2,275 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2016
    1. exactly what I have no interest in doing

      In being so analytical about possible moves and outcomes that you disconnect from the flow of game play?

    2. I took one of them and tossed it under the table, telling her not to worry about it. Problem solved.

      I love this cheat, this is just awesome.

    3. In these instances, and in the case of playing 7 Wonders, I eventually got really bored and stopped listening.

      Sounds like the worst of schooling!

    4. I have found that I am more successful being taught one-on-one.

      I presume this applies to both games and other learning experiences, too.

    5. Accumulating resources quickly enough to buy materials and to be able to build was the only strategy that I could discern.

      I'm curious about how you would evaluate this observation after playing this game three or four times.

    6. civilization

      Indeed, sounds very similar to the video game Civilization series.

    7. but I understand the basic premise as well as the components of play, even if I'm not yet able to grasp any strategies that would help me to win.

      sounds like graduate school!

    1. After all, not being able to make a living or pay your rent isn't necessarily romantic, glamorous or emancipating.

      Indeed. Powerful post Susan, thanks for sharing.

    2. Some scholars emphasize that mainstream notions of design and play value ideals that are actually quite gendered: difficulty, complexity, time-consuming play that is "hardcore" and inherently masculine:

      This is a very nice critique!

    3. Popularity, however, can be defined by a variety of measures.

      Right... didn't we all learn this in high school?! .... I'm kind of not joking...

    4. and pretty mundane

      Although I know of a few Twine games that are very provocative... I recall one included in a colleague's research project that relieved the experiences of a veteran from the latest Iraq war. It was rather brutal - in both its honesty and explicit violence... not sure it's public, but it made for a rather compelling research case.

    5. the tutorial itself playfully congratulates users on being "radical".

      Nice, right?!

    6. queering takes place when the definition of success is expanded and altered to encompass different ideas and possibilities, including what some might consider failure.

      This is helpful to learn... and so Harvey is applying Halberstam's definition to game design?

    7. to the "queering of game design" to mean measures of success that are alternative to money, scalability, popularity, name recognition, awards, and other trappings of what traditionally constitutes success.

      So help me and other readers out here. "Queering" is being used as an adverb, as a means of describing an action that changes how to both practice and conceptualize game design?

    8. the risk of economic hardship and delegitimization increases the more an activity operates outside of conventional norms.

      Yes, is someone creating a game as an act of resistance, as an aesthetic form of resistance against social norms... or to make some money... or maybe both?

    9. a free, open, accessible game design platform such as Twine encourages users to expand - or democratize - the definition of what games are, who they are for, and how they can be created.

      Wow, this sounds like a very compelling analysis. I'll likely read her article!

    10. using the application Twine

      There is such awesome game design happening in Twine! Even Stephen Colbert created a game in Twine.

    11. dedicating a volume of GAME to subcultures

      Was this a special issue of the journal?

    1. when one must learn a game in order to learn the topic being studied

      Interesting... I'm often pretty averse to games that are designed specifically to teach a given topic or concept.

    2. I even sent a couple of questions through twitter that were quickly answered.

      As you've seen through my own Twitter interactions, I do this regularly with various academic communities. It keeps me grounded and connected to many people who have wonderful knowledge and resources, and are more often than not willing to share.

    3. by how enjoyable the experience of playing Exploding Kittens with my professor and classmates was

      That's wonderful to learn! I know it was a challenge to connect the folks in Denver with people online in other locations, though I'm glad you found it enjoyable!

    4. and it’s a bit too early to come to any conclusions

      It is, and I both encourage and support what I call your healthy skepticism. As you no doubt noted in Cycle 3, I too bring a very skeptical orientation to flash-in-the-pan trends like gamification. And having some caution about game-based learning - more generally - is very welcome.

    5. one must admit that their emotional state affects their ability to learn

      Absolutely. And so, too, a safety and a sense of belonging.

    6. it seems we teach in ways that have the opposite effect.

      Such as...? And, if such practices persist in our course, will you please let me know?

    7. and we read quite a bit about language acquisition and learner anxiety, including Krashen’s Affective Filter hypothesis (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 106).

      I see... so your orientation toward decreasing learning anxiety is a direct reflection of your prior experiences in a course. Did this teacher mention other benefits to game-based learning?

    8. decreasing learning anxiety

      This seems like a really specific rationale for investigating the relationship between games and learning. Aside from decreasing anxiety, does your interest in games and learning concern other dynamics or possibilities?

    9. as I don’t have a desire to play games

      Really? That is fascinating for me to read. Perhaps that's because I've always enjoyed games specifically, and playfulness more generally. Can you recall a time when you did desire to play games? And if so, what changed?

    1. And that is “In the best teams, members listen to one another and show sensitivity to feelings and needs.”

      I'll second that!

    2. to relax and be themselves.

      This is interesting... if someone can "be themselves" in a work setting, does that mean that the social norms of the work environment are malleable, and that they conform to the needs of the individual, meeting various people's needs?

