1,011 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2018
    1. J.M. Rhode, M.B. Cruzan, Am Nat 166, 124–139 (2005).

      Rhode et al. examined the molecular and genetic processes of heterosis and epistasis in reference to hybridization within Piriqueta caroliniana (Turneraceae) plant complex. Using controlled plant crosses, they determined the effects of heterosis and epistasis on hybrid fitness.

    2. J.F. Morton, Econ Bot 32, 353–359 (1978).

      Morton observes and studies the impacts of the Brazilian pepper tree in regards to its ecological role in its native habitat, its invasiveness in new Southern habitats, and the animal and human interactions it garners.

    3. J.G. Lambrinos, Ecology 85, 2061– 2070 (2004).

      Lambrinos analyzes a collection of studies of invasion dynamics through the following observations: 1) the extent of the effect of interbreeding, founder effects, drift, and migration on population dynamics, 2) landscape change and human activity, and 3) selection pressures through dispersal patterns and life histories.

    4. J.J. Kolbe, R.E. Glor, L. Rodriguez Schettino, A. Chamizo Lara, J.B. Losos, Nature 431, 177–181 (2004).

      Kolbe et al. fielded Cuban lizard populations to determine molecular markers for genetic variation in these invader populations. They concluded that multiple introductions have likely occurred before and the respective high levels of genetic diversity which have confirmed its invasive success.

    5. L.G. Campbell, A.A. Snow, C.E. Ridley, Ecol Lett 9, 1198–1209 (2006).

      Campbell et al. studied weed evolution utilizing crop gene introgression to measure the fecundity and survival success of hybrid plants relative to wild plants. Hybrids comparatively had 22% greater survival than wild counterparts, which concludes that they will be able to replace wild parent plants.

    6. M.L. Ainouche, A. Baumel, A. Salmon, G. Yannic, New Phytol 161, 165–172 (2003).

      Ainounche et al. analyzed how the Spartina system has provided a foundational study of genomic characteristics of allopolypoid speciation through the lens of hybridization to form a more genetically varied allopolypoid species.

  2. Apr 2018
    1. Whole-system nutrient enrichment increases secondary production in a detritus-based ecosystem

      This article discusses how the addition of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem affects secondary production. It was noted that there was an increase in secondary consumers most likely caused because of an increase in prey. There was also an increase of secondary consumer predators. It is mentioned that the increase of nutrients in the two years the survey was done resulted in positive effects for the secondary consumers, however, this might eventually change as the carbon levels in the ecosystem begin to decline because of the higher nutrient levels.

    2. Nutrient co-limitation of primary producer communities

      This article focuses on how nutrients affect the growth of primary producers. The factors that were observed to have the highest effects on the ecosystems were nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    3. Ecosystem metabolism and turnover of organic carbon along a blackwater river continuum

      This article discusses the respiration rate of an aquatic ecosystem and uses it to determine patterns of activity found within a river during different seasons. It was observed that there were higher levels of respiration when there were was more organic carbon in the river.

    4. Long-term nutrient enrichment decouples predator and prey production

      This article discusses the effect the addition of nutrients has on an aquatic ecosystem. Originally the author hypothesized an increase of energy transfer from prey to predators because of the increase of nutrients. However, this did not occur because the increase in nutrient led to an increase of predator resistant prey.

    5. Nutrient enrichment alters storage and fluxes of detritus in a headwater stream ecosystem

      This article demonstrates how the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus led to an increase in the production of fine organic compounds by more than 300%. The article also mentions that this increase in fine organic compounds will have an effect on the entire ecosystem in that area in the long term.

    6. Lakes and reservoirs as regulators of carbon cycling and climate

      This article mentions the that the rate at which inland water sources release carbon dioxide is equivalent to the rate at which carbon is absorbed by the ocean. Methane is also being released in higher levels from lakes which are beginning to thaw because of increasing temperatures from global warming.

    7. Stream nutrient enrichment has a greater effect on coarse than on fine benthic organic matter

      This article discusses how an increase in nutrients affects the levels of coarse and fine organic litter. It was observed that there were higher levels of fine organic material which led to an increase in bacteria. However, in the stream with no nutrients added to it, there was an increase in both fungal and bacterial communities.

    8. Multiple trophic levels of a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs

      This article discusses the importance of terrestrial litter on an aquatic ecosystem. It was observed that organisms that lived in the stream that was being tested were affected the most by the absence of litter and the same effects could be observed throughout the entire ecosystem. However, terrestrial fauna was not affected meaning that it got its carbon from another source.

    9. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning

      This experiment was a pan-European research of more than 100 streams in multiple European countries. It helped determine the importance of litter breakdown and states that countries should begin to consider the importance of regulating nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems.

    10. Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes

      This article discusses how human practices have led to a increase of nitrogen levels in lakes. The article also mentions that an increase of phosphorus in lakes resulted in the extraction of higher levels of nitrogen. However, the author also states that laws pertaining to the concentration of phosphorus in aquatic habitats should not be removed or relaxed because phosphorus can also have a negative effect on an ecosystem if found in high concentrations.

    1. Visick KL, Ruby EG, (2006) Vibrio fischeri and its host: It takes two to tango. Current Opinion in Microbiology 9:632–638.

      Review of the factors that support horizontal acquisition of symbionts from the environment, using the Euprymna scolopes and Vibrio fischeri model. Horizontal acquisition occurs when symbionts are transferred from one host species to another.

      This paper is from the symbiont perspective.

    2. Nyholm SV, McFall-Ngai MJ, (2004) The winnowing: Establishing the squid-vibrio symbiosis. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2:632–642.

      Review of the factors that support horizontal acquisition of symbionts from the environment, using the Euprymna scolopes and Vibrio fischeri model. Horizontal acquisition occurs when symbionts are transferred from one host species to another.

      This paper is from the host perspective.

    3. Foster RG, Soni BG, (1998) Extraretinal photoreceptors and their regulation of temporal physiology. Reviews of Reproduction 3:145–150.

      Extraocular photoreceptors were generally thought to be primarily involved in the regulation of daily and seasonal cycles. Their other functions were unknown.

      This review paper outlines the variety of extraocular photoreceptors present in nonmammalian organisms and their importance in regulating time-related physiological processes.

    1. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height. Nat. Genet. 46, 1173–1186 (2014). doi:10.1038/ng.3097pmid:25282103

      Wood et al. analyze multiple independent studies to identify the SNPs that are most strongly associated with adult height (in Europeans).

      They identify thousands of variants that are associated with height, and even with the top ~9500 SNPs they can only explain ~29% of height variance. Like skin pigmentation, height is a complex trait (a trait controlled by more than one gene), so it is interesting to compare the number of variants associated with height to the number of variants associated with skin pigmentation

    2. R. Yu, R. Broady, Y. Huang, Y. Wang, J. Yu, M. Gao, M. Levings, S. Wei, S. Zhang, A. Xu, M. Su, J. Dutz, X.Zhang, Y. Zhou, Transcriptome analysis reveals markers of aberrantly activated innate immunity in vitiligo lesional and non-lesional skin. PLOS ONE 7, e51040 (2012). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051040pmid:23251420

      Yu et al. compare gene expression (as well as immune cell presence) in lesional (lack of melanin) and nonlesional (containing melanin) skin of vitiligo patients. They identify 17 genes that have different expression in the different patches of skin, despite being on the same person and having the same genetic background.

      The authors of the current paper look at expression of one of the genes identified in Yu et al., MFSD12, because they identify SNPs near and in this gene that are associated with skin pigmentation in their study.

    3. S. Mallick, H. Li, M. Lipson, I. Mathieson, M. Gymrek, F. Racimo, M. Zhao, N. Chennagiri, S. Nordenfelt, A. Tandon, P.  Skoglund, I. Lazaridis, S. Sankararaman, Q. Fu, N. Rohland, G. Renaud, Y. Erlich, T. Willems, C. Gallo, J. P. Spence, Y. S. Song, G. Poletti, F. Balloux, G. van Driem, P. de Knijff, I. G. Romero, A. R. Jha, D. M. Behar, C. M. Bravi, C. Capelli, T. Hervig, A. Moreno-Estrada, O. L. Posukh, E. Balanovska, O. Balanovsky, S. Karachanak-Yankova, H. Sahakyan, D. Toncheva, L. Yepiskoposyan, C. Tyler-Smith, Y. Xue, M. S.Abdullah, A. Ruiz-Linares, C. M. Beall, A. Di Rienzo,  C. Jeong, E. B. Starikovskaya, E. Metspalu, J. Parik, R.Villems, B. M. Henn, U. Hodoglugil, R. Mahley, A. Sajantila, G. Stamatoyannopoulos, J. T. S. Wee, R.Khusainova, E. Khusnutdinova, S. Litvinov, G. Ayodo, D. Comas, M. F. Hammer, T. Kivisild, W. Klitz, C. A.Winkler, D. Labuda, M. Bamshad, L. B. Jorde, S. A. Tishkoff, W. S. Watkins, M. Metspalu, S. Dryomov, R. Sukernik, L. Singh, K. Thangaraj, S. Pääbo, J. Kelso, N. Patterson, D. Reich, The Simons Genome Diversity Project: 300 genomes from 142 diverse populations. Nature 538, 201–206 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature18964pmid:27654912

      This report describes the data set obtained by the Simons Genome Diversity Project (SGDP), which contains genome data from 300 individuals from 142 diverse populations, and reveals more features of human genetic variation. The SGDP focused on smaller populations than the 1000 Genomes Project.

    4. 1000 Genomes Project Consortium, A global reference for human genetic variation. Nature 526, 68–74 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15393pmid:26432245

      The 1000 Genomes Project was a massive effort toward understanding human genetic variation. This report describes the distribution of genetic variation across over 2500 individuals from 26 populations.

      For each individual, there is data available from sequencing of the whole genome, deeper sequencing of the exome (to identify rare variants in coding genes), and for some individuals SNP microarray data is available.

