3,061 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
    1. It specifies the prerequisite knowledge and skills needed by students for them to successfully accomplish key performances

      how to make the students experts in that subject

    2. Without a focus on linchpin ideas that have lasting value, students may be left with easily forgotten fragments of knowledge.

      when students don't see use of what they are learning or a purpose for it, they will not hold on to the knowledge.

    3. In this first stage, we consider our goals, examine established content standards (national, state, and district), and review curriculum expectations.

      cant address all the content, so find the areas that are most promising & worth while. the content that will provide the students with the most skills for the future

    4. Greater coherence among desired results, key performances, and teaching and learning experiences leads to better student performance—the purpose of design.

      when students know what they are working towards, they try harder & want to understand the content

    5. backward design calls for us to operationalize our goals or standards in terms of assessment evidence as we begin to plan a unit or course.

      deciding how you are going to measure the student's acquisition & progress before you start your curriculum

    6. We are advocating the reverse: One starts with the end—the desired results (goals or standards)—and then derives the curriculum from the evidence of learning (performances) called for by the standard and the teaching needed to equip students to perform.

      teacher should make goals of what they want to accomplish in their classroom & then make a lesson place that enables them to achieve these goals

    1. In Stage 3 of backward design, teachers plan the most appropriate lessons and learning activities to address the three different types of goals identified in Stage 1: transfer, meaning making, and acquisition (T, M, and A).

      now that the teacher has decided what they are going to assess in class & how they are going to measure student's progress or learning, she/he needs to construct the lesson place that best fits the student.

    2. we consider in advance the assessment evidence needed to document and validate that the targeted learning has been achieved.

      need to see where the students are & if they are learning effectively. can use performance tasks & other evidence to track student's progress

    3. Essential companion questions are used to engage learners in thoughtful “meaning making” to help them develop and deepen their understanding of important ideas and processes that support such transfer.

      providing open-ended questions to draw the students in to realize what they are doing is important & has a purpose. show the students how that specific assessment will help them in the future. doesn't only need to be used in the classroom & shouldn't only be used in the classroom (transfer of learning)

    4. In the first stage of backward design, we consider our goals, examine established content standards (national, state, prov-ince, and district), and review curriculum expectations.

      teacher should figure out what they are going to teach that fits in the curriculum & how they are going to assess it

    1. These 21C Skills span across sectors and domain areas and are critical in a variety of jobs and higher education, and for success in life

      problem-solving (understanding the problem, taking different approaches to solve the problem, etc), creativity (to add your own twist & make your work unique), communication (share ideas & critique each other), and collaboration (talk w/ others & work together)= all important qualities to have at this time

    2. The 21C Skills, combined with the web literacy skills, are the nexus for entry-level digital-age skills. They are a set of abilities such as problem-solving, creativity, collaboration, or communication that people need to develop in order to succeed in the information age.

      learn how to read (understand how to navigate through the web & resources to use to help you gain information), write (design websites & edit pre-existing ones to make them better) & participate (communicate & collaborate by sharing your work, etc) on the web. critical for this information age & the ever-changing technologies

    3. we need to provide people with open access to the skills and know-how needed to use the web to improve their lives, careers, and organizations.

      skill & familiarity with technology & the web is important for this generation.

    1. extended process of inquiry, critique, and revision.

      having the students answer their own questions and collaborate to find the information they are looking for, critique their own work & have peers along with the teacher critique their work, then revise their own work.

    2. Schoolwork is more meaningful when it's not done only for the teacher or the test. When students present their work to a real audience, they care more about its quality.

      when there is an actual purpose for student's work other than a good grade, students work harder and are more excited & engaged in their work.

    3. In addition to providing direct feedback, the teacher should coach students in using rubrics or other sets of criteria to critique one another's work.

      peer revision or teacher aid in a project allows the student to realize there is always room for improvement & shows them the importance of collaboration.

    4. In real inquiry, students follow a trail that begins with their own questions, leads to a search for resources and the discovery of answers, and often ultimately leads to generating new questions, testing ideas, and drawing their own conclusions.

      real inquiry allows the students to respond & promotes discussion, questioning, hypothesizing, theorizing, & developing new ideas & perspectives. not one right answer?

    5. A project should give students opportunities to build such 21st century skills as collaboration, communication, critical thinking, and the use of technology, which will serve them well in the workplace and life.

      PBL helps give students skills that will stay with them & benefit them in the future. allows the student to be creative & go out of their comfort zone

    6. In terms of making a project feel meaningful to students, the more voice and choice, the better.

      teachers hear their student's opinions and feedback. also let their students have a choice in what topic they choose so that they are more interested in the project. teacher also wants to make sure they are staying true to their own style and what is beneficial for their students.

    7. A project without a driving question is like an essay without a thesis.

      always provide a "driving question" with an assignment. a good driving question gives students a reason of why they are doing that specific project. open-ended, complex question linked to the project that gives the project purpose.

    8. announcing a project by distributing a packet of papers is likely to turn students off; it looks like a prelude to busywork.

      when assigning projects, teacher should present it in a fun, enthusiastic way. this can be done by a video, lively discussion. guest speaker, etc.

    9. Many students find schoolwork meaningless because they don't perceive a need to know what they're being taught.

      when student's know the content they are studying is important & will be beneficial in the long run, they are more interested & try harder

    10. First, students must perceive the work as personally meaningful, as a task that matters and that they want to do well. Second, a meaningful project fulfills an educational purpose. Well-designed and well-implemented project-based learning is meaningful in both ways.

      projects are impactful on students when: they are personal & motivate the student to do good work and involve hands-on learning with practice on how to present and design in a meaningful way

    1. closes the achievement gap for underserved populations, improves understanding and retention of content, and increases motivation for all students.

      PBL actually engages and excites students. it also is not just about memorizing but PBL allows the student to actually understand what they are doing. lots of benefits of PBL

    2. Now that technology has made it easy to find any fact in a matter of seconds, the ability to regurgitate information is no longer valued the way it once was.

      just "spitting out facts" isnt good enough anymore. need to know skills (verbal communication skills, problem-solving skills, ability to work on a team, etc) and hands-on learning

    3. With project based learning, the content is baked inside of a long-term project, a real-world problem students need to solve in a creative and authentic way.

      deals with real-world problems and provides learning strategies that will help you throughout life

    4. deliver content to students, give them opportunities to practice or apply what they learned, and eventually conduct a summative assessment

      Project-based learning is pretty much what we consider to be "traditional" instruction

  2. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. In the field of child study, there has been a long-standing debate about the roles of nature and nurture in influencing an individual's development

      This is an important and on going debate because not only do children soak things up easier at a young age, they also are capable of being influenced by others instead of making their own decisions.