    3. Effective team members were skilled at intuiting how others felt by tone of voice, as well

      And probably not interrupting one another during meetings! I'm amazed at how frequently colleagues interrupt people, especially their bosses! It drives me crazy, and - I would presume - impacts the health of a team (such as a group of faculty).

    4. Healthy group norms include good communication and empathy

      These are also core principles that guide various approaches to design work (and research) in education.

    5. including work and social activities

      Isn't it interesting how our work lives and our social lives are so intertwined? For an individually-oriented society like that found in America, we sure to make work our life...

    6. to yet another collective is a bit confusing.

      Of course, what if we lived in a collective - rather than individually-oriented - society, such as that found in Japan?

    7. permitting me the latitude to have a go at it.

      Go for it! As I mentioned via Twitter (yes?), this whole special issue from the NYTimes on team was really well written and researched. Much more academic than a typical piece of everyday news. And, most importantly, your learning in our course should interest-driven.

    8. and just refused to turn me loose

      I like the image of a reading, a text, refusing to turn you - the reader - loose. Nice hook!

    1. the same idea may be true for humans: if we expose our brains to a broader range of spaces and richer experiences, we can improve our cognition and even slow its eventual decline.
    2. how people who play video games might actually be much better at some tasks than those who don’t.

      I can see this. Has anyone every seen the professionals who play Starcraft? It's amazing to see how quickly their hands move in coordination, and the brain activity that must go along with it. Starcraft Youtube Video

    3. Right now, Clemenson and his colleagues are testing how gaming could help aging populations slow cognitive decline. Using games like Minecraft and Super Mario 3D World, they’re hoping to find out whether video games that give players a virtual version of “environment enrichment” can do just as much as the real thing.

      A very nobel endeavor!

    4. Angry Birds (a 2D game) or Super Mario 3D World (a 3D game), while a third group played nothing

      Not only 2D versus 3D but entirely different games and one wonders what the third group, who played nothing, was doing while the others played. Just a thought.

    1. I am now examining my son more closely as he “learns through play” and trying to somehow relate this to learning as an adult.

      Wonderful Lisa, I appreciate that you've shared this with us!

    2. I already have my article picked out for my critique and it examines the use of a board game on the administrative side academia

      Awesome, I'm looking forward to reading your critique.

    3. maybe I need to rethink my gamification, and turn it into an actual game

      Yeah, that sounds like an approach I would support...

    4. however I still want to learn if we can apply these principles to other disciplines such as STEAM.

      Yes, absolutely. I think the special OTH issue shared above will have many promising examples.

    5. How do we use games in higher education?

      A few folks are asking a similar question. Dig in here. And let me know what articles you'd like - I have access to them all.

    6. I’ve experienced joy in pride in teaching others to play my favorite game, frustrations in learning a new game and getting most of the rules wrong, and observing others learn from each other in a casual setting.

      Despite the frustration, this is a really nice range of experiences and I'm glad you've already had those various playful learning experiences in such a short period of time.

    7. I’ll try again next year.

      Yeah, stick with it! Shouldn't a director of a daycare be all about play?!?!

    8. and I hope I contributed to them

      You certainly contributed to my meaningful engagement in the chat!

    9. I was very uncomfortable in the first Twitter chat that I joined.

      Yeah, me too! And, honestly, I still am with many - they're too fast, too superficial, or just kind of boring. When I find a chat I really like, I dig in. Otherwise, I tend to walk away and not return. Kind of like an affinity space...

    10. Frequent interactions with my classmates allowed me to tap into their expertise, and learn from them as well as learning from the text.

      Great to learn, I appreciate you sharing this!

    11. because the game is just not that engaging for me.

      This is nice to learn. I wonder if you'll find a video game - perhaps through our shared play - that will spark such a moment for you. Maybe... or maybe not.

    12. they were simply learning tools

      So what is a learning tool? That's a very serious question, and one that drives to the heart of this course.

    1. but it was obvious that the game designers felt like the girl character needed to be showing more skin / sexuality than the boy


    2. and why is this so obvious in a game directed at such a young audience?

      Which raises other questions about a "hidden curriculum" taught to young girls/players. Should a parent purchase this game for their child, knowing a daughter might receive this type of messaging?

    3. I noticed that the female non-playable characters were all wearing short skirts, while the male non-playable characters wore long pants

      Had you ever noticed this before, or were you more aware of these design and aesthetic choices because of our Cycle 4 readings?

    4. While playing the game I remained cognizant of how female characters were being portrayed.

      I appreciate the influence that our Cycle 4 readings are having on your play - I'm glad this is happening.

    5. a Pokémon type chart

      I've never seen such a chart before. Gee has written extensively about the literacies necessary to play Pokemon well. This is a brilliant example that deep knowledge is required to play, and to play well.

    6. This game had something new that others didn’t, it lets you know when you’ve acquired all the Pokémon on a certain route. I could not continue until I caught them all.

