposure, especially in different contexts, is the key to learning word meanings.• Prereading instruction of keywords can be helpful.• Computerized programs seem to increase vocabulary knowledge

      Great teaching points to keep in mind!

    36. one reader might have strong prior knowledge related to a text that compensates for relatively poor clarifying and fix-up strategies, whereas another reader might have weak prior knowledge related to a text but make up for it by using a variety of strategies that help build meaning in such circumstances.

      All students must be assessed differently due to strengths and weakness

    37. Provide Exposure to a Volume and Range of Texts

      Children get bored with the same materials, mix it up

    38. Prior knowledge helps so much in the world of comprehension because you are activating what you already know, and connecting it with something you are just learning.

    39. we use our knowledge along with our perceptions of what we think the text says to literally build, or construct, mental representations of what the text means.

      This is how I learned to comprehend texts. Mental representations allows me to picture what is actually taking place. I'm a kinesthetic learning. I rather be hands on, therefore I have to invent some type of image.

    40. I think the release model is most effective in a classroom. It makes students become responsible for their learning if done properly.

    41. When phonics rules or strategies become their own goals, the system runs amok.

      When assessment is conducted based on spontaneous, independent use of strategies to solve problems and answer questions, it provides a better indicator as to where a student stands with their comprehension.

    42. if taught, they improve reading comprehension

      Specific reading comprehension strategies should be taught so readers have a "tool box" to draw upon when reading.

    43. Think of interest as a compensatory factor, one that can get the job done when the text is extra challenging or the stu-dent’s skill level is not quite up to the task

      This sounds like a great way to challenge readers...whether they're aware or not! Also, a great way to boost confidence.

    44. When stu-dents read on the topic of reported interest to them, whether working animals or robotics, they employed a greater number and range of com-prehension processes. This tells us that if our goal is to stretch students’ comprehension muscles, we should provide them with texts of interest.

      I know this is true for me as well. If I'm interested in the topic, my comprehension is much better compared to something I don't find quite as interesting. This doesn't mean that text that isn't as interesting isn't required reading or shouldn't be read, but I do think the more experience readers have with text of interest (thus using comprehension strategies), the larger the bank to draw upon when reading text that isn't as interesting.

    45. Reading motivation is fostered by complex interactions of text topics and text characteristics, classroom social norms, and instruc-tional practices (

      Based on my experiences, this seems like the hardest component to "teach" to students who lack motivation and interest when it comes to reading...or any topic for that matter. I often wonder is it possible to teach motivation?

    1. nasals.

      If you have never tried sounding out words and really paying attention to what your lips, teeth, nose, and throat do I highly suggest it.

    2. Given that fis a much more familiar letter, stu-dents often choose it to represent the /v/ sound. Ne

      I have seen this in student writing. I find it very interesting to examine students spelling when they are semi-phonetic because they are spelling how it sounds, they haven't really learned vowels and those are usually omitted because they are in the middle of the word and the students are so focused on the initial and ending sound.

    3. Students need hands-on experience comparing and contrasting words by soundso that they can categorize similar sounds and associate them consistently with let-ters and letter combinations. T

      This is so important that I feel sometimes is overlooked through a worksheet. Worksheets are good but they need to align to your objective

    4. eated practice. Un

      Practice does make you better at something but if the students are not understanding what they are doing then the practice just becomes memorization which we do not want

    5. Even more words areacquired when they are explicitly examined to discover the orthographic relationshipsamong words—their sounds, spelling patterns, and meaning

      Goes along with what we've been reading on how to teach vocabulary not through individual words but how they are written.

    6. Love the twofold word study method. Can't wait to use it.

    7. synchronyof reading, writing, andspelling development

      I do see how encoding helps with decoding, but I did have a student last year who was fantastic at spelling but struggled with reading because of comprehension. Just seemed like a bit of an overgeneralization because reading involves more than just decoding.

    8. Knowing the stage of spelling of each of your students will determine your choices of ap-propriate word study activities.

      Hm, I have all my students do the same activities just with different sets of words.

    9. Sim-ply put, we must teach to where a child “is at.”

      Must be challenging but not frustrating. "Disequilibrium"

    10. One unique quality of word study as we describe it lies in what we believeis the critical role of differentiating instruction for different levels of word knowledge.

      Students take a spelling inventory that clearly shows where each student is at and the teacher can form groups accordingly.

    11. The purpose of word study, then, is to examine words in order to reveal consistencieswithin our written language system and to help students master the recognition,spelling, and meaning of specific words.

      The program does highlight high-frequency words and emphasizes homophones.

    12. The most effective instruction in phonics, spelling, and vo-cabulary links word study to the texts being read, provides a systematic scope and se-quence of word-level skills, and provides multiple opportunities for hands-on practiceand application.

      We use Words Their Way at my school and I agree that it does have a logical scope/sequence, provides plenty of hands-on practice, and it is helpful for the students to read the words in context.

    13. Designing a word studyprogram that explicitly teaches students necessary skills and engages their interest andmotivation to learn about how words work is a vital aspect of any literacy program.

      Must be fun, but also effective.

    14. differentiate

      This is probably my favorite part of Words Their Way, easily differentiated.