    2. the nalivist perspective describes language development as an innate, instinctual process where children develop language by discovering the structure of their language

      Clearly identify how the nativists viewed language development

    3. Piaget's definition of language is narrower than that of other psychologists or lin-guists. For "language" to exist, Piaget contended, the "capacity for mental represen· talion must be present" (Brainerd, 1978. p. '110). Thus, vocalizations nncl babbling that occur during infancy ore nol language, according lo Piaget. The development of symbolic representation changes 11 child's thinking because ii is now possible to "invoke objects which are not present perceptually ... reconstruct the past ... or moke plans for the future" (Piaget, 1961, in Paciorek & Munro, 1999, p. 7).

      Important to know and understand Piaget view because he is a very famous psychologist who is known for his cognitive development theories. Here he describes explains how babies babbling is not language rather just noises.

    4. Healthy infants are able "lo learn any of the world's 3,000 languages" (Rushton, Eitelgeorge, & Zickafoose, 2003, p. 13).

      This statement has a lot to do with nurture aspect of nature vs. nurture because of being exposed to environmental factors. Children from diverse families could be exposed to different languages and different ways of pronouncing English words. For example, when my cousin was an infant, he learned how to speak English along with basic Spanish because his dad is Mexican and knows fluent Spanish. Now, he can speak both English and Spanish fluently and I believe that this has increased his cognitive abilities.

    5. Environmental supports for language development are present in the interaction pallerns found in conversations, such as listening, responding to what has been said, repeating for clarification, and asking questions

      I agree the the environment in which a child is in during language development plays a big role within that particular child's development of language. If children are in a busy, loud environment and have ADHD, it might be harder for that particular child to listen as opposed to a calmer, more quiet environment. Also if children are in an environment where they see adults communicating with one another through language, this could influence that child's development of language. This influence could be positive or negative depending on the environment around the child. If the child experiences good examples of communication then they impact would most likely be more positive in development.

    6. The emphasis of this perspective is that language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop. Whereas the nalivisl perspective emphasizes the inborn language mechanism, the cognitive developmental perspective assumes that cognitive development is a "prerequisite nnd foundation for language learn-ing" (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smith, 200'1, p. 5}. This perspective also proposes that a child learns language by using the same mechanisms as for other learning. Thus, there is no unique language mechanism.

      "Thus there is no unique language mechanism" I find this interesting, so as a child ages and hears all sorts of language, and his cognitive competencies develop, then he naturallyy absorbs language and literacy from surroundings

    7. language acquisition device (LAD) (Chomsky, 1982: Harris, 1992). The LAD enables children to process and acquire language through innate knowledge of grammatical classes, underlying deep structure, and ways in which language can be manipulated.

      How can knowledge of grammatical classes be innate? I was under the impression innate was something that is inborn like an instinct.

    8. In the field of child study, there has been a long-standing debate about the roles of nature and nurture in influencing an individual's development (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smilh, 2001; Sanlrock, 2001). This debate has also been evident in the development of theoretical perspectives on language development.

      This debate between nature vs. nurture seems to be reoccurring in all of our courses this year. We're currently discussing this topic in Human Growth & Development regarding several other factors besides language development. It's interesting to see the connections.

    9. By understanding t 10 types o contexts an rnteract1on patterns m w 11c 1 c 11 • dren experience language, toachors are bettor nblo to establish classroom settings that foster language development.

      We will be able to pinpoint what is going on with the student and are able to help them better in terms of their language development.

    10. Repetition is on aspect of linguistic scaffolding. In the previous example, the adult's repetition of specific key words (shoes, blue, K-1vfarl) used by the child served to reinforce pronunciation and to confirm the meaning of what the child said.

      I think that it is important to use repetition of those key words, because it will help a child make the connection, rather than having an ambiguous statement that they may be confused about.

    11. While initially this might seem to indicate that communica-tion is less beneficial when fathers and older siblings are involved, young children's communicative competence mighl bo enhanced in this type of selling, where they must respond or adapt to the communicative demands of others rather than having the style of communication always adapted lo them

      I think that this would be a good setting to learn a language in. The child may be able to communicate their needs more to their mother, but the father and older siblings will give them the experience of a more advanced language that they can work up to.

    12. \Ve know that selecting appropriate picture books and welcoming the toddler's questions and comments can actively engage the toddler in the book sharing.

      I think that this goes along with the parent or adult being a facilitator. It's important for children to engage with someone who helps them practice speaking, and through practice, their language skills will develop more and more.

    13. s an early childhood teacher you will need lo communicate lo parents, col-leagues, and administrators the specific aspects of your classroom curriculum and environment that will enhance children's language development. When this is done, parents, colleagues, and administrators will have u better appreciation of tho ways in which children's educational and developmental needs are being met in your early childhood classroom.

      I believe it is important to get parents involved and teach them the basics of how children develop. This knowledge will help the parents better know how to play with their children and also educate them at the same time. They will also hopefully understand the importancde of the role they play in their childs development and how being active parents can give their child developmental advantages.

    14. For example, at the family dinner table, an oral request lo pass a serving bowl of salad is likely follO\oved by tho response of passing the bowl to the person who requested it. This demonstrates how language can function to servo a particular purpose or moot a specific need.

      I think that this aspect of language development helps children to identify the meaning of words, as well as helping to identify how language functions to meet needs.

    15. Cambourne's work and the role of the environment fn focllltatlng oral language development. The role of the environment in supporting and facilitating children's language development has been further described by Cnmbourne (1988, 1995)

      I think that it's important to have a parent or adult as the facilitator in a child's language development. I think that it's important to have someone encourage children to talk, and to give them someone to talk to. This gives the child a chance to practice speaking.

    16. This scaffolding assists children in participating al a higher level than they could perform independently.

      Scaffolding is also used when learning a new language (2nd language)

    17. \.t\1hen adults are teaching n child to say "bye-bye," the child's al tempts are often followed by positive reinforcement such as a hug, an embrace, or verbal praise.