      What does this help you to understand about your own motivation and investment in game play? And what specific mechanics were designed here to create this type of effective and immersive experience?

    7. mostly because of this week’s reading topic


    8. In spirit of Pokémon’s 20th anniversary (February 27, 2016) I am playing Pokémon Alpha Sapphire on a Nintendo 3DS for this cycle’s play journal.

      This is so awesome - you win.

    1. are proven educational effectiveness and overall impact on student learning outcomes.

      Yes, a point and debate we'll address in a subsequent cycle. "Measuring impact" is a very contested idea, and we'll try to parse and understand what does and doesn't count as evidence of student learning, and how this data is being marshaled to support decisions around game-based learning in schools.

    2. of the transfer of knowledge

      And there are many - both those providing evidence (to varying degrees) that educational media like games can support transfer, and many that say the evidence is weak or disconfirming.

    3. This would align with the assumed character/ narrative that exists.

      Can you tell me/us a little bit more about this? I'm a bit confused...

    4. Just the observation of a child using another skilled player as a resource as opposed to utilizing the programs "tutorial", gives the player more control over how she learns to play the game, rather be directed by the software.

      Alternatively, there may also be an "ecology" of resources and relations - peers, tutorials, designed features of play, other written resources like Wikis - that collectively support deep play and (ideally) learning.

    5. How this question is answered could, in a sense, direct the overall development of the educational gaming market.

      If this is a dynamic that you're interesting in exploring (which I think is great, by the way), please focus future scholarly critiques on articles that directly address this concern.

    6. to applied practice in the classroom

      Or even to less formal problem posing and solving in everyday aspects of their lives... yes?

    7. "Bring Your own Device" policies at school.

      There's an interesting set of questions and tensions between BYOD and equity. Does it facilitate greater equity if schools allow students to bring their own devices? What if some students don't have devices? In that case, is it more equitable to buy into 1:1 programs?

    1. If gaming literacies, levels the playing friend, providing equitable learning opportunities, how can we more effectively recruit students to be apart of that team?

      Another powerful question... what do others think?

    2. What are the ongoing implications of STEM/ STEAM development using gaming principles in the classroom?

      This is an awesome question and one that we'll explore in specific detail later this term when we look at educators as game designers.

    3. tudents in the "clubhouse" likely were able to work with one another to support them.

      They did. It's a very social, interactive, some might even say playful learning environment.

    4. STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and math) studies in the K-12 arena

      Awesome, me too. And I'm curious to know why. What experiences have you had, or what general interests do you hold, that encourage your interest in STEAM?

    5. that apply to technically creative career paths in design and media.

      Such as? I'm curious how your experiences help you to make this connection...

    1. I want to see what people have to say about why they might stop playing, as well as what brings them back to the game (and, apparently, the affinity space).

      This does sound really interesting. What motivates people to play? To join? To leave and to also return? Gee and Hayes provide some insight into these processes given their characteristics of affinity spaces, and it may be interesting to see how your experience with KSP does/does not align with those features.

    2. Mods appear to be a big part of the gaming experience with KSP

      As they are with many video games. I say go for it!

    3.  I’m actually really into the development notes, which they try and release weekly – the notes are a good insight into the overall communication lines between the “game” (i.e., the people who are responsible for the base game) and the community at large.

      That's really cool. Tapping a bit of learning theory... some might call this artifact (the development notes) a "boundary object" that carries new knowledge between various settings and communities. Perhaps you'll dig into this aspect of your affinity space in future posts?

    4. People are generally ready to cheer each other on, which gives forums a positive vibe

      That's nice to learn, and is not always the case in other spaces.

    5.  I look forward to exploring them more when I have a better understanding of terminology and game mechanics.

      Interesting... these may be some notable limitations to your engagement in this aspect of the affinity space.

    6. reliably ended in me nose-diving a space ship into the ground.

      Can we get a video of this? Sounds awesome!

    7. using the KSP Wiki, starting with the parts page

      Gee has written quite a lot about the various texts and resources that surround game play, and the very technical knowledge that players need to access, engage, and digest often before - or certainly during - their game play. I'm glad you're experiencing a similar learning flow across resources and settings.

    8. Well, I can’t say that I’m now a rocket scientist

      But then who is going to teach me?!

    1. that works with people’s interests rather than trying to force them a certain direction with a lot of flash and sleight of hand.

      Yes, very nicely said!

    2. (I did, by the way, think that Bogost’s longer chapter from The Gameful World was really helpful for a deeper reading).

      This is awesome to learn, I'm so glad that you read it!

    3.  I plan on utilizing some broader search methods and also tapping my peer network to see if anyone has good leads on where to find well-constructed research in this area.

      This sounds like a really nice plan. And as our course progresses, I'll also begin to share more resources about adult learners and games.

    4. and I think this lends itself to stronger, more open conversation.