    15. During word study, words and pictures are sorted in routines that re-quire children to examine, discriminate, and make critical judgmentsabout speech sounds, word structures, spelling patterns, and meanings.

      They're doing so much more than just memorizing a list of words.

    16. We believethat this word study is well worth the 10 to 15 minutes of time daily.

      A common complaint heard around my school is that 10-15 min is not realistic.

    17. students expand their vocabularies by comparing one concept with another.

      schema

    18. Students need hands-on opportunities to manipulate word features in a way that al-lows them to generalize beyond isolated, individual examples to entire groups of wordsthat are spelled the same way

      Students can apply their learning to words not on their "list". The spelling test often includes words they fit the pattern but weren't studied throughout the week.

    1. One key reason for this failure is linguistic. In school, words often take on meaning only in terms of yet other words.

      very difficult for ELL's

    2. ore advantaged learners have a problem as well (B

      but are we just going to focus on them? no.

    3. ll children,

      ALL CHILDREN!!!!!!! Low income families I feel weren't well addressed within this article. Unless, it is coming.

    4. he literacy skills now necessary to succeed in the 21st century must go beyond decoding and literal meaning to the ability to draw inferences from complex academic texts and use such texts as resources to solve problems,

      I am unsure of what more they are asking?

    5. The young girl becomes a “prosumer

      Students have to build character skills to have motivation to do something like this young girl.

    6. The most important issues are how this time is spent, how the technology is or is not built into a good learning system, whether good mentors are involved, and how the technology is being related to other technologies and other areas of learning.

      Exactly.

    7. his can transform our traditional notions of assessment. W

      Yet, these students who are savvy in the virtual world are going to be assessed and labeled based on the literacy world and incapable? Or no?

    8. What exactly is the connection between digital media, on the one hand, and literacy, content learning, and complex academic language, on the other?

      My question exactly!

    9. he old reading gap can only worsen as the high-tech digital world makes larger and more complex demands on literacy and content learning. A

      Interesting never thought about

    10. digital gap, between those students who can leverage technical skills and technological “know-how” to learn content, produce knowledge, and develop high-level expertise, and those who cannot (

      Unfortunately, low income communities are unable to have technology available.

    11. Many students today, especially from low-income families, do not get the sorts of early language-based preparation for schooling that we have just discussed.

      Yes, the transfer of vocabulary from school to home is just not occurring because the parents of these students do not understand the vocabulary themselves!

    12. oundations are laid for meeting the demands of comprehending and using academic language connected to content. If

      Yes, learning to read

    13. ot just to settle for the ability “to read to learn” s

      Students need to read to learn. How are they to comprehend anything if they can't make meaning from the text

    14. If children cannot read well, they can hardly master new digital tools to innovate in knowledge domains —

      Or read for understanding.Students can't comprehend the text at all.

    15. any of our schools into test-prep academies focused on assessing standardized skill sets

      This is what annoys me most about education.

    16. Today that proportion has fallen to 14 percent and is continuing to fall (

      What are we doing as a country to prevent this number from falling other than continuously rewriting standards?

    17. en today’s U.S. students enter tomorrow’s workforce they will face intense international competition for jobs at every skill lev

      Shouldn't we teach more languages within our schools to work with these countries?

    18. it also requires the ability to infer the meaning of unfamiliar words and, eventually, to infer meaning from patterns of information

      Links to what the videos were saying about teaching vocabulary. Not about the individual words but how to derive the meaning of unfamiliar words through word families or context clues

    19. We must more proactively integrate language, literacy, and content learning in the early grades and, indeed, later on, as well.

      I have noticed that even secondary educators are being required to take classes on literacy in the content areas now.

    20. Let them, beginning at an early age, play the game of one or more of these professions.

      I just wonder where that fits into already tight schedules.

    21. Indeed, the Internet requires a good deal of technical reading for a student to fully leverage its possibilities for learning and knowledge production, or even to access, assess, and modify the plethora of information it makes available

      I wasn't totally convinced of the connection--I've had students who are great with navigating technology but low readers, but this makes sense.

    22. But such “catch-up” interventions, which immerse children in school-based language as it applies to the world and to problem-solving, must continue from kindergarten through middle school to be effective

      I always thought of language interventions as early elementary, important to remember that they can't stop there!

    23. It means being able to use such facts and information, as well as various technologies and practices, to solve problems.

      Important that students are not just learning facts and information.

    24. “Tier 2 words”

      These are what we want to instruct.

    25. This breadth of vocabulary is created by parents talking to children, answering their questions, reading to them, modeling their own pleasure in reading, and offering their children a wide variety of experiences in the world.

      How can we portray the importance of these to parents?

    1. Although reading had long been a basic com-ponent of formal schooling in the United States, there was little concerted effort tomarry research knowledge and instructional practice until much later in the 20thcentury.

      Interesting.

    2. reading has periodically responded to internal and externalforces resulting in both gradual and dramatic transformations to the domain—transformations that have altered reading study and practice

      I never thought about how much reading is impacted and has changed over the years.

    1. Activities with onset-rime manipulation

      Great way to teach this, I have noticed this is a trickier one to explain.

    2. ow Many Syllables in a Name?

      Great way to teach clapping to determine syllables.

    3. users of an alphabetic written systemrecord the smallest units of sound of their spokenlanguage in print