      In my own experiences with children, I have found this to be fairly true. The "basic" words and phrases that parents want their children to say such as "Ma-Ma" and "bye-bye" are always praised, and the more praise the child gets, the more often they say that word or phrase.

    18. verbal mapping provides a nar-rative to daily routines of dressing, eating, and exploring.

      "describing scenes" to children in order to get them to "guess" what you are talking about without actually naming the object or activity. Can be a fun game

    19. After shared reference is established, communicn· Lion about the object or event occul's.

      Is it possible for a lack of shared reference alone to delay speech all together? I babysit for a 5 year old boy who is not speaking yet. When you speak to him you know he can understand you however he often will not attempt to look at adults or kids in the eye when they attempt to speak to him. He is being treated for autism but does a lack of eye contact contribute to autism or is it part of autism? If the boy i babysat could be taught to make eye contact would there be a better chance of him speaking?

    20. We begin communicating with children through establishing eye contact and shal'od reference.

      This can't be how all children begin. What about children in cultures where eye contact is considered rude?

    21. teachers will better understand the process of language development and will be better able to facilitate language development in their classrooms.

      This is very helpful in the terms of teaching! Understanding information and being able to provide what they understood to their students is great teaching skills.

    22. hen com· pared to children from middle or upper SES. children from low SES environments showed differences in brain activation during rending tasks involving phonological skills (Noble el al., 2006).

      Shows the importance of evironment

    23. aphasia

      general loss of language. If someone was born without the ability to produce language is that also called aphasia?

    24. For older children, formal school-based linguistic routines may include saying the Pledge of Allegiance, taking allendance, greeting someone in Lhe morning, and saying good-bye in the afternoon

      I question the importance of this in development.... seems more associated with how vocabulary is enriched and maintained.

    25. When speech directed to young children is at a slower pace or temf it allows for linguistic processing: it takes time lo process speech cognitively. If y, have ever been inn setting where you were a nonnative speaker, you may ha wished that tho native speakers would just speak more slowly.

      This shows the importance of speed of speech in learning a language in general, including learning a second language. It's cognitive process that takes time to have your brain trained to understand.

    26. neurolinguistics

      brain language

    27. 46 ~H Chapter 2 3. Utterances are not syntactically complex. 4. Utterances have a higher pitch and intonation is more exaggerated. 5. Utterances are redundant or repetitive in part or in whole. 6. Ull?rances have a slower rate or tempo. 7. Utterances are more closely tied lo tho immediate context. 8. Utterances have discourse features that encourage children lo participate and to clarify the child's responses.

      Never thought to define this as a sub category of language, but it's true that this is a specific way to speak with younger children that you do't use with anyone else

    28. Allison was then able lo sing the song on her own.

      developmental level indicator

    29. zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). What a child accomplishes independently is her developmental level

      zone of proximal development= What a child can accomplish liguistically on her own and with an adult. Developmental level is what the child can do specifically independently

    30. language acquisition support system (LASS)

      listening, respong, and asking questions= language acquisition support system

    31. This perspective contends that children acquire language through their attempts to communicate with the world around them.

      trial and error.

    32. A child is considered lo be a "blank slate" (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smilh, 2001), and loaming occurs due to associations established between stim-uli, responses, and events that occur after tho response behavior.

      I agree with the nurturist perspective because children learn and grow by interactions with things and people around them. Not ny being neglected and simply having an innate ability to learn everything on their own

    33. preopera-tional stage

      preoperational stage: ages 2-7 children begin to represent the world with pictures and drawings

    34. Object permanence involves an awareness that an object continues lo exist even when it is out of sight.

      Object permanence: important step in childhood development.

    35. The cognitive developmental perspective is based on the work of Jean Pingel (1955). The emphasis of this perspective is that language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop.

      Pretty general statement but i agree with it. I just think that there is more to learning language.

    36. children's literature should bo road lo children so thnl L1iey can .develop and test hypotheses about how language is used Lo communicate. O

      reading to children helps them understand language.

    37. hypothesis testing

      hypothesis testing= trial and error

    38. Specifically, it acknowledges behaviorism's recognition of the environment's responses lo young children's communicative allempts, nativ-ism's recognition of tho human capacity for processing linguistic information, and the cognitive developmentalist's contention that language development is infl u-enced by the nature and sequence of cognitive development. Extensive research conducted by Bloom and Tinker (2

      This is what I've been looking for!!! As I was reading the other perspectives I realized that it's a combination of all of them. I agree with this perspective the most.

    39. earned, il does nol provide a complete explanation for lhe development of other language competencies. Specifically, the behaviorist perspective does not explain bow children learn lo express novel utterances (Harris, 1992), such as their own invented words or phrases that have nol boon used by the other speakers in their environment. . Using the

      Behaviorist perspective seems to be more focused on how you enrich your vocabulary, but not the true beginnings of a spoken language itself.

    40. This perspective also proposes that a child learns language by using the same mechanisms as for other learning. Thus, there is no unique language mechanism. The close relation between cognitive devel-opment and language is based on the beliof that. for language lo develop, specific cognilivo growth must occur first

      Makes sense, but I think it's still innate because even if you don't have an environment that enables you to learn a language, you will still communicate in some sort of "language" no matter what. Even if that includes hand motions or grunts.

    41. LAD Language Acquisition Device The ability in the brain to acquire language

    42. child's LAD is activated,

      This is key: it has to be activated and as a teacher you have to make sure they are being challenged linguistically.

    43. Jn summary, the nalivist perspective describes language development as an innate, instinctual process where children develop language by discovering the structure of their language

      After reading about the nativist perspective, I agree that humans have an innate ability to learn and speak languages, and that any child can learn any language depending on the culture they grow up in. However, I think this perspective lacks an emphasis on the importance of the environmental trigger of these genes. If you are not raised in an environment that allows you to develop language, you won't develop it.

    44. Healthy infants are able "lo learn any of the world's 3,000 languages"

      languages are beautiful and children should learn as many as possible because it's easier to learn them young than it is old

    45. Or is the child already "preprogrammed" for language develo11ment in such a way that heredity and matu-ration are the major influences, with experience and context exerting only limited influence'?

      I firmly believe that both are equal when it comes to a child developing... we all are predisposed with some personality traits that program us in a certain way, but our environment determines which of these traits are switched on and off.

    46. all people inherently have the capacity to acquire language due lo cogni-tive structures that process language differently from other stimuli.