    5. F. Liu, M. Visser, D. L. Duffy, P. G. Hysi, L. C. Jacobs, O. Lao, K. Zhong, S. Walsh, L. Chaitanya, A.Wollstein, G. Zhu, G. W. Montgomery, A. K. Henders, M. Mangino, D. Glass, V. Bataille, R. A. Sturm, F. Rivadeneira, A. Hofman, W. F. J. van IJcken, A. G. Uitterlinden, R.-J. T. S. Palstra, T. D. Spector, N. G.Martin, T. E. C. Nijsten, M. Kayser, Genetics of skin color variation in Europeans: Genome-wide association studies with functional follow-up. Hum. Genet. 134, 823–835 (2015). doi:10.1007/s00439-015-1559-0pmid:25963972

      Liu et al. perform a GWAS study similar to those performed in this paper, looking for genetic variants that correlate with skin pigmentation in a population of European people.

      They identify 9 genes that may be associated with skin pigmentation in Europeans, one of which (HERC2/OCA2) overlaps with the genes identified in this current paper as being associated with skin pigmentation in Africans.

    6. L. Teng, B. He, J. Wang, K. Tan, 4DGenome: A comprehensive database of chromatin interactions. Bioinformatics 31, 2560–2564 (2015). doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv158pmid:25788621

      Teng et al. describe a database they have curated called 4DGenome. They have collected published data related to how chromatin interacts with itself and make it available through a database that other researchers can use as a centralized location for chromatin interaction data.

    7. Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium, Integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes. Nature 518, 317–330 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14248pmid:25693563

      The Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium set out to generate a resource consisting of a large number of epigenomes (the modifications that occur on top of the genome and impact gene expression, such as H3K27ac, used in this paper) of human cells.

      This analysis begins to explore the connection between genetic variants and epigenomic states.

    8. F. Hormozdiari, E. Kostem, E. Y. Kang, B. Pasaniuc, E. Eskin, Identifying causal variants at loci with multiple signals of association. Genetics 198, 497–508 (2014).doi:10.1534/genetics.114.167908pmid:25104515

      This paper describes the development of a new statistical framework to estimate the probability that variants cause phenotypes. This new method, called CAVIAR (Causal Variants Identification in Associated Regions), is an improvement over previous methods because it allows for the possibility that multiple variants in a region are causal.

      The authors of this paper used CAVIAR in their study to identify variants that are associated with skin pigmentation.

    1. Ewel JJ, DS Ojima, DA Karl, WF DeBusk 1982 Schinus in successional ecosystems of Everglades National Park. Report T-676. South Florida Research Center, National Park Service, Everglades National Park, Homestead, FL.

      Ewel et al. gives a recent and brief historical outlook on the introduction of the Brazilian pepper into South Florida and its subsequent ecological invasion and settlement in the Everglades.

    1. G. D. Gilfillan et al., Am. J. Hum. Genet. 82, 1003 (2008).

      This study examines mutations in the SLC9A6 gene. Mutations in this gene have been linked to several neurological diseases, including X-linked intellectual impairment, microcephaly, epilepsy, and ataxia.

      Through sequencing and linkage analysis, the authors determined that a deletion in the region of the gene that codes for the cation exchanger NHE6 is largely responsible for neurological symptoms.

    2. G. A. Cox et al., Cell 91, 139 (1997).

      This study describes the swe (slow-wave epilepsy) mouse mutant as a model for generalized epilepsy in humans.

      The authors identified and mapped the mutation that caused epileptic symptoms, and discussed other effects the mutation might have.

    3. A. E. West, E. C. Griffith, M. E. Greenberg, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 921 (2002).

      This study examines the regulation of certain transcription factors by neural activity. It also investigated some of the mechanisms that regulate MEF2 activity.

    4. M. L. Jacquemont et al., J. Med. Genet. 43, 843 (2006).

      This study explored the heterogeneous nature of causes of autism, specifically using microarrays.

      One of the major findings from this study was that patients with locus duplications have less severe symptoms than those with deletions.

    5. J. Sebat et al., Science 316, 445 (2007).

      This study looks at de novo copy number variations (CNVs) in autism.

      They found that specific CNVs were present mostly in a single family out of their entire sample. They also showed differences in gene expression between simplex families (in which autism results from a de novo mutation) and multiplex families (in which autism is most likely inherited).

    6. J. A. Vorstman et al., Mol. Psychiatry 11, 1 (2006).

      This is a review of recent cytogenetic (the study of chromosomes) work on autism. The research discussed in this review looks as how large scale deletions, repetitions, and inversions in chromosomes may cause autism.

      A small percentage (around 3%) of patients with autism have cytogenetic abnormalities. Vorstman et al. identify regions of different chromosomes that future researchers should focus on.

    7. P. Szatmari et al., Nat. Genet. 39, 319 (2007).

      This study showed that copy number variants (CNVs) are a risk factor for autism. The authors also suggest that autism could be caused by some oligogenic factors.

      Oligogenically inherited traits are those that are determined mostly by a single gene, with other genes playing a smaller role in regulation and expression.

    8. N. Risch et al., Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65, 493 (1999).

      Risch et al. were among the first to propose that there may be multiple genetic abnormalities that can cause autism, and that these can affect different people in different ways.

    9. E. Fombonne, J. Autism Dev. Disord. 33, 365 (2003).

      A review of epidemiological surveys on autism.

      The author concluded that autism is associated with intellectual impairment in about 70% of cases, and that it occurs more often in males. They also showed that there is no correlation between autism and social class, and that there is not enough evidence to conclude that race or ethnicity have an influence on incidence.

    10. R. Canitano, Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 16, 61 (2006).

      Canitano discusses the link between autism and epilepsy, showing that epileptic seizures are more frequent in patients who have autism with intellectual impairment.

      The rate of comorbidity (simultaneous occurrence of both diseases) is 20-25%, meaning that around a quarter of people with autism also have seizures. This has to be taken into consideration for treatment plans.

    1. Intergovernmental Program on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, the Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996).

      This group of scientists issue comprehensive assessments on climate science using the best available data at the time. The IPCC was awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for their work on climate change.

      To read the most recent IPCC report visit: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/

  3. Mar 2018
    1. Materials and methods are available as supporting material on Science Online.

      This note references information provided by the authors that has been excluded from the main body of the paper to streamline it and save space in the journal. These supporting materials are made available online, instead: Supporting Online Material

      The supporting materials include additional data tables, the complete list of references, and the Materials and Methods (MM) section. A MM section is a description of how the study was conducted so that 1) readers can evaluate the quality of the scientific methods, and 2) others can repeat the study to verify that the results are reproducible.

      Here the MM section includes descriptions of how the studies were selected for the meta-analysis, the statistical tests that were used, and how the temperature changes and expected range shifts were calculated.

    2. C. Rosenzweig et al., in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palut., P. J. van der Linden, C. E. Hanson, Eds. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), pp. 79–131.

      This reference is Chapter 1 of the Assessment Report Climate Change 2007 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of the United Nations. Thousands of experts were involved in developing the report, which compiled and evaluated published research related to climate change and was reviewed by the governments of the member countries.

      The chapter documents how climate change, especially increasing temperatures, is affecting many systems on Earth, including the physical characteristics and living organisms of land, freshwater, and oceans.

    3. R. Hickling, D. B. Roy, J. K. Hill, R. Fox, C. D. Thomas, The distributions of a wide range of taxonomic groups are expanding polewards. Glob. Change Biol. 12, 450 (2006). doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01116.x

      The authors examined the ranges of a wide variety of taxonomic groups in the United Kingdom between 1960 and 2000, a period during which the regional climate warmed. They studied many groups, including many invertebrate species, fish, mammals, birds, and herptiles.

      Most of the taxonomic groups expanded their ranges to higher latitudes and/or elevations during the period. These range shifts were comparable to those identified in other studies for more well-documented species.

      This study was an important source of data for the current meta-analysis.

    4. A. Fischlin et al., in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, C. E. Hanson, Eds. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2007), pp. 211–272.

      This reference is Chapter 4 of the Assessment Report Climate Change 2007 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of the United Nations. Thousands of experts were involved in developing the report, which compiled and evaluated published research related to climate change and was reviewed by the governments of the member countries.

      The chapter summarized what was known at the time about the impact of climate change on the Earth's ecosystems. Among other effects, the authors estimated that 20 to 30% of animals and plants that were assessed face an increasing risk of extinction as global temperatures rise.

    5. D. R. Easterling et al., Climate extremes: Observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289, 2068 (2000).doi:10.1126/science.289.5487.2068 pmid:11000103

      This is a review article, which explains the current understanding of a topic based on a review and summary of the published literature. The authors summarized what was known at the time (2000) about the occurrence of extreme weather and climate events and their effects on human societies and natural systems.

    6. J. A. Pounds et al., Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439, 161 (2006). doi:10.1038/nature04246 pmid:16407945

      This study combined analyses at both large and small scales to examine the role of climate warming in the extinction of amphibians in tropical regions of the Americas. The extinctions were previously attributed to an epidemic of a fungal disease.

      The authors show that climate warming was a key factor in the extinctions. They propose that a warmer climate encourages growth of the fungus and thereby increases disease outbreaks.

    7. C. D. Thomas, A. M. A. Franco, J. K. Hill, Range retractions and extinction in the face of climate warming. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 415 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.05.012 pmid:16757062

      This article examines evidence that effects of climate change may be underestimated. The authors show that population declines and range retractions may not be detected if a study does not evaluate the populations at a sufficiently small scale. More detailed studies can also help determine how much climate and other factors have contributed to the effects.

    8. A. J. Suggitt et al., Habitat microclimates drive fine-scale variation in extreme temperatures. Oikos 120, 1(2011). doi:10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18270.x

      Most studies of the effects of climate on living organisms examine areas of a kilometer-scale size. However, organisms actually experience climate extremes on a much smaller scale.