      Another interpretation of "open learning" - this is wonderful!

    5. need to figure out some new strategies for staying on top of it, but I’m feeling please with the experience and challenged in a constructive way.

      And you're not alone. I'm figuring out new strategies, too. Like these informal comment via Hypothesis in blog margins. It's not evaluative. Just a way for me to check in with you. It's a new strategy for me, and we'll see if it sticks. Keep experimenting. We're all testing out new waters!

    6. Surprisingly… most of the time, it feels pretty good.

      This is nice to learn given all that we're doing!

    7.  I traveled downtown to join members of my cohort in playing a game

      And I'm so glad you did, it was awesome to finally meet you in person!

    1. All of these things are rarely typical for people to experience while attending a lecture, or doing homework, or sitting in a classroom quietly writing.

      Yes, hence the profound difference between learning and schooling.

    2. are used for adult learning

      We'll start to address this a bit more as the course progresses, and there's a recent special of the journal On the Horizon about game-based learning in higher ed - hence, adult learners. I'll share a link with the course and articles based upon everyone's interest.

    3. Both types of reflective play session practices resulted in better understanding of the games we studied.

      I'm still curious to see how our work in public (via blogs and Hypothesis) meshes with LMS-based discussions.

    4. “In Game, In Room, In World,” captured the “multiplicity” of settings and how games and learning is situated by social context.

      This is sentence, and really the paragraph as a whole, is a nice succinct summary of our early readings. Thanks!

    5. would not have been achieved by use of LMS discussion or solitary engagement with texts.

      Yes, my own frustrations with LMS-based discussions have largely motivated this shift into the open with Hypothesis.

    6. This drives the discussion forward in a way I’ve never experienced before and in a way that was motivating to engage with a text.

      This is really nice to learn, and I appreciate the honest assessment.

    7. to annotate a live document.

      Like this :)

    8. without really being totally cognizant.

      Are you in the "zone" so to speak, or just completely confused?!

    1. Perhaps it’s more important to teach students how to critique cultural artifacts, such as a video game, rather than to passively engage with it?


    2. That’s why “gender neutral” games often times offer the best possible learning scenario without biases.

      This is an interesting argument... do we want gender neutrality, similar to a "color blind" society? Or do we want games - and media generally - to accurately reflect the wide range of people and experiences that really live in the real world?

    3. can be sexist (among many other negative things)

      Yes, very true.

    4. however these portrayals may be the result of systemic sexism in society as a whole and gender roles and identities crafted and perpetuated by consumer culture, religions, governments, educational institutions, sports, etc.

      Yes, but does that abdicate game developers from the responsibility of perpetuating those tropes?

    5. As games are considered by many a form of art, like film, can portray extremely sexist depictions.

      This is one major reason behind Feminist Frequency.

    6. For starters, game developers may employ more females as part of their development team. Or provide equal play testing scenarios for both men and women in order to assess a game’s appeal to both sexes.

      What evidence do we have of these trends?

    7. Assuming it’s the intent of the developers to make the highest possible monetary return on the product.

      There's a nice connection here to our Cycle 4 interview with Anita Sarkeesian.

    8. genders

      Presuming there are two dominant genders? Given the spectrum of gender identities that are increasingly public and welcomed in various aspects of our society, it's interesting to consider not a "split between genders," but perhaps a range of gender identities represented in identities/avatars.

    9. if I can connect the dots between gender and videogames

      There are many dots, and many researchers, and people you can and should connect with via Twitter as this interest develops.

    10. works by Ian Bogost

      Nice connection to other aspects of our course!

    1. 1:20 / 16:23

      "For several decades the gaming industry catered almost exclusively to a straight white male demographic."

      I don't know where there is evidence to back up ALL of this claim, but, a Wikipedia entry for "Women and Video Games" cites "historical prevalence" and uses statistics to back it from 1982-present.

    2. 0:39 / 16:23

      It seems I can only select the time stamp and annotate without a quote?

    3. 7:45 - Information cascade can be found everywhere, it has become very apparent since the rise of the internet.

    4. 3:15 - What I don't understand is how people find the time to do these things? There HAS to be more productive things people can do with their time...

    1. GamerGate

      I was wondering what this meant. I thought I was missing on some great cultural movement. Its sad to know the truth.:(

    2. who use it as an educational tool for their kids

      And graduate-level learners, too!

    3. Police responded by stating that they would not do any type of screening whatsoever for firearms because of Utah's concealed-carry laws

      This institutional failure, on so many levels, is very disappointing.

    4. the UC Santa Barbara shootings committed by Elliot Rodger this past May

      One of the many reasons why we're also reading Chu this cycle.

    5. It's a common language that we can use to talk about these larger societal and social concerns.

      And isn't that part of why people end up feeling territorial over it? Because it's common and "naturalized" and people don't want to feel bad about themselves and their lifestyles? If only self-reflection didn't make people feel all insecure! It's a highly underrated skill...