      I agree with this, but language still requires some learning.

    47. The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities (i.e., "nature") as being responsible for language development.

      I don't completely agree with the nativist approach because a child who is never spoken to will never learn a language.

    48. Semantic knowledge is also considered with respect to its relation lo syntax

      Shows the importance of the five types of language knowledge

    49. Children ore not taught language: rather, "children actually reinvent it, generation after gen-eration"

      This is true because each generation is different and I might not understand some of the language that my grandparents spoke when they were teenagers because it was different then.

    50. nature and nurture

      I believe that both nature and nurture play a role in child development. A child innately has a want or desire to learn to communicate but the ability that a child is able to do so depends somewhat on their home life. Parents especially play a big role in advancing their childrens language skills because they are the ones interacting with a child on a consistent daily basis and make decisions for the child.

    51. The ability to learn language is a quality of the human species because humans obviously are not designed to acquire one language over another.

      Is there any language that infants acquire more quickly than others? For example, do infants that speak one language begin to speak sooner than others?

    52. Describe four theoretical perspeclivos of language development • Explain the brain's role in language development • Identify and define the seven pallerns of interaction • Explain the role of home environments on language development

      checkmarks of understanding

    53. The ability to learn language is a quality of the human species because humans obviously are not designed to acquire one language over another.

      I find this fascinating because we as humans have the ability to teach each other different languages. We are not born with multiple different languages, it's something that is nurtured in our environment.

    54. The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities (i.e., "nature") as being responsible for language development.

      This perspective gives insight to how we as humans are born with certain abilities to learn a language.

    55. Adults serve as mediators who introduce children lo higher levels of functioning within a supportive scaffolded setting.

      The role of caring teachers and parental guardians is so important for children's development.

    56. each of the perspectives focuses on the roles of nature and nurture as well as the development of specific language knowledge,

      The fact that there are different theories also relates to the nature and nurture debate, in most cases it is a combination of the two.

    57. no one the-ory provides a complete and irref utablc explanation of language development, each theory contributes significant ideas and concepts, which over Lime have clarified our awareness of the ways language develops.

      It makes sense that there are several theories and that not one is totally "right". Different people develop differently in all aspects, including language.

    58. Language is acquired by individuals as they develop awareness of how to com-municate and function in society

      I think that it's important for teachers to note that language acquisition may be different for the various students in their classroom. Parenting styles differ, so children may initially struggle with code switching between home and school.

    59. teachers will better understand the process of language development and will be better able to facilitate language development in their classrooms.

      This is also very important because teachers need to figure out what approach works best with their students and be able to cater to their needs. It's important to know the difference between behavioral and cognitive development.

    60. We talked about this in my growth and development class, and we found that while some factors of development lean heavily to one side or the other, most developmental factors are a mix of both

    61. n the field of child study, there has been a long-standing debate about the roles of nature and nurture in influencing an individual's development

      This debate is something that I find fascinating and important because it's hard to differentiate what falls into the category of nature or nurture. It's always going to fall somewhere in the middle.

    62. The difference between what a child can accomplish alone and whal she can accomplish with an adult's (or more capable peer's) mediation or assistance is termed Lhe zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978).

      This statement highlights the importance of collaboration within the classroom and allowing students of different levels of understanding to work together. There are times when work should be completed independently, but group work should definitely be incorporated in order to help students to achieve maximum understanding.

    63. language is an instinct, not simply a cultural invention:

      views language development as nature, we need a way to communicate

    64. universal grammar, as "the system of principles, conditions, and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages"

      The idea of universal grammar covers all human languages and how they can be different in terms of syntax, but also similar in other ways, such as principles and cases.

    65. ge is acquirocl in a social selling: it cannot be acquired in a solitary soiling. ~;;guoge learner must have iuleraclion v,•ilh another person who is a language user.

      this specifically says that language is acquired through social interaction

    66. Immersion. Young children are surrounded by language as it is used by others in their environmenl. Beginning al birth, children hear the conversations of Uieir parents, siblings, and 0U1ers in their environment.
    67. He identified eight conditions that support oral language development: immersion, dem-onstration, engagement, expectations, responsibility, approximations, employment, and response.
    68. The ways in which an environment supports children's language explorations have been referred to as the language acquisition support system (LASS)
    69. The primary role of social interaction in language development is based on the observation that children acquire an awareness of specific communicative functions or intentions (such as indicating, requesting, and labeling) before they ore able to express themselves linguistically
    70. t acknowledges behaviorism's recognition of the environment's responses lo young children's communicative allempts, nativ-ism's recognition of tho human capacity for processing linguistic information, and the cognitive developmentalist's contention that language development is infl u-enced by the nature and sequence of cognitive development.

      interactionist theory builds on other theories

    71. Language is acquired by individuals as they develop awareness of how to com-municate and function in society

      Language is influenced by social interaction by communicating with others and develop of language helps the individual to function in society

    72. This perspective contends that children acquire language through their attempts to communicate with the world around them. This perspective contributes to our understanding of the ways in which children acquire pragmatic language knowledge.

      Interactionist perspective

    73. While the behaviorist porspoclive does explain how some words and phrases are learned, il does nol provide a complete explanation for lhe development of other language competencies.

      Behaviorist theory is more about the words and speech but not how a child develops language. This is a con of the behaviorist theory.

    74. Many types of environmental responses serve as reinforcers.
    75. Thus, language is "taught" through situations in which children are encouraged to imilato others' speech and to devolop associations between verbal stimuli (i.e., words) and objects

      Social interaction is important to the development of language. Children learn by imitation of their proximal relationships (peers, parents, teachers, etc).

    76. A child is considered lo be a "blank slate" (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smilh, 2001), and loaming occurs due to associations established between stim-uli, responses, and events that occur after tho response behavior.

      This means that the environment and experiences shape the individual.

    77. The behaviorist perspective emphasizes the role of "nurture" and considers learn-ing to occur based on the stimuli, responses, nnd reinforcements that occur
    78. The cognitive developmental perspective encourages teachers to pay close attention lo a child's stage of cognitive development and use that knowledgo to appropriately plan learning activities.

      This is a great tool to help in the future when one plans to teach. Cognitive development is important to a student's success in school and teachers should try to continue and help cognitive development.