      This study demonstrates the extent of microclimate effects on temperature extremes. Variations in topography and vegetation type generated large local temperature differences in an area.

      The authors state that these microclimate effects must be quantified and included in analyses to understand and predict the impacts of climate change on biodiversity.

    9. S. R. Loarie et al., The velocity of climate change. Nature 462, 1052 (2009). doi:10.1038/nature08649pmid:20033047

      The authors predicted the velocity of temperature change, a measurement of how annual average temperatures move over time, throughout the world. They found that predicted velocity varies widely depending on the type of topography; values ranged from 0.08 km per year to 1.26 km per year.

      Plants and animals may need to shift their ranges along with the average temperature to keep living in a suitable climate. The authors determined that, in some cases, species will not be able to move their ranges fast enough to keep up with climate change.

    10. C. Parmesan, G. Yohe, A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421, 37 (2003). doi:10.1038/nature01286 pmid:12511946

      This article addresses the difficulties the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change had reaching an agreement (in 2001) on the extent to which climate change is causing changes in biological systems. The authors suggest that differences in approach, particularly between biologists and economists, were a source of disagreement.

      To bridge the gap between the disciplines, they used several analyses, combinations of biological and economic approaches, to analyze a large set of global biological data. They concluded that there is sufficient evidence to say with very high confidence that climate change is already affecting living systems.

    11. A. Menzel et al., European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Glob. Change Biol. 12, 1969 (2006). doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01193.x

      The authors examined how changes in climate have influenced the timing of periodic life cycle events, such as leaves unfolding and fruit ripening. They analyzed a large set of data for European plants and a few animals, over the years 1971 to 2000.

      They found that spring and summer life cycle events were happening earlier in the year and that these changes matched the patterns of climate warming.

    1. azareno and Dos Reis, 2014 A.G. Nazareno, M.S. Dos ReisAt risk of population decline? an ecological and genetic approach to the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha (Arecaceae) of Southern Brazil J. Hered., 105 (2014), pp. 120-129

      Nazareno and Dos Reis review the ecological and genetics basis of the conservation of a threatened population.

      Although population ecology parameters as well as genetic data are very important in the analysis of a population threatened with extinction, there are other factors such as policy actions and reinforcement that also play a role in this loss of biodiversity and should also be analyzed.

    2. Maunder et al., 2008 M. Maunder, A. Leiva, E. Santiago-Valentín, D.W. Stevenson, P. Acevedo-Rodríguez, A.W.Meerow, M. Mejía, C. Clubbe, J. Francisco-OrtegaPlant conservation in the Caribbean Island biodiversity hotspot Bot. Rev., 74 (2008), pp. 197-207

      Authors review how human efforts made towards plant conservation can have an effect on the biodiversity of an area.

      Although both environmental and genetic factors are needed for the survival of a species, the authors note other factors such as understanding the taxonomy, systematics and ecology of the flora, can be just as important in the survival of plant species.

    3. Höglund, 2009 J. HöglundEvolutionary Conservation Genetics Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009)

      The authors review the role of inheritance in the survival of a population.

      Although gene variability is important in a population, the authors note that the inheritance of the genes responsible for this variability may also play a major role in ensuring either extinction or survival of a population.

    4. Giovino et al., 2014 A. Giovino, S. Scibetta, S. Saia, C. GuarinoGenetic and morphologic diversity of European fan palm (Chamaerops humilis L.) populations from different environments from Sicily Bot. J. Linn. Soc., 176 (2014), pp. 66-81

      The authors review the contribution of genetic diversity in the survival of species of palms.

      The authors note that there is a clear relationship between genetic variability in a population and its chances of survival in degrading or changing environments.

    5. Foxx, 2012 R.M. FoxxTe Terre a fatige ‘the Earth is tired’: reversing deforestation in Haiti Behavio. Interv., 27 (2012), pp. 105-108

      Foxx addresses the prevalent issue in Haiti regarding a major lack of plant biodiversity due to both human and natural forces.

      Although very little can be done to combat natural disasters responsible for the decline in biodiversity in Haiti, the author notes that reforestation can at the very least lessen the effects that the aforementioned has on both the country and the planet.

    6. Duminil et al., 2009 J. Duminil, O.J. Hardy, R.J. PetitPlant traits correlated with generation time directly affect inbreeding depression and mating system and indirectly genetic structure BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (2009), p. 177

      Duminil and his team, reviewed how a plant’s generation time can affect their genetic structure.

      The authors note that the mating system of plants has a great influence in genetic differentiation between different species and that generation time can affect this mating system in some species, therefore, modifying genetic drift and flow in a population.

    7. erazaín Iturralde et al., 2005 R. Berazaín Iturralde, F. Areces Berazaín, J.C. Lazcano Lara, L.R. González TorresLista roja de la flora vascular cubana Doc. Jard. Bot. Atlántico, 4 (2005), pp. 1-86

      The authors review the implications leading to and from red-listing flora in Cuba.

      The focus surrounds the reinforcement of conservation of species that were part of the red-list, this paper notes that the global loss of biodiversity is a current issue which can affect areas like Cuba where environmentally there is potential for greater biodiversity.

    8. Alscher, 2011 S. AlscherEnvironmental degradation and migration on Hispaniola island Int. Migr., 49 (s1) (2011), pp. e164-e188

      The authors explore the the concept of environmental degradation as an incentive leading to migration as a survival strategy of C. jimenezii.

      Given the observed endangerment of C. jimenezii, the authors sought out answers outside of the C. jimenezii genetic makeup which could have led to the migration of the plants and how this affected their survival.

    9. llendorf and Luikart, 2007 F.W. Allendorf, G. LuikartConservation and the Genetics of Populations Blackwell, Malden (2007)

      Allendorf and Luikart review the genetic challenges responsible for the conservation of a population threatened with extinction.

      Although the authors concentrate on the genetic factors concerning plant conservation, they note that a true understanding of both plant and animal genetics is necessary to gather the tools needed to preserve a given species.

    10. Abbott et al., 1985 L.A. Abbott, F.A. Bisby, D.J. RogersTaxonomic Analysis in Biology Columbia University Press, New York (1985)

      Abbott along his team of researchers, reviews the role taxonomy plays in understanding the origin of the species and such species’ proper conservation.

      The authors recognize that differences in taxa, due to genetic variability, may affect the species’ overall survival and ultimate conservation methods which may currently be contributing to their endangerment.

    1. True JR, Carroll SB, (2002) Gene co-option in physiological and morphological evolution. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 18:53–80.

      The authors review how new functions can evolve when existing genes gain new functions.

    2. Visick KL, McFall-Ngai MJ, (2000) An exclusive contract: Specificity in the Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes partnership. J Bacteriol 182:1779–1787

      Visick and Mc-Fall-Ngai review the contributions of Vibrio fischeri to the development of the light organ as Euprymna scolopes matures.

    3. Nealson KH, Hastings JW, (1979) Bacterial bioluminescence: Its control and ecological significance. Microbiol Rev 43:496–518.

      Review of bioluminescence in bacteria. Examines the possible role bioluminescence plays for the bacteria as well as some of the organisms that have symbiotic relationships with these bacteria.

    4. Visick KL, Foster JF, Doino J, McFall-Ngai M, Ruby EG, (2000) Vibrio fischeri lux genes play an important role in colonization and development of the host light organ. J Bacteriol 182:4578–4586.

      Study showing that E. scolopes is only able to undergo normal development if V. fischeri possesses the ability to produce luminescence.

    5. Crookes WJ, et al., (2004) Reflectins: The unusual proteins of squid reflective tissues. Science 303:235–238.

      Study that looked at the reflective tissues of the light organ and established their similarity to the reflective tissues found in the eye.

    6. Young RE, Roper CFE, Walters JF, (1979) Eyes and extraocular photoreceptors in midwater cephalopods and fishes: Their roles in detecting downwelling light for counterillumination. Mar Biol (Berlin) 51:371–380.

      Early study providing evidence that, in addition to signals coming from the eyes, extraocular photoreceptors also provide signals that contribute to the ability of some species of squid to be able to adjust the amount of light they produce to match the downwelling light in the environment.

    7. Young RE, Roper CF, (1976) Bioluminescent countershading in midwater animals: Evidence from living squid. Science 191:1046–1048.

      Early study detailing physical evidence that some species of squid are able to adjust the amount of light they produce to match the ambient light in the environment, a process called counterillumination.

    8. Terakita A, (2005) The opsins. Genome Biology 6:213.

      Review paper outlining the seven subfamilies of opsins, their functions, and possible phylogenetic relationships.

    1. A. D. Simmons, C. D. Thomas, Am. Nat. 164, 378–395 (2004).

      The researchers examined bush crickets with variability in wing shape. Crickets on the edge of the range had a higher frequency of long wings which aid in dispersal, compared to the individuals at the core of the range which had fewer long-winged individuals. While long-wings allow for better dispersal, they reduce reproduction, which may be why the core population evolves to have fewer long-winged individuals.

    2. E. Pachepsky, J. M. Levine, Am. Nat. 177, 18–28 (2011).

      Looks at the effect of density dependence on the spread of annual plants through a patchy habitat. It was seen that landscape patchiness and the number of annual plant invaders worked together to create a strong role for density dependence. Furthermore, infraspecific competition was seen to limit the spread of annuals through patchy landscapes by limiting the production speed of seeds in plants. Density dependence was not seen when continuous density was used.

    3. J. L. Williams, R. E. Snyder, J. M. Levine, Am. Nat. 188, 15–26 (2016).

      This study looks at the role of evolution in spreading populations in patchy landscapes. While natural selection typically favors organisms who produce many offspring, in these patchy landscapes, organisms that tolerated competition but produced less offspring performed better.

    1. I. Fried, C. L. Wilson, K. A. MacDonald, E. J. Behnke, Nature 391, 650 (1998).

      Doctors performing brain surgery were able to cause the patient to laugh by electrically stimulating the anterior supplementary motor area. This area of the brain is also involved in human speech.