    6. will hopefully help to inspire more creative writing

      Did this surprise anyone?

    7. We can be critical of the things that we love. That is possible. 

      Yes! Same goes for schooling, teachers and pedagogy - we can be critical because we want institutions and individuals to work more effectively and for greater equity.

    8. It's straightforward textual analysis. I'm looking at patterns and presenting evidence and arguments to back up those claims.

      For those who have studied some research methods, this is a really powerful means of collecting public "data" through/about games, conducting an analysis, and sharing ("publishing") findings as arguments in videos. Great stuff.

    9. but I didn't know how to explain it.

      Among the many ways to explain complex phenomena, and troubling social practices like sexism and misogyny, theory is one such way. Whereas feminist theory was - and continues to be - a means for Sarkeesian, sociocultural theory in our course is a means for us. That's why our course foregrounds learning theory as central to any discussion of games and game play.

    10. It was my way of pulling feminist theory out of academia into a more public space for a wider audience.

      This resonates strongly with Gee's writing which we read to start our semester - pulling situated learning theory out of academia and into the public space of videogames to explain the relationship between games and learning.

    11. she canceled a speaking engagement at Utah State University after an anti-feminist detractor threatened a mass shooting when police refused to search attendees for weapons, citing the state's concealed-carry law.

      Apparently, the so-called freedom to threaten violence and bear arms trumps the freedom to protect and promote speech - at least when the latter expresses diverse viewpoints and the former potential mass violence. I remember when these events were reported, and continue to be deeply disturbed by the response from all institutions and individuals - except, of course, Sarkeesian.

    12. We have big blockbuster films every year that are the same stories recycled over and over again.

      Yes, and for this reason it is rare for me to watch a U.S. film through to the end. Same old recycled stories.

    13. the Montreal Massacre at Ecole Polytechnique

      Did this make news in the US? This horrible event is still remembered and felt in Canada.

      Basically the shooter entered a classroom, separated the men and women and shot at all the women. He then went on to shoot more women in the hallways, and then turned the gun on himself. He was claiming he was "fighting feminism" and accused the women at the school of being feminists.

      This is misogyny at it's most extreme. All the women that were killed were getting an education in a traditional male dominated field...

    1. I’ve had this argument about whether it was “technically” rape

      This reminds me of a Language and Gender class I took in 2004; people in general were very uncomfortable discussing rape in broader contexts (aka, outside of violent attacks). We also discussed sexual harassment and abuse within online gaming communities. Gaming communities weren't as popular at that time, and many classmates felt like something happening "virtually" didn't count - almost to the point where people didn't understand why we were even discussing the topic. It would be interesting to know what a class of undergrads would have to say today; I wonder if the perspective has changed much (from some of our current reading, I would guess that it hasn't!).

    2. we are not fucking Mario racing to the castle to beat Bowser because we know there’s a princess in there waiting for us.

      There's the reference, a powerful example indicating the extent to which games, and gaming culture, has influenced (pop) culture.

    3. I’ve heard it come out of my own mouth, in moments of anger and weakness.

      A powerful and public recognition. I believe it is very necessary for people to acknowledge their biases and shortcomings, particularly as a means to work against privilege.

    4. their inner John Galt

      Are people familiar with this reference?

    5. Like life is a video game and women, like money and status, are just part of the reward we get for doing well.

      It's not a stretch to connect this cycle's readings to last cycle's focus on gamification. If daily aspects of life can be "gamified," and if women are perceived as objects, things to be earned or won, then isn't terrifying to consider how applications of gamification - under certain circumstances - may entrench misogyny, sexism, and patriarchy.

    6. How much longer are we going to be in denial that there’s a thing called “rape culture” and we ought to do something about it?

      Apparently not yet 2 years later. Earlier this month there was a group of "pro-rape" men who were going to meet up in Chicago. The leader assured them safety but then ended up cancelling the meetup because of all the backlash that instilled fear. link to article

    7. So what happens to nerdy guys who keep finding out that the princess they were promised is always in another castle?

      Ask my husband... he got his princess, he just had to wait a bit longer than most :)

    1. Although seldomconsidered in conjunction with action gameplay, meditative activities such as mind-bodytraining and eastern relaxation technique alsoact in part by enhancing selective attention(Lutz et al. 2008, Tang & Posner 2009).Whether these two rather different treatmentsachieve their effects through comparableneural modulation may be a fruitful avenue ofinvestigation in the future.

      I find this to be an interesting juxtaposition. Has any subsequent research been conducted in this?

  2. gamesandlearning.wordpress.com gamesandlearning.wordpress.com
    1. When the practice of annotation moves into the open – and becomes social and networked – should a formative and self-directed practice become a means for summative assessment? I think not.

      Thank You!

  3. Feb 2016
    1. they actually teach gamers to learn

      John Dewey expounds upon this idea in Experience and Education.