    79. According lo Piaget, lhe second stage of cognitive development is the preopera-tional stage. This stage begins al about 2 years of age and extends to about 7 years of nge. Children in this stage "begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings" (Santrock. 2001, p. 36). Piaget (1955) considered children's initial speech to be egocentric, focused on their own perceptions, which may reflect distorted perceptions or relations. Gradually, as children develop cognitively, their speech becomes socialized, or reflective of more logical thinking.
    80. For "language" to exist, Piaget contended, the "capacity for mental represen· talion must be present" (Brainerd, 1978. p. '110). Thus, vocalizations nncl babbling that occur during infancy ore nol language, according lo Piaget.

      Language is defined here by Piaget that the sounds babies make are not language instead they are just sounds. Babies must have the mental capacity for language before they can actually speak.

    81. The close relation between cognitive devel-opment and language is based on the beliof that. for language lo develop, specific cognilivo growth must occur first.

      A child has to be nurtured to development and if the child has the cognitive growth first the child will learn how to develop language. This means that they do not believe that language is instinctual instead it is developed gradually.

    82. the nalivist perspective describes language development as an innate, instinctual process where children develop language by discovering the structure of their language

      Nativist believe that language is instinctual

    83. Children are active participants in their language development. In a sense, children teach themselves language. Through the acquisi-tion process, children construct their knowledge of the ways language is used nnd manipulated.
    84. As evidence of the universality and instinctive nature of lan-guage, Pinker noted that throughout history, all civilizations, even among primitive societies, have a language. While languages may differ dramatically with respect to linguistic features, the development and use of language in all cultures is universal.

      This shows how important language is to culture and social interaction. It was interesting to see that even primitive societies have a language.

    85. Steven Pinker (1994) conlended that language is an instinct, not simply a cultural invention: "Language is a biological adaptation lo communicate information ... language is the product of a well-engineered biologi-cal instinct"
    86. The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities (i.e., "nature") as being responsible for language development.
    87. Is a child a "blank slate" at birth, and do the experiences or "nurture" provided in the envi-ronment predominantly determine language development'! Or is the child already "preprogrammed" for language develo11ment in such a way that heredity and matu-ration are the major influences, with experience and context exerting only limited influence'?

      In all of the classes I have taken throughout college and my personal experience, I do believe a child is shaped by their experiences but biology does play a part in the development. Both play a part in how the child develops, but which is more important?

    88. The nativist and the cognitive dovelopmentalisl perspectives emphasize the contributions of "nature," whereas tho behaviorist and interaclionist perspectives focus more on the contributions of "nurture."
    89. s a child a "blank slate" at birth, and do the experiences or "nurture" provided in the envi-ronment predominantly determine language development'! Or is the child already "preprogrammed" for language develo11ment in such a way that heredity and matu-ration are the major influences, with experience and context exerting only limited influence'?

      The debate between nurture vs nature is something we can all attest to thinking about. While yes there are studies out there that prove it is better to learn a second language at a younger age because that part of the brain is not fully developed allowing them to exercise it and learn two languages at the same time. My Spanish professor last year said her three year old goes to day care and speaks english all day then comes home and speaks Spanish to her and her husband about what they did. Although it is hard to determine how language develops it sure helps when the environment around the child is progressive.

    90. When speech directed to young children is at a slower pace or temf it allows for linguistic processing: it takes time lo process speech cognitively. If y, have ever been inn setting where you were a nonnative speaker, you may ha wished that tho native speakers would just speak more slowly.

      Makes sense! I can relate with being in a setting where someone speaks a different language and wishing they spoke slowly so I could understand.

    91. Whon this routine hns been repeated suc-cessfully with infants (G-'12 months of ago) over lime, they begin to respond to the verbal phrase or word by looking nl the speaker nnd then Lo the location sig-naled by the udull's gesture. After shared reference is established, communicn· Lion about the object or event occul's.

      It's just like taking baby steps before moving onto greater things. The child must first learn one phrase before they can move on to more complex ideas.

    92. Allison's shoes and socks ore now on, nnd Allison becomes distracted by her 4-yeor-old sister, who is also playing in the backyard. Allison leaves hor mom's lnp, and the singing ends. Two minutes later, Allison is observed singing the duck song to herself as she walks in the backyard.

      Very cool! Not only did the mother distract the child enough to be able to put her shoes and socks on without a fit, she was also able to teach the child a new song.

    93. "Now say 'bye-bye'," and the child responds with an immediate nllompt to repoat the specific word(s). Or, it may occur as a result of delayed modeling, when the child approximates previously modeled speech in a similar setting without being prompted.

      Couldn't telling a child to say something be bad in some cases? By telling the child what to say are they truly understanding why they need to say "bye" in this situation?Some children might just repeat words and have no idea what they mean.

    94. language development is influenced by the society in which the individual lives: "higher mental functions are socially formed and culturally transmitted" (Vygolsky, 1978,

      I completely agree with Vygotsky, that society influences our language and language development. People all over the United States have different accents and can all be saying the same word and it sound a little different from everyone else.

    95. When eye contact and shurod reference are not eslnblishod, communi-cation often breaks down or is nol even inilinlod as there is no clear common focus. Eye conlact is usually established by un adult firsl looking directly at n chil

      Teach with intention, especially at a young age to help aid learning

    96. The result is that children at school have less opportunity for conversations with adults.
    97. he verbal mapping pattern occurs when an adult verbally describes (not just names) an object or nction in o level of detail appropriate to the developmental level of the child wilh whom the interaction is occurring.
    98. com-munication loop, a circular or cycle-like sharing and exchanging of tho roles of speaker and listener (see Figure 2.6).
    99. his is n busic interaction pattern
    100. the behaviorist perspective does not explain bow children learn lo express novel utterances (Harris, 1992), such as their own invented words or phrases that have nol boon used by the other speakers in their environment.
    101. The behaviorist perspective emphasizes the role of "nurture" and considers learn-ing to occur based on the stimuli, responses, nnd reinforcements that occur in the
    102. This means that concepts and schemata develop from interpersonal interaction and communication.
    103. The cognitive developmental perspective is based on the work of Jean Pingel (1955). The emphasis of this perspective is that language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop.
    104. n summary, the nalivist perspective describes language development as an innate, instinctual process where children develop language by discovering the structure of their language (Cairns, 1996). This discovery process is thought to be aided by an inborn mechanism that is specific for language learning
    105. onlended that language is an instinct, not simply a cultural invention: "Language is a biological adaptation lo communicate information ... language is the product of a well-engineered biologi-cal instinct" (p. 19).
    106. universal grammar, as "the system of principles, conditions, and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages"
    107. The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities (i.e., "nature") as being responsible for language development.
    108. The nativist and the cognitive dovelopmentalisl perspectives emphasize the contributions of "nature," whereas tho behaviorist and interaclionist perspectives focus more on the contributions of "nurture."
    109. Several different perspectives have been proposed as theoretical bases for more fully understanding language development. These perspectives have varied in the ways they believe nature and nurture influence language developmonl.
    110. A child is considered lo be a "blank slate" (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smilh, 2001), and loaming occurs due to associations established between stim-uli, responses, and events that occur after tho response behavior.