    2. S. J. Blakemore, D. M. Wolpert, C. D. Frith, Nat. Neurosci. 1, 635–640 (1998).

      This paper describes the use of fMRI brain scans of humans experiencing externally produced tickling or self-produced tickling.

      The authors conclude that the somatosensory cortex is active in response to tickling and that the cerebellum plays a role in muting this response during self-produced tickling.

    3. C. R. Harris, N. Christenfeld, Cogn. Emotion 11, 103–110 (1997).

      Harris and Christenfeld showed that comedy-induced laughter does not increase subsequent tickle-induced laughter and vice versa.

    1. J. Stout, D. Goulson , The influence of nectar secretion rates on the responses of bumblebees (Bombusspp.) to previously visited flowers. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 52, 239–246 (2002).

      Stout and Goulson worked to identify how the nectar secretion rate of a given plant influences the response of bumble bees returning to it after it has already been visited.

      From this, Stout and Goulson developed a model that determines how long a bumble bee will avoid a recently visited flower whose nectar has been depleted based off of the nectar secretion rate of that flower.

    2. R. Levins, Evolution in Changing Environments: Some Theoretical Explorations (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 1968).

      Levins worked to identify how populations physiologically and behaviorally adapt to both short and long term changes in the conditions of their environment.

      From this, Levins identified how populations of different species spatially divide their environment among themselves, allowing one to estimate how many species can coexist within a given area.

    3. D. Goulson, E. Nicholls, C. Botías, E. L. Rotheray, Science 347, 1255957 (2015).

      Goulson and colleagues worked to identify the reasons behind the decline in populations of bees. Reasons include parasites, a decline in flower populations, and an increased use of pesticides.

      It is noted that efforts to reduce the use of pesticides and to increase the population of flowers visited by bees should be developed.

    4. P. R. Elsen, M. W. Tingley, Nat. Clim. Change. 5, 772–776 (2015).

      Elsen and Tingley worked to determine how the topography of a given mountain influences its relative susceptibility to climate change. From that they looked into how populations inhabiting a given mountain will migrate in reaction to climate change.

    5. R. B. Miller, Evolution 35, 763–774 (1981).

      Miller worked to identify how Hawkmoths influence the physical variation seen in Colorado Blue Columbine (Aquilegia caerulea) in different areas.

      Miller found that areas containing moths with longer tongues also feature plants with longer floral spurs.

    6. D. P. Vázquez, N. Blüthgen, L. Cagnolo, N. P. Chacoff, Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 103, 1445–1457 (2009).

      Vazquez and colleagues review the patterns within ecosystem networks that lead to plant - animal mutualisms.

      Vazquez and colleagues identify many mechanisms that produce mutualisms. It is noted that the relative influence of each mechanism on the production of a mutualism is still unknown.

    7. R. Bommarco, O. Lundin, H. G. Smith, M. Rundlöf, Proc. Biol. Sci. 279, 309–315 (2012).

      Bommarco and colleagues worked to determine how the composition of bumble bee populations have shifted in Sweden.

      It is noted that species richness and evenness of population composition should be developed to promote healthy ecosystems.

  4. Feb 2018
    1. S. Vrontou, A. M. Wong, K. K. Rau, H. R. Koerber, D. J. Anderson, Nature 493, 669–673 (2013)

      The authors identify subgroups of sensory neurons in hairy skin that detect either pleasant sensations (stroking or massage) or unpleasant sensations.

    1. B. J. Cardinale, K. L. Matulich, D. U. Hooper, J. E. Byrnes, E. Duffy, L. Gamfeldt, P. Balvanera, M. I. O'Connor, A. Gonzalez, The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. Am. J. Bot. 98, 572–592 (2011).

      Cardinale reviews the roles of "primary producer" biodiversity with respect to ecological processes critical to the functionality and health of terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

    2. J. E. K. Byrnes, L. Gamfeldt, F. Isbell, J. S. Lefcheck, J. N. Griffin, A. Hector, B. J. Cardinale, D. U. Hooper, L. E. Dee, J. E. Duffy, Investigating the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality: Challenges and solutions. Methods Ecol. Evol. 5, 111–124 (2014).

      Byrne's review focuses on the impacts of assemblage diversity on ecosystem functions.

      This study acknowledges the impact of diversity on resource utilization and thus productivity, however the focus is on the characterization of multi-functionality.

    3. C. Fissore, J. Espeleta, E. A. Nater, S. E. Hobbie, P. B. Reich, Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset fossil-fuel emissions in the upper midwestern US. Front. Ecol. Environ. 8, 409–413 (2010).

      Fissore's review argues that carbon sequestration by forests in the midwest cannot off-set fossil fuel based carbon dioxide emissions. The study compares hypothetical scenarios necessary to offset significant proportions of the carbon dioxide emissions by converting landscapes into carbon sequestering species.

    4. R. F. Follett, Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil Tillage Res. 61, 77–92 (2001).

      Follett discusses the role organic soils play in the movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the soil. This review characterizes terrestrial soils as carbon sinks which is important for crop management.

    5. R. Sedjo, B. Sohngen, Carbon sequestration in forests and soils, in Annual Review of Resource Economics, G. C. Rausser, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 2012), vol. 4, pp. 126–143.

      Sejo discusses the role species richness plays in affecting economic value.

      This review puts emphasis on the role of biodiversity on marginal economic value represented as carbon storage for conservation efforts.

    6. T. L. Daniels, Integrating forest carbon sequestration into a cap-and-trade program to reduce net CO2 emissions. J. Am. Plann. Assoc. 76, 463–475 (2010).

      Daniels reviews the role the forests play in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. His focus however is primarily advocating for including carbon sequestering by forests into management plans or a cap-and-trade program.

    7. P. B. Reich, D. Tilman, S. Naeem, D. S. Ellsworth, J. Knops, J. Craine, D. Wedin, J. Trost, Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 10101–10106 (2004).

      Reich compares the role of CO2 and N2 on species richness and functional group diversity.

      This study compares the roles of functional group diversity and species richness on biomass accumulation in an elevated CO2 and N2 environment.

    8. D. A. Fornara, D. Tilman, Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. J. Ecol. 96, 314–322 (2008).

      Fornara reviews the mechanisms that control carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils.

      The review covers the relationships between biodiversity and carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils, with an emphasis on the C3 and C4 grasses.

    9. A. D. Barnosky, N. Matzke, S. Tomiya, G. O. U. Wogan, B. Swartz, T. B. Quental, C. Marshall, J. L. McGuire, E. L. Lindsey, K. C. Maguire, B. Mersey, E. A. Ferrer, Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471, 51–57 (2011).

      Barnosky discusses the events known as mass extinctions and compares the rates of extinction for these events to modern rates of extinction.

    1. A. Cózar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 10239–10244 (2014).

      This research examined the sizes and locations of plastic particles found in the world's oceans. When plastic objects in the ocean are exposed to sunlight, they tend to break up into small particles because the sunlight weakens the plastic structure and waves provide mechanical force. The small plastic particles are quite durable. Most of the plastic debris recovered and measured during this study was about 2 mm in diameter. The total amount of plastic in the ocean estimated by this study was less than predicted from plastics production and input rates. The "missing" plastics were hypothesized to be removed through one or more of the following processes: shore deposition (being deposited on shore somewhere), nano-fragmentation (breaking up into very small pieces), biofouling (small organisms grow on the plastic particles, and the plastics become heavy enough to sink), and ingestion (being consumed by marine life). The pathway and fate of the "missing" plastic is unknown.

    2. H. S. Carson et al., Mar. Environ. Res. 84, 76–83 (2013).

      This study looked at the sources and fate of local marine debris near the Hawaiian islands. Debris from a large community was captured using surface traps, and wooden drifters were released to examine the effect of nearshore currents and tides on debris distribution. This study demonstrated that local pollutants can be retained nearby, contribute to the island's debris-accumulation area, and quickly spread to other islands.

    3. R. W. Obbard et al., Earth’s Future 2, 315–320 (2014).

      When sea ice forms, it traps particulate matter from the water column such as microplastics. When sea ice melts, the particulate matter is released back into the ecosystem. This study examines the concentration of microplastics in Arctic Sea ice and finds that sea ice contains high concentrations of microplastics and other man-made particulates. Melting sea ice has the potential to release large amounts of microplastics back into the ocean.

    4. R. E. Marshall, K. Farahbakhsh, Waste Manag. 33, 988–1003 (2013).

      This article compares and contrasts solid waste management (SWM) practices in developed versus developing countries. SWM practices in industrialized countries are often affected by public health, the environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation. However, urbanization, inequality, economic growth and socio-economic factors often complicate SWM in developing countries.

    5. M. Braungart, Nature 494, 174–175 (2013).

      This article discusses the idea of designing buildings and objects to be made using the minimum of materials and a maximum of efficiency. 3D printing and biodegradable materials are explored as examples of ways to improve product design and reduce waste.

    6. “2013 resin review” (American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC, 2013).

      This document released by the American Chemistry Council is a reference book on plastic resins. It contains information about North American resin production, sales, industry capacities, and utilization rates from 2002-2012. Sales data are presented for various end-use markets, and tables show historical trends from 1973 to 2012. The publication explains the basic chemistry of plastics and manufacturing processes. It also details the history of plastics development and modern-day applications and provides a glossary of basic plastics terms. Jambeck et al. used this reference to estimate the amounts of plastic production in North America and plastic in the U.S. waste stream.

    1. 12.Noriega FG (2004) Nutritional regulation of JH synthesis: a mechanism to control reproductive maturation in mosquitoes? Insect Biochem Molec Biol 34: 687–693.

      The juvenile hormone is the most important hormone to all insects, especially in adult female Aedes aegypti. This mosquito uses nutrients to boost JH levels which increases reproduction.