    2. But the positive effects are almost completely neglected

      Why is this? The research is out there, and now days it is readily available, yet mainstream media and public opinion seems ardent in their defense of this "common knowledge."

    1. Lumosity preyed on consumers’ fears about age-related cognitive decline, suggesting their games could stave off memory loss, dementia, and even Alzheimer’s disease," Jessica Rich, director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection, said in a statement. “But Lumosity simply did not have the science to back up its ads

      Do you feel that this issue has caused any long-term damage to the field of games and learning? What have been the unforeseen consquences?

    1. I anticipate continued ambiguity, confusion, and even frustration as we (re)shape this mashup of more formal academic discussion facilitation with informal and emergent social annotation.

      Very important to suss out the blindspots inherent in every form of technology. And to find the values hidden within every piece of software and ask is that game worth the candle?

    2. Certainly I referenced my notes when writing a paper.

      It's difficult to organize the digital annotations well enough for them to be easily referenced later. I can find some things through the tags, some through ctrl f, and some by revisiting the text, but it's more challenging than I would have thought. Makes me miss my tabbed notebooks...

    3. graduate students

      Thank you nomadwarmachine.

    1. the enhanced attentional controldocumented earlier is not, in this view, theproximal cause of the superior performanceof VGPs, i.e., an end in and of itself. Instead,it is a means to an end, with that end beingthe development of more generalizable knowl-edge as one is faced with new tasks or newenvironment
    2. It is not always the casethat VGPs show greater suppression of dis-tractors. Rather, distractor processing appearsto be greater in VGPs than in NVGPs underconditions of relatively low load. Under suchconditions, task difficulty is sufficiently low forVGPs to remain efficient on the primary taskand at the same time still be able to processdistractors
    3. Although some of thesebenefits could be driven initially by changesin resources, the fact that they can last forfive months or longer suggests more profoundand long-lasting changes in representationthan what is typically afforded by attentionalresource
    4. much evidence demonstrates thataction video game play leads to not only en-hanced resources, but also a more intelligentallocation of these resources given the goals athand.
    5. VGPs may better employ exec-utive strategies to reduce the effects of distrac-tion.

      It's not that they do not experience the distraction, just the effects of being distracted are much less significant.

    6. It is unlikely that action game play to-tally obliterates the attentional blink, but thesedata suggest a much faster rate of attentionalrecovery in VGPs.
    7. VGPs’ blink is much lesspronounced, with some VGPs failing to showany blink
    8. VGPs continued to show effects of flanker iden-tity even for relatively high-load target tasks,thus suggesting the presence of greater atten-tional resources.

      translation: VGPs had enough attentional resources to focus on the target and the flankers even when the target demanded a higher cognitive load.

    9. simple flanker compatibility tasks

      A target piece of information is surrounded (flanked) by other non-target information that may or may not be congruent with the target information. For example, Press Left when the center character is an H or F. Press Right when the center character is an O or R.


      variations on the test can use shapes, colors, etc.

    10. increasingly higher levels of behav-ioral abstraction being coded as one moves fromcaudal to rostral locations along the prefrontalcortex

      translation: progressively higher levels of behavioral abstraction are coded in the prefrontal cortex as you move from the back to the front. The back has the lowest levels of abstraction. The front has the highest.

    11. the abil-ity to enhance neural processing selectively byallocating more resources is central to behav-ior optimization, but it depends fundamen-tally on an internal understanding of whichneural pool is important to augment at eachpoint in time
    12. In contrast, appropriate abstractionallows hierarchical architectures to captureregularity across variations in task and stimuli.

      It is also the source of fallacious thinking such as confirmation bias.

    13. Learning theory hasshown that discriminative models require lessdata to learn the observed relationships butare task specific

      This has been one of the big struggles in developing AI. Programmers can code very specific tasks or concepts, but the computer will still not have the abstract/underlying knowledge to apply in a different context. This is where machine learning hopes to make significant advancements towards reaching a strong general AI.

    14. hierarchicalarchitectures

      Futurist, and inventor Ray Kurzweil on hierchical architectures and cognition:


    15. machine learning

      I love the meta-ness of how research into AI is teaching us more about ourselves.

    16. hierarchical architecture in human action

      Some absolutely fascinating work involving hierarchical architecture and cognition, and brain mapping has been conducted recently. Give it a read if you are like me, and like to nerd out about such things.

    17. Finally, having greater resourcesdoesnotsystematicallyguaranteemoreefficientlearning; resource allocation needs to be guidedby the presence of structured knowledge thathelps select where useful information lies
    18. working-memory training results in en-hanced recruitment of the frontoparietal net-work associated with top-down attentional con-trol

      translation: at older ages, tasks that require greater working memory require more attention resources.

    19. Raven’s Ad-vanced Progressive Matrices

      Interwebz, correct me if I'm wrong, but I'm fairly certain that this is the assessment that was formerly used in public education settings to determine if students should be placed in Gifted & Talented programs.