      I love this! Children are considered to be blank slates. Children's minds are so absorbent. John Locke proposed this idea, and that they are taught through experiences. And, following this quote it talks about children being taught through situations and are encouraged to imitate others. This is also another reason to why it is so important to talk/ communicate with children.This stimulates their brains, and they can hear our responses and be able to talk more themselves.

    111. a wide range of children's literature should bo road lo children so thnl L1iey can .develop and test hypotheses about how language is used Lo communicate.

      This could be how a child develops the different language needed to talk to a teacher or parent vs talking to a friend.

    112. The ability to learn language is a quality of the human species because humans obviously are not designed to acquire one language over another. Healthy infants are able "lo learn any of the world's 3,000 languages" (Rushton, Eitelgeorge, & Zickafoose, 2003, p. 13).

      This might be the reason why many people believe that it is better to teach a child different languages when they are young rather than waiting until they are older. Do we really loose this ability to learn any of the languages as we get older?

    113. The ability to learn language is a quality of the human species because humans obviously are not designed to acquire one language over another.

      this is evident in the fact that not one language is a dominate language in the world and that many people can be bilingual, trilingual, etc.

    114. For example, when an infonl is making sounds while in the presence of a par-ent and says "ma-ma," the parent may rush to tho infant, show signs of delight, and say, "Oh, you said 'ma-ma'!" This positive response from the parent increases the chances that the infant will repeal those sounds. Likewise, speech that elicils no response or is ignored is less likely to be repeated.

      We usually express our thoughts to others and we know that people understand us if they react a certain way. It's a neat idea that we learn language through how people react to what we say.

    115. This process is sometimes referred to as hypothesis testing. Children test their hypotheses or sets of assumptions of how language is spoken, arliculnted, used, and manipulated.

      This is a really neat concept of how children affect language. I think language changes over time and it's neat how children test what works and what doesn't.

    116. Healthy infants are able "lo learn any of the world's 3,000 languages"

      I feel like when I read stuff like this, I think that nurture has just as much impact on how someone will develop the ability to communicate as nature does. Even if babies are able to speak 3,000 different languages, they will speak whatever language they grow up around. It's not programmed in their minds.

    117. A comprehensive theory of language development would need lo consider linguistic complexities and address each of the five aspects of language knowledge.

      Again, this shows the importance of the five types of language knowledge that we'll learn in class. It's neat to see this connect.

    118. 34 m Chapter 2 The zone of proximal development refers lo the difference between what a child can accomplish alone and what he can accomplish with an adult's (or more capable peer's) mediation or assistance.

      This past summer I interned at gibbes museum of art for a summer camp and this is something I noticed a lot with the younger group at the camp. If a sat at the table to give them step by step instructions they did much better with the projects then if i explained it to the class and just walked around the room

    119. long-standing debate about the roles of nature and nurture in influencing an individual's develo

      We have also been discussing this in my Human Growth and Development class. It seems that there is a mixture of each in all aspects of a child's development. For example, obesity, diet and activeness have an affect on it, but our genes do as well.

    120. Within routines, children experience each of the five aspects of language knowl-edge: phonological, semantic, syntaclic, morphemic, and pragmatic.

      Why routines at home are so important for children

    121. com-munication loop, a circular or cycle-like sharing and exchanging of tho roles of speaker and listener

      communication loop definition

    122. Patterns of Interaction-Overview • Eye contact and sh~red reference • Communlcatlon loop • Child-directed speech • Verbal mapping • Questioning • Linguistic scaffolding • Mediation

      The 7 patterns of Interaction

    123. The intoractionist porspective encourages teachers to focus on providing many social interactions in which oral and written language are used.

      I agree here and believe this is very important for teachers. The previous chapter stressed how children need a wide range of language competencies, and teachers need to expose children to as many as appropriate and possible so they will be prepared for a variety of social interactions.

    124. ondition Immersion Demonstration Engagement Expectations Responsibility Approximations Employment Response Description Child is surrounded by language used by others. Child witnesses how language ls used by others for specific purposes. Child is encouraged to participate in language interactions. Beginning in infancy, adults and siblings address child expecting a response. Child creates message in response to language of others. Child's early forms of speech are accepted as "real communication" by others. Child is given opportunities lo "try out" his/her developing language competencies. Child receives feedback on their use of language to communicate. Example At home, the child hears conversations of family members throughout the day. At the family dinner table, the child hears a request to pass the salad and listens to a sibling tell about her day at school. During storybook sharing, the child Is encouraged lo name the objects pictured in the book. At snack lime, the parent asks the child if he wants a graham cracker or a cheese cracker and waits for the child to respond. When her mother says, "it's really chilly today,n the child responds, "What does chilly mean?" When the child is asked if he wants some juice, the child responds "ju-Ju". This Is accepted by the parent as "Yes, I want juice." During a family mealtime, the child is encouraged to tell about his experiences while playing at the park earlier that day. While on a walk, the child sees a small, fluffy dog, and calls ii a kitty. His mother says, "Oh, it's a small dog, not a kitty. See it does·not have a long, fluffy tall like a kitten."

      Summary of conditions

    125. Teachers who follow a behaviorist perspectivo would focus on the stimuli and reinforcements that children experience in regard lo language use.

      It's almost scary how easily children can be conditioned and how much trust is given to teachers in regards to our children. As teachers, it's very important to make sure we are both conditioning the right things and using it in the correct way.

    126. While the behaviorist porspoclive does explain how some words and phrases are learned, il does nol provide a complete explanation for lhe development of other language competencies.