    1. Wardle, C. S.​​​​​​​ (1975). Limit of fish swimming speed. Nature 255, 725-727.doi:10.1038/255725a0

      This paper considers the various characteristics that limit the swimming speed of fish. For one, it analyzes how smaller fish are capable of higher tail beat frequencies than larger fish. Also, that the stride length of a fish is not longer than the fish's size. Furthermore, swimming speed is limited by the contraction time of swimming muscle so maximum swimming speeds are determined by muscle contraction time and stride length.

    2. Iosilevskii, G. and Weihs, D. (2008). Speed limits on swimming of fishes and cetaceans. J. R. Soc. Interface 20, 329-338. doi:10.1098/rsif.2007.1073

      The paper analyzes the limitations that stop fish from swimming faster. Small fish are held back by the power available, and larger fish are limited by cavitation.

    3. Brill, R. W. (1996). Selective advantages conferred by the high performance physiology of tunas, billfishes, and dolphin Fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Comp. Physiol. 13A, 3-15.doi:10.1016/0300-9629(95)02064-0

      In this review the author talks about the characteristics that give tuna fish high performance. These characteristics include 3 things: high rates of somatic and gonadal growth, rates of digestion, and rates of recovery from exhaustive exercise. This study uses these findings to defy the myth that sailfish and other pelagic fish just have high maximum swimming speeds that allows them to avoid cavitation.

    1. DeGennaro M, McBride CS, Seeholzer L, Nakagawa T, Dennis EJ, Goldman C, Jasinskiene N, James AA, Vosshall LB.. orco mutant mosquitoes lose strong preference for humans and are not repelled by volatile DEET. Nature 2013; 498:487-91;

      Dr. DeGennaro established techniques to edit the genome of mosquitoes. He created the first mosquito mutant using zinc-finger nucleases to initiate the molecular genetic analysis of olfactory receptor function in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. His work revealed new knowledge about the integration of host cues, mosquito host-preferences, mosquito nectar-seeking, and the mechanism of DEET repellency.

      Dr. DeGennaro demonstrated that the mosquitoes use the OR/ORCO olfactory receptor pathway to respond to human odors and DEET as well as nectar volatile. His work implicated the Ionotropic Receptor family of olfactory receptors in host-seeking mosquitoes. Additionally, he showed that DEET repels mosquitoes through ORCO-dependent olfaction and an unidentified taste receptor.

    1. C.-F. Schleussner, T. K. Lissner, E. M. Fischer, J. Wohland, M. Perrette, A. Golly, >J. Rogelj, K. Childers, J.Schewe, K. Frieler, M. Mengel, W. Hare, M. Schaeffer, Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming: The case of 1.5°C and 2°C. Earth Syst. Dyn. Discuss. 6, 2447–2505 (2015)

      Schleussner and co-authors assessed the impacts of reaching the 1.5°C and 2.0°C thresholds for a number of variables, at a regional level. They found large differences in the impacts of the two scenarios, covering a range of issues from the fraction of global coral reefs at risk of annual bleaching to heat wave duration.

    1. Caragata, E. P., Rancès, E., Hedges, L. M., Gofton, A. W., Johnson, K. N., O'Neill, S. L. and McGraw, E. A. (2013).Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia. PLoS Pathog. 9, e1003459.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus reviewed articles that explored how cholesterol affects Wolbachia, while further questioning how this may improve the overall pathogenic blocking capabilities of their host.

    2. Bordenstein, S. R. and Bordenstein, S. R. (2011). Temperature affects the tripartite interactions between bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and cytoplasmic incompatibility. PLoS ONE 6, e29106. Boyle, L., O'Neill, S. L., Robertson, H. M. and Karr, T. L. (1993). Interspecific and intraspecific horizontal transfer of Wolbachia in Drosophila. Science 260, 1796-1799.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus review the contributions made by authors regarding the transfer and survival/ compatibility of Wolbachia in various environments.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus further investigate the effects of Wolbachia on Drosophila in a high or low sucrose concentrated environment.

    3. Christensen, S., Pérez Dulzaides, R., Hedrick, V. E., Momtaz, A. J. M. Z., Nakayasu, E. S., Paul, L. N. and Serbus, L. R. (2016). Wolbachia endosymbionts modify Drosophila ovary protein levels in a context-dependent manner. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82, 5354-5363.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus further explore a topic primarily researched by Serbus on how Drosophila ovaries are modified by Wolbachia.

    4. Dale, C. and Moran, N. A. (2006). Molecular interactions between bacterial symbionts and their hosts. Cell 126, 453-465.

      While Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus specified which interactions between bacterial symbionts and their hosts. The mechanism by which this interaction occurs is still unclear.

    5. Mouton, L., Henri, H., Charif, D., Bouletreau, M. and Vavre, F. (2007). Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis. Biol. Lett. 3, 210-213. Musselman, L. P., Fink, J. L., Narzinski, K., Ramachandran, P. V., Hathiramani, S. S., Cagan, R. L. and Baranski, T. J. (2011). A high-sugar diet produces obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type Drosophila. Dis. Model. Mech. 4, 842-849.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus further explored how the Wolbachia titer increased depending on the type of sugar product fed to the Drosophila.

    6. Teixeira, L., Ferreira, A. and Ashburner, M. (2008). The bacterial symbiont Wolbachia induces resistance to RNA viral infections in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Biol. 6, e2.

      The information presented in this paper explores how the information presented by Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus is relevant. It states that according to the endosymbitic behavior of Wolbachia, the susceptibility of the host organism to viral RNA infections may be diminished due to the resistance of Wolbachia to those viral RNA infections.

    7. Wang, M. and Wang, C. (1993). Characterization of glucose transport system in Drosophila Kc cells. FEBS Lett. 317,241-244.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus used the knowledge presented in this article to maximize the efficacy of the consumption of the varied glucose by Drosophila.

    8. Serbus, L. R., White, P. M., Silva, J. P., Rabe, A., Teixeira, L., Albertson, R. and Sullivan, W. (2015). The impact of host diet on Wolbachia titer in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 11, e1004777.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus used a previously published article from Serbus to delve into the specifics of how the host diet impacts Wolbachia titer.

    9. Ponton, F., Wilson, K., Holmes, A., Raubenheimer, D., Robinson, K. L. and Simpson, S. J. (2015). Macronutrients mediate the functional relationship between Drosophila and Wolbachia. Proc. Biol. Sci. 282, 20142029.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus demonstrate how macronutrients mediate the functional relationship between Drosophila and Wolbachia, by using sucrose and its dietary variants to create an environment allowing the Drosophila to thrive and the Wolbachia to proliferate within the Drosophila.

    10. Min, K.-T. and Benzer, S. (1997). Wolbachia, normally a symbiont of Drosophila, can be virulent, causing degeneration and early death. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 10792-10796.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus explain the relevance of parasitic Wolbachia being detrimental to the growth and oocyte growth of the Drosophila.

    1. Steel, M., and D. Penny. 2000. Parsimony, likelihood, and the role of models in molecular phylogenetics. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17:839–850.

      Throughout their research, Steel and Penny explicate the connection between maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML). According to the paper, they state that there can be a link between both methods when there is no common mechanism between sites. Moreover, throughout this process, Steel and Penny clarify disputed points between the two methods. It was concluded that neither models outperform the other when it comes to recovering the tree.

      This paper utilizes this source to support which method would more accurately perform the recovery of the tree. Furthermore, the authors wanted to assure those interested in their work that a variety of techniques including several models of ML and MP if special claims are made can be used.

    2. Saccone, C., G. Pesole, and G. Preparata. 1989. DNA microenvironments and the molecular clock. J. Mol. Evol. 29:407–411.

      During their study, Saccone, Pesole, and Preparata concluded that only homologous gene pairs, which whom are also stationary, are truly reliable to consistently provide with trustworthy determinations of phylogeny. Nonstationary genes, in comparison, resulted in outstandingly high rate values eventually resulting in possible systematic failure.

      This paper uses such sources as reinforcement of their results as stationary genes were proved to be better supporters in the construction of phylogenetic trees, or in phylogeny overall, providing superior results with an increased level of confidence.

    3. Gee, H. 2003. Ending incongruence. Nature 425:782. Phillips, M. J., F. Delsuc, and D. Penny. 2004. Genome-scale phylogeny and the detection of systematic biases. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21:1455–1458.

      In this paper, Gee concluded that there were no guidelines or factors that could measure the performance of a certain gene.The reason why the author of this paper uses it is to highlight the importance of stationary genes and how helpful they are for generating phylogenetic genes.

    4. Rokas, A., B. L. Williams, N. King, and S. B. Carroll. 2003. Genome-scale approaches to resolving incongruence in molecular phylogenies. Nature 425:798–804.

      In his study, Rokas came to the conclusion that there are no genes that provide more phylogenetic information than others. This led him to believe that in order to create an accurate phylogenetic tree, one would have to study the whole genome of an organism. He believed that an infinite amount of genes will result in an infinite amount of accuracy, which is why he claimed that most phylogenetic trees at the moment were probably inaccurate.

      In this paper, the conclusions Rokas came to were disproven by the experiments carried out. Stationary genes were discovered to be better contributors to a phylogenetic tree and are needed only in a relatively small amount to create an accurate tree.

  5. Jan 2018
    1. 1. Schreck CE. Techniques for the evaluation of insect repellents: a critical review. Annu Rev Entomol1977; 22:101-19; PMID:319738; http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.22.010177.000533 [PubMed][Cross Ref]

      References 1-4 work together in unison to help support the authors statement when saying that DEET is an effective and widely used insect repellent. Sources one, two and four aim to show how DEET sizes up against other repellants, while source number three take a more in depth look into why DEET functions the way it does.