    20. much evidence in-dicates that action video game play improvestop-down resource allocation, thus leading tobetter selective attention and enhanced pre-cision in representations
    21. resource allocation acts as a key gate-way to learning by refining the distinction be-tween signal and noise and enhancing the qual-ity and precision of the to-be-learned infor-mation

      All of the studies presented in this paragraph point to different aspects of the same concept: having more attentional resources positively influences a person's ability to learn.

    22. An increase in resources may therefore enablelearners to achieve greater asymptotic perfor-mance (more learning capacity), or even fasterlearning, because critical distinctions will bemore accessible to those learners with greaterresources.
    23. devel-oping representations that are invariant to irrel-evant internal limb motions

      translation: knowing how players are going to move despite misleading motions by the players limbs (I think... I might be wrong on this one)

    24. The pattern of synapticweights that optimizes performance on thistask is a simple instantiation of a discriminantfunction and thus is completely specific tothe trained reference angle

      Translation: training for this task on one angle teaches the brain to solve the problem from that angle.

    25. synaptic weights

      this is the strength of the connection between two nodes.

    26. moreaccurate posterior distribution.

      better knowledge of probabilities gained by the visual experience held in their brains.

    27. an increase in the connectivity between themodel’s sensory layer, where neurons code fordirection of motion, and its integration layer,where neurons accumulate the informationthey receive over time from the sensory layeruntil a criterion is reached for decision andrespons

      translation: in VGPs, more visual information made it to the neurons that hold the information in working memory until a decision is made. The visual information is "noisy" and it is harder for nVGPs to filter the important information for making decisions.

    28. p(c|e)

      You're not fooling anyone. We all know that you just wanted to put in an abbreviation that looks like the word "pickle."

    29. All require subjects to make a deci-sion based on a limited amount of noisy data

      How often do we do this in education? If we intentionally do not provide scaffolds are we lauded or lampooned?

    30. Rather than hy-pothesizing distinct mechanisms for each taskimproved, it seems more parsimonious to con-sider one common cause: learning to learn
    31. A key question concerns whether the effectsof action video game play are causal or areinstead reflective of population bias, whereinaction gaming tends to attract individualswith inherently superior skills

      Does action gaming create players with better skills, or does attract people that naturally have those skills?

    32. when attentionis driven in a bottom-up fashion (i.e., by exoge-nous cueing) no differences have been foundbetween VGPs and NVGPs

      no difference is found in attention between nVGPs and VGPs when external cueing is present.

    33. the fact that there was no difference in accuracyin any of these tasks suggests that the differencesalso cannot be attributed to differences in crite-ria, or VGPs being “trigger-happy” or willingto trade reductions in accuracy for increases inspeed
    34. many aspects of top-down attentionalcontrol such as selective attention, dividedattention, and sustained attention are enhancedin VGPs
    35. Despite faster reaction times, accu-racies were left unchanged, establishing that ac-tion game play does not result in trading speedfor accuracy.
    36. Action video game play sped up reactiontimes, and this was true whether the task was inthe visual or the auditory modality.
    37. Wefound that action game play enhances the rateat which information accumulates over timeby∼20% as compared with control partici-pants

      Action VGPs were able to take in 20% more visual information than nVGPs.

    38. Another cognitive domain enhanced by ac-tion games is spatial cognition
    39. Several studies have alsodocumented enhanced task-switching abilitiesin VGPs, meaning they pay less of a price forswitching from one task to another

      While multi-tasking (as how the general public views the term) has been largely dismissed, this understanding of multi-tasking remains to be true.

    40. VGPs have also been documented to bettertheir nongamer peers on several aspects ofcognition such as visual short-term memory(Anderson et al. 2011, Boot et al. 2008), spa-tial cognition (Greenfield 2009), multitasking(Green & Bavelier 2006a), and some aspects ofexecutive function
    41. contrary to the folk belief that screentime is bad for eyesight, action video game playappears to enhance how well one sees

      A recent study suggests that a lack of sunlight, not time in front of screens, is the likely culprit

    42. action video game play retrains corticalnetworks such that each layer of the process-ing hierarchy makes better use of the informa-tion it receives from earlier layers
    43. This difference suggests achange in the dynamics of the visual system:VGPs can resolve events at a higher temporalfrequency
    44. Action video game play enhances the spatial andtemporal resolution of vision as well as its sen-sitivity
    45. the fact that VGPs best their nonaction game–playing peers (NVGPs) on standard laboratorytests that are quite dissimilar to video gamesbegs further investigation
    46. Although no new academic concepts orfacts were taught by these games, they allowedthe children to develop skills, such as attentionand control, that underlie the ability to learn inschool.

      Are these kinds of practice be tolerating in a typical public school setting? For me, I know that there is nothing formally stopping me from using such practices, but if I were to be observed in a class where I was using such techniques my efficacy as a educator would be called into question.

    47. ideo games teachis the capability to quickly learn to performnew tasks

      This is a very broad hypothesis that will require many different types of data to effectively test.