      My thoughts exactly. It shows how vocabulary is grown but doesn't show how language is developed.

    127. A child is considered lo be a "blank slate" (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smilh, 2001), and loaming occurs due to associations established between stim-uli, responses, and events that occur after tho response behavior.

      The behaviorist perspective.

    128. teachers would implement a curriculum that recognizes the importance of the development of specific cognitive mechanisms as precursors lo the onset of language, such as object permanence and symbolic representation.

      Why cognitive developement is important to teachers

    129. the nalivist perspective describes language development as an innate, instinctual process where children develop language by discovering the structure of their language

      Good description of the nativist perspective

    130. The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities (i.e., "nature") as being responsible for language development.

      One theoretical perspective. I think this is important to understand as a base for what nature contributes to language development before we can see and understand how nurture can change this base.

    131. Communication loops, shared reference, CDS, verbal mapping, queslioning, linguistic scaffolding. and mediation all facilitate language development. Through these pnlterns of interaction, children's language clevolopment is enhanced. These inleraction patterns are present in home, community, and school settings, although there may be some modifications due lo the child's level of development and the interaction style of the adults or older children in the environment.

      How the development of language is enhanced.

    132. The human brain appears to bo "prewired" for the development of language (Anderson & Lightfoot, 2002; Chomsky, 2002; Eliot, 1999; Obler & Gjerlow, 1999; Pinker, 1994). As specific regions of the human brain mature, language develop-ment occurs. This maturation begins in the womb as the fetus develops. This sols the stage for later complex development of tho neural connections in the brain that are involved in receiving and producing language. In addition lo brain maturation, 8 critical requirement for language development is that il needs to occm in onviron· ments where language is used in social interaction. In this way, bolh nature and nurture are involved in language development.

      How nature and nurture both play apart. Maturation begins in the womb before the baby is even exposed to the world. once born, the environment in which the infant is exposed to will help with language development.

    133. Theoretical Perspectives nnd Contexts of Language Develop1nent ;1~ 37 TABLE2.2 cambourne's Conditions Supporting Oral Language Development

      Great table explaining the 8 conditions of oral language development.

    134. The difference between what a child can accomplish alone and whal she can accomplish with an adult's (or more capable peer's) mediation or assistance is termed Lhe zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). What a child accomplishes independently is her developmental level. For example, the zone of p

      Developmental level

    135. Thus, language is "taught" through situations in which children are encouraged to imilato others' speech and to devolop associations between verbal stimuli (i.e., words) and objects

      Very similar to Piaget's view in my opinion.

    136. According lo Piaget, lhe second stage of cognitive development is the preopera-tional stage. This stage begins al about 2 years of age and extends to about 7 years of nge. Children in this stage "begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings" (Santrock. 2001, p. 36). Piaget (1955) considered children's initial speech to be egocentric, focused on their own perceptions, which may reflect distorted perceptions or relations. Gradually, as children develop cognitively, their speech becomes socialized, or reflective of more logical thinking

      Second stage of cognitive development according to Piaget, Gaining knowledge of the world through words and images, children can develop more logical thinking.

    137. 28 m Chnpter 2 extensive opportunities for children lo explore language and engage in hypothesis testing of their developing knowledge of language. By ha\'ing opportunities to use and explore language in both its oral and wrillon forms, a child's LAD is activated, resulling in his discovery of the strncturo of his language (syntactic and morphemic knowledge). For example, a wide range of children's literature should bo road lo children so thnl L1iey can .develop and test hypotheses about how language is used Lo communicate. Opportunities lo draw nnd write encourage children lo communicate f)nd create meaning based on their ideas of how language works. Cognitive Developmental Perspective The cognitive developmental perspective is based on the work of Jean Pingel (1955). The emphasis of this perspective is that language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop. Whereas the nalivisl perspective emphasizes the inborn language mechanism, the cognitive developmental perspective assumes that cognitive development is a "prerequisite nnd foundation for language learn-ing" (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smith, 200'1, p. 5}. This perspective also proposes that a child learns language by using the same mechanisms as for other learning. Thus, there is no unique language mechanism. The close relation between cognitive devel-opment and language is based on the beliof that. for language lo develop, specific cognilivo growth must occur first.

      Cognitive development perspective of Piaget. -As one matures an understanding of language develops.

    138. a wide range of children's literature should bo road lo children so thnl L1iey can .develop and test hypotheses about how language is used Lo communicate. Opportunities lo draw nnd write encourage children lo communicate f)nd create meaning based on their ideas of how language works.

      How a teacher would encourage the nativist perspective for early childhood classroom.

    139. Children ore not taught language: rather, "children actually reinvent it, generation after gen-eration" (Pinker, 1994, p. 32), Children are active participants in their language development. In a sense, children teach themselves language. Through the acquisi-tion process, children construct their knowledge of the ways language is used nnd manipulated.

      Chomsky's and Pinker's views of nature; Language is not taught, it is a biological instinct that is passed down and reinvented from one generation to the next.

    140. Opportunities lo draw nnd write encourage children lo communicate f)nd create meaning based on their ideas of how language works.

      I think this is why children gain a lot from responding to a story they have just read and giving them the opportunity to realte themselves to the story. By either asking them to respond with a drawing or even an oral report, it gives them the further opportunity to take in the language and use their own.

    141. Chomsky con-tends that all people inherently have the capacity to acquire language due lo cogni-tive structures that process language differently from other stimuli.

      This is evident due to the fact that all humans communicate in one way or another with others, no matter what the language. It is in our nature to speak.

    142. "Language is a biological adaptation lo communicate information ... language is the product of a well-engineered biologi-cal instinct"

      This makes me think of the "survival of the fittest." Over time nature could have adapted and improved language to better survive and that trait kept getting passed down. Although I agree that it is in our genetics, I think without nurture we would not be able to foster this ability.

  3. Aug 2017
  4. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. The nativist and the cognitive dovelopmentalisl perspectives emphasize the contributions of "nature," whereas tho behaviorist and interaclionist perspectives focus more on the contributions of "nurture." By understanding the contributions of each theory, teachers will better understand the process of language development and will be better able to facilitate language development in their classrooms.

      this is important for understanding the development of language because it is reiterating how there are many different ways to look at it whether it be to focus on nature or focus on nurture.

    2. The most effec· live scaffolding promotes the highest level of functioning with the lowest level of support.

      Have the student try & make mistakes while you aid them. Do not just say "you can do it" & then give them the answer.