    2. 62. Stanczyk NM, Brookfield JFY, Ignell R, Logan JG, Field LM.. Behavioral insensitivity to DEET in Aedes aegypti is a genetically determined trait residing in changes in sensillum function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107:8575-80; PMID:20439757; http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1001313107 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

      Mosquitoes have an inheritable "immunity" to DEET that seems to express itself as a dominant gene that affects the way they respond to olfactory stimuli, in this case people.

    3. 59. Sanford JL, Shields VDC, Dickens JC.. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. 2013; 100:269-73; PMID:23407786 [PubMed]

      Just as a expressed in source fifty-eight, mosquitoes seem to express distaste towards DEET. Gustatory receptors in Aedis aegypti sense a bitter taste from the repellent, and that gives the mosquito negative feedback, discouraging feeding.

    4. 58. Bar-Zeev M, Smith CN. Action of repellents on mosquitoes feeding through treated membranes or on treated blood. J Econ Entomol 1959; 52:263-7; http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/52.2.263 [Cross Ref]

      DEET can be considered a "multi-modal" repellent as contributed by the many studies that show its ability to deflect mosquitoes on an olfactory level and, as a demonstrated in this study, a gustatory one. It was found that mosquitoes would not feed on blood treated with DEET, even if they penetrated a feeding membrane with their proboscis.

    5. Syed Z, Leal WS.. Mosquitoes smell and avoid the insect repellent DEET. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA2008; 105:13598-603; PMID:18711137; http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805312105 [PMC free article][PubMed] [Cross Ref]

      In their paper, Syed & Leal, 2008, test the effects DEET has on the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) in mosquitoes. They aim to debunk the former hypothesis that DEET masks the lactic acid odor, attractive to mosquitoes, and naturally produced by humans. Syed & Leal rather suggest, through evidence, that mosquitoes smell DEET and avoid it through their response sense activated by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs)

    6. Grant AJ, Dickens JC.. Functional characterization of the octenol receptor neuron on the maxillary palps of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. PLoS ONE 2011; 6:e21785; PMID:21738794; http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021785 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

      Grant & Dickens, 2011 attempt to investigate the effects of multiple repellents on the vertebrate-secreted, mosquito-attractant odor known as octenol. The study compared repellants 2-undecanone, DEET, and IR3535, and picardin. Overall, they mentioned how repellents affect the mosquito's octenol receptor on its neuron which senses these odors. Specifically, their neurons are attracted to the R enantiomer of octenol rather than the S.

    7. Davis EE. A receptor sensitive to oviposition site attractants on the antennae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. J Comp Physiol 1976; 105:43-54;

      Davis & Sokolove, 1976 investigate the role of DEET on Lactic Acid neurons. They propose that Lactic acid (LA) chemoreceptors located on the mosquito antennae were affected by DEET. DEET inhibited the LA-sensitive neurons, hence concluding that the DEET repellant inhibits the mosquitoes ability to detect and track its host.

    8. 7. McCabe Insect repellents. III. N,N- Diethylamides. J Org Chem 1954; 19:493-8; http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo01369a003 [Cross Ref] 8. Gilbert IH, Gouck HK. Evaluation of repellents against mosquitoes in Panama. The Florida Entomologist 1955; 38:153-63; http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3492706 [Cross Ref]

      Source seven discusses how chemists tested many different compounds as possible key ingredients in repellents, with diethylamides being the focus of their attention. Source eight expands upon this somewhat to show how the repellency of a diethylamide was capable of warding off many species of mosquitoes in Panama during testing.

    9. 5. Knippling EF, Mcalister LC, Jones HA. Results of screening tests with materials evaluated as insecticides, miticides, and repellents at the Orlando, Fla., laboratory. April 1942 to April 1947. USDA Publication E-733; 1947. 6. Travis BV, Morton FA, Jones HA, Robinson JH.. The more effective mosquito repellents tested at the Orlando, Fla., Laboratory, 1942-47. J Econ Entomol 1949; 42:686-94; PMID:18138206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/42.4.686 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

      Testing of different compounds was necessary to determine an effective repellent against the prime target, Aedis aegypti.

    10. Fradin MS, Day JF.. Comparative efficacy of insect repellents against mosquito bites. N Engl J Med2002; 347:13-8; PMID:12097535; http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa011699 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

      Fradin & Day, 2002 suggest that in comparison with repellant IR3535, three types of repellant impregnated wristbands, and a topical moisturizer repellant, DEET repellant was the most effective while conducting their study which was controlled for mosquito age, species, hunger level, and other environmental factors. DEET has been shown the most effective with respect to duration of repellency which was also positively correlated with the amount of DEET applied.

    11. Cooper E, Iqbal A, Bartlett A, Marriott C, Whitfield PJ, Brown MB.. A comparison of topical formulations for the prevention of human schistosomiasis. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004; 56:957-62; PMID:15285838; http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/0022357043996

      Cooper et al., 2004 suggest that DEET is effective in repellency against cercariae more effectively than regular topical formulations. When DEET was incorporated in silicone-based formulations or Cetomacrogol-based (CMO) formulations it was more effective. DEET is so effective because of its toxicity against the cercariae. The dimeticone formulation however- without incorporation of DEET- also helped to protect as the topical formula was better absorbed in the stratum corneum (skin) and blocked cercariae recognition of the skin.

    1. P. F. A. Maderson, When? Why? and How?: Some speculations on evolution of vertebrate integument. Am. Zool. 12, 159–171 (1972).

      A 1970's review discussing the formation of integuments (hard, protective layers covering the body), scales, and hair.

      The paper explores the different hypotheses of the time, including scaled animals as precursors to nonscaled animals, ossified (bony) scales as a precursor to the scales found on today's reptiles, and the evolution of hair from sensory appendages.

    2. A. M. Turing, The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 237, 37–72 (1952).

      In this landmark paper, Turing proposes the reaction diffusion theory to explain morphogenesis.

      This theory states that when two chemicals react with each other they diffuse to form chemical gradients. These gradients form patterns that direct morphogenesis.

    3. R. B. Widelitz, T.-X. Jiang, J. Lu, C.-M. Chuong, b-catenin in epithelial morphogenesis: Conversion of part of avian foot scales into feather buds with a mutated b-catenin. Dev. Biol. 219, 98–114 (2000).

      Explores the role of β-catenin, which is expressed in the placode.

      When this protein was mutated in chickens, their feet were scaleless and they had abnormal feather growth.

    4. C. Blanpain, E. Fuchs, Epidermal stem cells of the skin. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 22, 339–373 (2006).

      Reviews the development of skin cells that give rise to hairs.

      A hair placode forms, allowing the expression of genes that direct skin cell and hair follicle development.

    5. J. M. Musser, G. P. Wagner, R. O. Prum, Nuclear b-catenin localization supports homology of feathers, avian scutate scales, and alligator scales in early development. Evol. Dev. 17, 185–194 (2015).

      Explores the relationship between feathers and scales.

      Visualization of the location and amount of β-catenin during the development of feathers and scales revealed similar patterns between the two. The authors concluded that feathers and scales share an evolutionary ancestor.

    6. D. Dhouailly, A new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair, feather, and avian scales. J. Anat. 214, 587–606 (2009).

      Proposed the theory that mammalian hair evolved from glandular structures, whereas reptile and bird skin evolved from a thick protective coating.

    7. P. F. A.Maderson,Mammalian skin evolution: A reevaluation. Exp. Dermatol. 12, 233–236 (2003).

      A revision to a 1972 model of how mammalian hair evolved.

      This new model proposes that the development of hair was caused by mutations in patterning genes, which resulted in hair becoming more useful insulation.

    8. M. C. Milinkovitch, L. Manukyan, A. Debry, N. Di-Poï, S. Martin, D. Singh, D. Lambert, M. Zwicker, Crocodile head scales are not developmental units but emerge from physical cracking. Science 339, 78–81 (2013).

      This paper discusses the way that crocodile head scales form. Unlike feathers, hair, and other scales, crocodile facial scales are formed when growing cells physically crack to form unique patterns.

    1. R. C. Thompson, C. J. Moore, F. S. vom Saal, S. H. Swan, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 364, 2153–2166 (2009).

      This review article summarizes the uses humans have for plastics, the effects of plastics on the living and nonliving parts of the environment, and future concerns about the manufacture and disposal of plastic products.

    2. Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online.

      Articles in Science are very brief. Supplementary materials available online can include text or images such as figures and graphs. Supplementary materials can provide additional information about how the research was conducted or additional evidence that supports the article's conclusions.

    3. “Probabilistic projections of total population: Median and confidence intervals,” (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, 2012); http://esa.un.org/unpd/ppp/Data-Output/ UN_PPP2010_output-data.htm.

      This population growth data from the United Nations was used to predict future amounts of plastic waste entering the ocean from individual countries.

  6. Dec 2017
    1. followed by failure to interbreed when partial connection between the oceans was reestablished

      Because of the long separation from one another, when some connection was established between either sides of the Isthmus, the shrimp pairs no longer had preferences to each other. Their extended sexual isolation probably had them adapted into altering their breeding behavior. ~J.D.A.

    2. Hence, pairs P5-C5 and P6-C6 probably separated during the period of marked shoaling and environmental divergence preceding final closure.

      P5-P6 pair were isolated from each other just before the final closing of the Panama seaway. This was due to shoaling of water and the environmental change that came with it. ~S.Z.

    3. 1. E. Mayr, Animal Species and Evolution (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1963).

      This paper contains discussion of species concepts and their application, morphological species characters and sibling species, biological properties of species, isolating mechanisms, hybridization, the variation and genetics of populations, storage and protection of genetic variation, the unity of the genotype, geographic variation, the polytypic species of the taxonomist, the population structure of species, kinds of species, multiplication of species, geographic speciation, the genetics of speciation, the ecology of speciation, and species and transpecific evolution. All of which can contribute a great deal to the topic of this paper. ~S.Z.

    4. D. S. Jordan, Am. Nat. 42, 73 (1908)

      Supports that a physical barrier will increase the chances of divergence between species creating two or more sub-species decedents . ~S.Z.