    48. A handful of behavioral in-terventions have recently been noted to in-duce more general learning than that typicallydocumented in the learning literature. Theselearning paradigms are usually more complexthan standard laboratory manipulations, remi-niscent of the “enriched environment effects”seen in animal rearing (Renner & Rosenzweig1987), and they typically correspond to real-lifeexperiences, such as aerobic activity (Hillmanet al. 2008), athletic training (Erickson &Kramer 2009), musical training (Schellenberg2004), mind-body training (Lutz et al. 2008,Tang & Posner 2009), working memory train-ing ( Jaeggi et al. 2008, Klingberg 2010), and,the focus of this article, action video game train-ing (Green & Bavelier 2003, Spence & Feng2010).

      I do not find it coincidence that the examples that the authors' cite are fields that are usually dismissed in most of academia. These topics naturally present content and tasks that are highly complex and difficult to measure.

    49. Thus, for all practical purposes, thespecificity that typically accompanies learningis a curse.

      The issue of transfer between contents has been highly studied. A recent study (2015) that looks into transfer of knowledge between chess training and mathematics examines how heuristical thinking can be transferred if actively taught. Check out my blogpost for a quick overview of the study.

    50. putative

      adj. generally considered or reputed to be

    1. -ification is always easy and repeatable, and it's usually bullshit.

      In anthropology, part of the writing style I learned was to, basically, always qualify one's conclusions since one is never the definitive interpreter of cultures, behaviors, etc. However, the application of qualifiers to nouns is oddly different and can be quite subversive. Which, I think, is part of the point here!

    1. Learning academic varieties of language and thinking in school is now “old.” It is (for most people) important, but not sufficient for success in modern society. People must be ready to learn new specialist varieties of language and thinking outside of school, not necessarily connected to academic disciplines, throughout their lives.

      Knowledge is different than education.

    2. The human mind works best when it can build and run simulations of experiences its owner has had (much like playing a video game in the mind) in order to understand new things and get ready for action in the world.

      This statement is so true. That is why intentional play whether it is a video game or board game, is great for problem-solving and critical thinking.

    1. However, with violation of copyright as close as one mouse click away, ethical concerns are prominent in digital culture.

      This had me concerned when they said that most activity was saving images from the internet. Huge red flag for copyright issues!

    2. Such understanding is crucial for today’s citizenship, when more aspects of life have moved into the digital domain.

      Just so happens that I'm facilitating a discussion on Information Literacy / Digital Citizenship at a conference this Friday!

    3. For example, video game production became a mark-er of high status, and two types of experts emerged: some youth developed expertise in highly focused (local) aspects of game design, and others focused more on general (global) principles of game design.

      This reminds me of our readings from last cycle that focuses on how kids play games differently, in particular the zoo tycoon example. One girl enjoyed the finer details (decor, layout), while the other focuses solely on profits. Applies to game design too I guess!

    4. This dominance has been problematic for many reasons, including the lack of representation of women and minority avatars in games,

      Or the over sexualization of women in games...

    5. multimodal texts that integrate sound, music, graphics, writing, and more.

      Using multimodal modes is key to reaching a large audience. UDL advocates for this (as seen in our Games, 2008 reading from this cycle).

    1. he user's needs and goals are the primary consideration at every sta

      This is all well and good to say, except when the "user's needs and goals" don't align with the standards that we are expected to push.

    2. that if the task was already uninteresting, reward systems did not reduce internal motivation, as there was little internal motivation to start with. The authors concluded that "the issue is how to facilitate people's understanding the importance of the activity to themselves and thus internalizing its regulation so they will be self-motivated to perform it" (

      This is where, I believe, gamification has its greatest potential for a positive impact. Some aspects of life just are inherently not very motivating for me. Folding laundry, for example. My intrinsic motivation is very low (not non-existent, but very low). Gamification can add extrinsic reward elements to a situation where there is very little potential for damage.

    3. y Deci, Koestner, andRyan

      There they are! I thought they'd show up to this conversation at some point :)

    4. . One significant problem with this model of gamification is that it can reduce the internal motivation that the user has for the activity, as it replaces internal motivation with external motivation. If, however, the game design elements can be made meaningful to the user through information,then internal motivation can be improved as there is less need to emphasize external rewar

      This is strongly consistent with Deci and Ryan's work in Self-Determination Theory.

  4. gamesandlearning.files.wordpress.com gamesandlearning.files.wordpress.com
    1. ncern. Every time 10 or more students logged into the game simultaneously, the server at Gamelab would crash and log everyone out until it was restarted

      I wonder if this affected any of their results.

    2. in order to participate in a Discourse is its set of language prac

      I can identify with this. I used to play world of warcraft. I had to learn a whole new language to be part of the Discourse for the game. When I stopped playing I slowly lost the language. Sometimes people will refer to things from the game and I have to dig deep in my memory to remember.