    3. This perspective contends that children acquire language through their attempts to communicate with the world around them.

      I thought this was Piaget's belief, but how is that possible if Piaget believes children are born "preprogrammed."

    4. Thus, language is "taught" through situations in which children are encouraged to imilato others' speech and to devolop associations between verbal stimuli (i.e., words) and objects

      I agree with this. What I am confused about is that I inferred Piaget to be suggesting this same idea, which can not be right since Piaget believes children our born with certain abilities/inabilities.

    5. The nativist and the cognitive dovelopmentalisl perspectives emphasize the contributions of "nature," whereas tho behaviorist and interaclionist perspectives focus more on the contributions of "nurture."

      nativist & cognitive focuses on the child being "preprogrammed" @ birth while behaviorist & interactionist focus on the child being born w/ a "blank slate"

    6. An early childhood classroom teacher has a crilical role in establishing a learning environment in which the language conlexls provide opporlunilies for children lo continue developing their language competencies.

      I love that we will have the opportunity to be such a huge role in a child's life! It's important to have classroom activities where every child can talk and maybe even introduce new languages.

    7. "prewired"

      Is languae development the only prewiring to our blank slate status as a new born??

    8. thus their language development is impaired.

      Although unable to porduce or observe an oral language, sign language has been proven to aide a student and prevent that underdevelopment. Children need this language during the first 5 years of life.

    9. The close relation between cognitive devel-opment and language is based on the beliof that. for language lo develop, specific cognilivo growth must occur first.

      Does this include growth of alll language that are being learned? Must a student reacha level in all language before being able to use it?

    10. Pinker concluded that it must come from human biological instinct rather than from the existence of the culture.

      Language is in a human's natural instinct but the use and development of that language comes through nurture. Nature vs/ Nuture goes hand and hand. Cannot have one without the other.

    11. While no one the-ory provides a complete and irref utablc explanation of language development, each theory contributes significant ideas and concepts, which over Lime have clarified our awareness of the ways language develops.

      This aligns with the debate of nature v. nuture, and how it differs for each individual person. There is not one strong theme of nature or nuture in the development of children but rather a mixture of the two. This makes sense that there are several ideas that contribute to language development.

    12. Each of these factors contribute to the context in which language develops.

      Parents who work a lot might not be around as much to expose their children to language and these kids might have a harder time learning.

    13. Linguistic scaffolding involves supporting children's speech by recognizing their linguistic capabilities and assisting them in building a conversation.

      Once again, they need to feel comfortable enough to speak while still being pushed to learn.

    14. Because this speech is ,often in Lhe form of phrases or single words, il is referred to here as "ullerances" rather than sentences,

      Might it be better for children to learn adult speak even if it is at a slower pace? Can this create bad habits?

    15. The communication loop is severed whenever one of the participants fails to continue participating, either by not listening lo the speaker or not responding as a speaker.

      Creates repetition and structure for communication. Almost like taking turns so kids don't just ramble forever or never speak

    16. Wernicke's area,

      for speech UNDERSTANDING

    17. Broca's area

      for speech PRODUCTION

    18. Harris (1990) pointed out that the success of these scaffolded conversations depends on the adult's sensi-tivity Lo and interpretation of the child's communicative attempt.

      Shows how attentive teachers need to be especially in early childhood to the child's attempts at communication. Their reactions and reinforcements mean a lot.

    19. For a person to write, a message must be cognitively encoded in a writing system, and the muscles of the hand must be coor-dinated to produce the appropriate written symbols.

      Just like in the brain... writing can be referred to as encoding and reading is like decoding.

    20. Not only does the concept of the zone of proximal development provide us with an idea of development to come, but it emphasizes the crucial role of adults in chil-dren's development of language.

      Kids have to have a balance between comfortable and uncomfortable in order to be both brave enough to try and challenged enough to learn.

    21. Positive reinforce· ment may come from the excited response of parents to thoir child's verbal attempts.

      Much more effective to use this rather than punishment after a student does a good job or does what he/she was supposed to do.

    22. Positive reinforcomenls using attention and approval would be given lo encourage children lo interact using language.

      Attention and disapproval could also encourage children to use certain language. For example, children might curse because of the reactions they get from adults.

    23. One of the distinguishing features of concepts and schemata is that they reflect experience broader Umn that of the individual person.

      People use prior knowledge to make connections and broaden their schemata.

  5. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. A semanlic_nelwork, or schema, develops when a child_begins_JQ_ see the relations between concept~.

      when a semantic network develops

    2. The development of semantic knowledge is closely Lied Lo the develop-ment of con~pJual knowled~(V

      where it is tied to

    3. Initially, a child's knowledge of the aspects or componenls of language will be only receptive. This means the child will perceive the specific characteristics of lan-guage but will not be able to produce language that demonstrates this knowledge.

      this is important to know in order to understand how language can be receptive

    4. Languag"a'is essential to society. It forms the foundation of our perceptions, com-municntion!f and daily interactions.

      The success of language development for each and every student is vital.

    5. This text differs from other language development texts in ils attention to lan8!!Q.@_ a~municg_li9Il..!J!!.J1er than a fo_cus on spi3_e.ch_pro_ctu<1tion ~nd..th~_.de.v.elopment of articulation. This approach recognizes that language is a medium of communi-cation with others and within us.

      **language development focused around communication communication

    6. You will be talking with children as they interact in your classroom, engaging in the learning activilies you provide. As you read books to and with children, you will introduce the children to written lan-guage. ·when you create classroom posters and other displays involving print, you are showing children how written language can be used to communicate.

      Talking, reading to, activities, and displays all influence language development. It is important to have all facets in order to reach all learning types on different levels.

    7. For example, in English, adjec-tives immediately precede the nouns they modify: "The beautiful flower was on the table," not "The flower beautiful was on the table." When children are learning lo speak English, their awareness of the position of adjectives relative lo the nouns they modify is evident even in their two-word ullerances: "big ball," "blue car." This occurs long before children can consciously identify adjectives and the words they

      This is an important barrier when it comes to ESL courses and children learning English as a second language. Syntax changes depending on the language and it's important for teachers to pay specific attention to it during their classes.

    8. How phonological knowledge develops.

      Describes the importance of phonics. The most basic building block to reading, writing, and language development.