    5. J. A. Coyne and H. A. Orr, Evolution 43, 362 (1989). W. R. Rice, ibid., p. 223.

      The authors performed a similarly designed experiment to the one cited here which was done on drosophila (flies). This is to show that there are other species that have undergone staggered isolation through similar or even different events. (DV)

    6. D. L. Swofford, PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, version 3.1; (Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL, 1993).

      The authors used this source as a bases to analyze the snapping shrimps mitochondrial DNA data and arrange the organisms in a phylogenetic tree as seen in figure 1. (DV)

    7. J. H. Gillespie, The Causes of Molecular Evolution (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1991).

      The authors site this book as they are referring to the importance of having and maintaining genetic variation within a population. Also they might have utilized the mathematical theory of selection in a fluctuating environments, since the paper focuses on environmental and geographical changes affects on isolation. (DV)

    8. Genetic divergence before final closure may have been facilitated by changing oceanographic conditions

      Genetic divergence was observed to have occured at different moments when oceanic changes like the haulting of certain currents across the Panama seaway and the shallowing of certain areas. (DV)

    1. F. A. Ran et al., Cell 154, 1380–1389 (2013).

      This study investigated offset nicking as a means of reducing off-target modifications. The authors found that by using Cas9 mutants with sgRNAs, a targeted double-stranded break can be performed. Off-target activity was reduced 50- to 1000-fold with this technique.

    2. K. T. Flaherty et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 809–819 (2010).

      This study investigates the BRAF mutation in melanoma and the BRAF protein kinase inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX). The researchers found that PLX reduced tumor growth in cells that had a mutated BRAF gene.

    3. P. Mali et al., Science 339, 823–826 (2013).

      This study demonstrated that Cas9 is effective at introducing specific loss-of-function mutations in the genome and creating specific double-stranded breaks in DNA sequences.

    1. A. A. Ittner, A. Gladbach, J. Bertz, L. S. Suh, L. M. Ittner, p38 MAP kinase-mediated NMDA receptor-dependent suppression of hippocampal hypersynchronicity in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathol. Commun. 2, 149 (2014).

      In this study Ittner and others described the parts of the APP23 mouse model through artificial stimulation.

    2. S. Li, M. Jin, T. Koeglsperger, N. E. Shepardson, G. M. Shankar, D. J. Selkoe, Soluble Aβ oligomers inhibit long-term potentiation through a mechanism involving excessive activation of extrasynaptic NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. J. Neurosci. 31, 6627–6638 (2011).

      Li and others studied how amyloid beta affects synaptic plasticity, or the ability of synapse to weaken or strengthen. The amyloid beta increases activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs.

    3. Q. Wang, D. M. Walsh, M. J. Rowan, D. J. Selkoe, R. Anwyl, Block of long-term potentiation by naturally secreted and synthetic amyloid β-peptide in hippocampal slices is mediated via activation of the kinases c-Jun N-terminal kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5. J. Neurosci. 24, 3370–3378 (2004).

      Mucke and Selkoe show that amyloid beta binds to different parts of plasma membranes and induces neuronal dysfunction and disruption of networks.

    4. L. M. Ittner, Y. D. Ke, F. Delerue, M. Bi, A. Gladbach, J. van Eersel, H. Wölfing, B. C. Chieng, M. J.Christie, I. A. Napier, A. Eckert, M. Staufenbiel, E. Hardeman, J. Götz, Dendritic function of tau mediates amyloid-β toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease mouse models. Cell 142, 387–397 (2010).

      In this article, Ittner and others show that the absence of tau in amyloid beta-forming mice lessens the severity of amyloid beta toxicity. These results suggest that tau and amyloid beta together increase the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

    5. E. D. Roberson, K. Scearce-Levie, J. J. Palop, F. Yan, I. H. Cheng, T. Wu, H. Gerstein, G.-Q. Yu, L. Mucke, Reducing endogenous tau ameliorates amyloid β-induced deficits in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. Science 316, 750–754 (2007).

      Roberson and others conducted an experiment on mice to test targeting tau in Alzheimer’s as an effective treatment. The experiment showed that tau reduction can block amyloid beta neuronal dysfunction, showing that tau reduction could be a future effective treatment of Alzheimer’s.

    6. L. M. Ittner, J. Götz, Amyloid-β and tau—a toxic pas de deux in Alzheimer’s disease. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 12, 67–72 (2011).

      Ittner and Gӧtz review new findings showing the interactions of tau and amyloid beta. Tau can shift from the axon to the dendrite helping to mediate amyloid beta toxicity.

    7. C. Haass, D. J. Selkoe, Soluble protein oligomers in neurodegeneration: Lessons from the Alzheimer’s amyloid β-peptide. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 101–112 (2007).

      C. Haass, D. J. Selkoe,Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.8, 101–112(2007).: Haass and Selkoe show that in AD, small intermediates of amyloid beta, called oligomers, negatively affects synaptic structure and plasticity.

  7. Nov 2017
    1. 11

      Warming induced early leaf bud bursts, growth, and reproduction but did not effect senescence. Study was performed in multiple sites in the arctic region over a course of four years.

      RW

    2. Arft AM et al. 1999 Responses of tundra plants to experimental warming: meta-analysis of the International Tundra Experiment. E

      Warming induced early leaf bud bursts, growth, and reproduction but did not effect senescence. Study was performed in multiple sites in the arctic region over a course of four years.

      RW

    3. [4

      Sea ice decline due to global warming is effecting plant productivity in arctic regions.

      RW

    4. hatt US et al. 2010 Circumpolar Arctic tundra vegetation change is linked to sea ice decline. Earth Interact. 14, 1-20. (doi:10.1175/ 2010EI315.1

      Sea ice decline due to global warming is effecting plant productivity in arctic regions.

      RW

    5. haver GR, Kummerow J. 1992 Phenology, resource allocation, and growth of Arctic vascular plants. In Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate : an ecophysioiogical perspective (eds FS Chapin, RL Jefferies, JF Reynolds, GR Shaver, J Svoboda), pp. 193-211. San Diego, CA: Academic Pres

      Heat sum increases for flowering and senescence

      RW

    6. [12

      Heat sums have increased over time for flowering and senescence.

      RW

    1. Robbins WD, Hisano M, Connolly SR, Choat JH (2006) Ongoing collapse of coral reef shark populations. Current Biology 16: 2314–2319.

      This paper discusses how inefficient no-take zones are in protecting reef sharks. - Emily

    2. Large-Scale Absence of Sharks on Reefs in the Greater-Caribbean: A Footprint of Human Pressures

      This study was cited to illustrate the effect of marine reserves on the Caribbean sharks. The study found sharks to be less concentrated in areas of high human activity.

    3. Roberts CM, Bohnsack JA, Gell F, Hawkins JP, Goodridge R (2001) Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science 294: 1920–1923.

      The effects of marine reserves on fisheries is discussed in this paper. Marine reserves were sometimes controversial; however, they proved to be a supportive force in the quality and amount of fish caught by adjacent fisheries. - Emily

    4. Heupel MR, Simpfendorfer CA, Fitzpatrick R (2010) Largescale movement and reef fidelity of grey reef sharks. PLoS ONE 5: e9650.

      This article aided in emphasizing the concepts of site fidelity and the effect that migrations have on the density of shark populations in marine reserves. It built upon the idea that reserves increase the overall population of species inhabiting the area due to to the lack of fishing that occurs in these areas in contrast to non preserved locations. -Sindy

    1. Endara, M. J., and P. D. Coley. 2011. Functional Ecology 25: 389-398.

      This reference is very important in understanding how biodiversity and the ecosystem, particularly the fauna, relate to each-other. It sets the base to understanding how it is possible that species of insects and animals can prefer to live or even need to live in a certain fauna/ecosystem.

      -Otniel Gonzalez

    2. Ehrlich, P. R., and P. H. Raven. 1964. Evolution 18: 586-608.

      This reference played an important role in this paper since it also focuses on different insect types (specifically butterflies) and their relationships with a variety of plants. It also serves as a source that elaborated on plant defense mechanisms and how it correlates to herbivores. Although this paper's main focus revolved around evolution, it still brought up many important observations that were relevant to this paper.

      -Angela Mujica

    1. G. E. Hardingham, H. Bading, Synaptic versus extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signalling: Implications for neurodegenerative disorders. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11, 682–696 (2010).

      Hardingham and Bading show that NMDAR responses depend on receptor location. Synaptic NMDARs promotes cell survival, while stimulate of extrasynaptic NMDARs promotes cell death. The unequal stimulation of these receptors neuronal dysfunction, while stimulation of synaptic receptors could be used a protective therapy.

    2. C. Ballatore, V. M. Lee, J. Q. Trojanowski, Tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 663–672 (2007).

      Ballatore, Lee, and Trojanowski review and summarize the recent discoveries of tau-mediated neurodegeneration mechanisms and how they can understand AD progression and discover new drug treatments.

    1. Delport W, Poon AF, Frost SD, Kosakovsky Pond SL (2010) Datamonkey 2010: a suite of phylogenetic analysis tools for evolutionary biology. Bioinformatics 26:2455–2457.

      For this experiment to occur, there had to be some kind of data to support what is being presented. Datamonkey is a popular-based web suite of phylogenetic analysis tools for use in evolutionary biology. Analysis options fall into many different categories such as algorithmic methods for recombination detection, evolutionary fingerprinting of genes, codon model selection, co-evolution between sites, identification of sites, etc. For this paper, the data is based on evolution throughout the events and moments shown from these insects. https://academic.oup.com/bioinformatics/article/26/19/2455/228720

    2. Gempe T, Beye M (2011) Function and evolution of sex determination mechanisms, genes and pathways in insects. Bioessays 33:52–60. doi:10.1002/bies.201000043PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

      The article summarizes all recent findings of the time regarding sexual determination in drosophilids and other non-model insects. The primary concept remains that sexual determination depends on a shared gene switch present in both males and females of the same species. -Eri-Ray

    1. Hopkins, 1991

      The article written by Carl D. Hopkins provides the author with background informational on B.pinnicaudatus and on the electric organs found within the organism . B.pinnicaudatus is a gymmotiform discovered in French Guinea and can be found throughout South America. This species similar to other electric fish is able to generate a pulse-type electric-organ discharge. The two type of electric discharges generated by electric fish tend to a pulse or a wave. This species is part of the largest family that produce electric pulses . Within this species , the males are able to produce a longer discharge than female within the species. http://pages.nbb.cornell.edu/neurobio/hopkins/Reprints/Hypopomus%20Pinnicaudatus,%20a%20New%20Species.pdf -Michelle Oriana Gomez-Guevara

    2. Synchronized activation along the length of the electric organ implies effective mechanisms for compensation of neuronal propagation delays along the length of the EO (Bennett, 1971)

      Bennett's article analyzes the anatomy and physiology of the electric organs found within these electric fish. The membrane physiology of these electric organs evolved independently into six different groups and resulted in different membrane functions in different electrolyte which affect the electrorecption in the electric organism . Michelle Oriana Gomez-Guevara Note to Nick: I was only able to find a summary of the article and not the entire article. I checked google scholar, tried fiu library data and tried find it @FIU and I still was unable to find access to the article.

    1. Long-term nutrient enrichment decouples predator and prey production

      This article discusses the effect the addition of nutrients has on an aquatic ecosystem. Originally the author hypothesized an increase of energy transfer from prey to predators because of the increase of nutrients. However, this did not occur because the increase in nutrient led to an increase of predator resistant prey.

    2. Stream nutrient enrichment has a greater effect on coarse than on fine benthic organic matter

      This article discusses how an increase in nutrients affects the levels of coarse and fine organic litter. It was observed that there were higher levels of fine organic material which led to an increase in bacteria. However, in the stream with no nutrients added to it, there was an increase in both fungal and bacterial communities.

    3. Nutrient enrichment alters storage and fluxes of detritus in a headwater stream ecosystem

      This article demonstrates how the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus led to an increase in the production of fine organic compound by more than 300%. The article also mentions that this increase in fine organic compound will have an effect on the entire ecosystem in that area in the long term.

    4. Multiple trophic levels of a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs

      This article discusses the importance of terrestrial litter on an aquatic ecosystem. It was observed that organisms that lived in the stream that was being tested were affected the most by the absence of litter and the same effects could be observed throughout the entire ecosystem. However, terrestrial fauna was not affected meaning that it got its carbon from another source.

    5. Lakes and reservoirs as regulators of carbon cycling and climate.

      This article mentions the that the rate at which inland water sources release carbon dioxide is equivalent to the rate at which carbon is absorbed by the ocean. Methane is also being release in higher levels from lakes which are beginning to thaw because of increasing temperatures from global warming.

    6. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning

      This experiment was a pan-European research of more than 100 streams in multiple European countries. It helped determine the importance of litter breakdown and states that countries should begin to consider the importance of regulating nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems.

    7. Ecosystem metabolism and turnover of organic carbon along a blackwater river continuum

      This article discusses the respiration rate of an aquatic ecosystem and uses it to determine patterns of activity found within a river during different seasons. It was observed that there were higher levels of respiration when there were was more organic carbon in the river.

    8. Nutrient co-limitation of primary producer communities

      This article focuses on how nutrients affect the growth of primary producers. The factors that were observed to have the highest effects on the ecosystems were nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    9. Whole-system nutrient enrichment increases secondary production in a detritus-based ecosystem

      This article discusses how the addition of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem affects secondary production. It was noted that there was an increase in secondary consumers most likely caused because of an increase in prey. There was also an increase of secondary consumer predators. It is mentioned that the increase of nutrients in the two years the survey was done resulted in positive effects for the secondary consumers, however, this might eventually change as the carbon levels in the ecosystem begin to decline because of the higher nutrient levels.

    10. Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes

      This article discusses how human practices have led to a increase of nitrogen levels in lakes. The article also mentions that an increase of phosphorus in lakes resulted in the extraction of higher levels of nitrogen. However, the author also states that laws pertaining to the concentration of phosphorus in aquatic habitats should not be removed or relaxed because phosphorus can also have a negative effect on an ecosystem if found in high concentrations.

    1. Min, K.-T. and Benzer, S. (1997). Wolbachia, normally a symbiont of Drosophila, can be virulent, causing degeneration and early death. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 10792-10796.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus explain the relevance of parasitic Wolbachia being detrimental to the growth and oocyte growth of the Drosophila.

      GG

    2. Teixeira, L., Ferreira, A. and Ashburner, M. (2008). The bacterial symbiont Wolbachia induces resistance to RNA viral infections in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Biol. 6, e2.

      The information presented in this paper explores how the information presented by Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus is relevant. It states that according to the endosymbitic behavior of Wolbachia, the susceptibility of the host organism to viral RNA infections may be diminished due to the resistance of Wolbachia to those viral RNA infections.

      GG

    3. Ponton, F., Wilson, K., Holmes, A., Raubenheimer, D., Robinson, K. L. and Simpson, S. J. (2015). Macronutrients mediate the functional relationship between Drosophila and Wolbachia. Proc. Biol. Sci. 282, 20142029.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus demonstrate how macronutrients mediate the functional relationship between Drosophila and Wolbachia, by using sucrose and its dietary variants to create an environment allowing the Drosophila to thrive and the Wolbachia to proliferate within the Drosophila.

      GG

    4. Serbus, L. R., White, P. M., Silva, J. P., Rabe, A., Teixeira, L., Albertson, R. and Sullivan, W. (2015). The impact of host diet on Wolbachia titer in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 11, e1004777.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus used a previously published article from Serbus to delve into the specifics of how the host diet impacts Wolbachia titer.

      GG

    5. Mouton, L., Henri, H., Charif, D., Bouletreau, M. and Vavre, F. (2007). Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis. Biol. Lett. 3, 210-213. Musselman, L. P., Fink, J. L., Narzinski, K., Ramachandran, P. V., Hathiramani, S. S., Cagan, R. L. and Baranski, T. J. (2011). A high-sugar diet produces obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type Drosophila. Dis. Model. Mech. 4, 842-849.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus further explored how the Wolbachia titer increased depending on the type of sugar product fed to the Drosophila.

      GG

    6. Wang, M. and Wang, C. (1993). Characterization of glucose transport system in Drosophila Kc cells. FEBS Lett. 317,241-244.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus used the knowledge presented in this article to maximize the efficacy of the consumption of the varied glucose by Drosophila.

      GG

    7. Dale, C. and Moran, N. A. (2006). Molecular interactions between bacterial symbionts and their hosts. Cell 126, 453-465

      While Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus specified which interactions between bacterial symbionts and their hosts. The mechanism by which this interaction occurs is still unclear.

      GG

    8. Christensen, S., Pérez Dulzaides, R., Hedrick, V. E., Momtaz, A. J. M. Z., Nakayasu, E. S., Paul, L. N. and Serbus, L. R. (2016). Wolbachia endosymbionts modify Drosophila ovary protein levels in a context-dependent manner. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82, 5354-5363

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus further explore a topic primarily researched by Serbus on how Drosophilaovaries are modified by Wolbachia.

      GG

    9. Bordenstein, S. R. and Bordenstein, S. R. (2011). Temperature affects the tripartite interactions between bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and cytoplasmic incompatibility. PLoS ONE 6, e29106. Boyle, L., O'Neill, S. L., Robertson, H. M. and Karr, T. L. (1993). Interspecific and intraspecific horizontal transfer of Wolbachia in Drosophila. Science 260, 1796-1799.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus review the contributions made by authors regarding the transfer and survival/ compatibility of Wolbachia in various environments.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus further investigate the effects of Wolbachia on Drosophila in a high or low sucrose concentrated environment.

      GG

    10. Caragata, E. P., Rancès, E., Hedges, L. M., Gofton, A. W., Johnson, K. N., O'Neill, S. L. and McGraw, E. A. (2013).Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia. PLoS Pathog. 9, e1003459.

      Camacho, Oliva, and Serbus reviewed articles that explored how cholesterol affects Wolbachia, while further questioning how this may improve the overall pathogenic blocking capabilities of their host.

      GG

    1. D. S. Jordan, Am. Nat. 42, 73 (1908)

      Supports that a physical barrier will increase the chances of divergence between species creating two or more sub-species decedents . ~S.Z.

    2. E. Mayr, Animal Species and Evolution (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1963).

      This paper contains discussion of species concepts and their application, morphological species characters and sibling species, biological properties of species, isolating mechanisms, hybridization, the variation and genetics of populations, storage and protection of genetic variation, the unity of the genotype, geographic variation, the polytypic species of the taxonomist, the population structure of species, kinds of species, multiplication of species, geographic speciation, the genetics of speciation, the ecology of speciation, and species and transpecific evolution. All of which can contribute a great deal to the topic of this paper. ~S.Z.

    3. Hence, pairs P5-C5 and P6-C6 probably separated during the period of marked shoaling and environmental divergence preceding final closure.

      P5-P6 pair were isolated from each other just before the final closing of the Panama seaway. This was due to shoaling of water and the environmental change that came with it. ~S.Z.

    4. followed by failure to interbreed when partial connection between the oceans was reestablished

      Because of the long separation from one another, when some connection was established between either sides of the Isthmus, the shrimp pairs no longer had preferences to each other. Their extended sexual isolation probably had them adapted into altering their breeding behavior. ~J.D.A.

    5. J. A. Coyne and H. A. Orr, Evolution 43, 362 (1989). W. R. Rice, ibid., p. 223.

      The authors performed a similarly designed experiment to the one cited here which was done on drosophila (flies). This is to show that there are other species that have undergone staggered isolation through similar or even different events. (DV)