2,588 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2017
    1. teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages.

      I see a lot of that now in general. Students in higher education for sure.

    2. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies.

      Truthfully, that's what I thought we were looking at when I joined the course.

    3. habits of mind

      Used in our unit plan

    4. or example, teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities.

      So...digital literacy is taking it to the next level to ensure they know the motive /reason behind why the student is doing what they're doing.

    5. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.

      This is a great way of defining digital skills vs. digital skills.

    6. When is it best to do a Google search versus ask a question on Twitter? Why would students tweet to a particular hashtag or person versus another? When they tweet to people from another country in another time zone, what kind of context do they need to consider? What should they add, remove, or modify in order to communicate better?

      As an older millennial (now given the new label Xennials), I am of the Facebook generation and never got into Twitter. It always seemed really lame to me and dangerous to share my every "140 character" thought with the world. But this gives me new perspective on how it can be used for the more positive exchange of ideas. This could actually be a pretty neat way for students to answer questions they have and be directed to new information sources they otherwise may not have known existed.

    7. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.
    8. Doug Belshaw’s eight elements of digital literacies, I have just mentioned the civic, critical, creative, and communicative. The other four are cultural, cognitive, constructive, and confidence.
    1. integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      Lesson plan ideas

    2. . In our work, the word technology applies equally to analog and digital, as well as new and old, technologies. As a matter of practical significance, however, most of the technologies under consideration in current literature are newer and digital and have some inherent properties that make applying them in straightforward ways difficult.

      Process in terms for module 2

    3. TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies.

      Knowing which tools are right for the situation.

    4. FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology.
    5. how can teachers integrate technology into their teaching?

      Good question to ask yourself

    6. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning.

      How to drive learning.

    7. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

      Critical for an educator.

    8. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.
    9. integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      Have in mind your surroundings, audience, and desired outcome in mind when integrating.

    10. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today. It is, thus, not surprising that they do not consider themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the classroom and often do not appreciate its value or relevance to teaching and learning.

      This is why there should be offered and required training.

    11. Teaching with technology is complicated further considering the challenges newer technologies present to teachers

      Teachers must find out ways to keep up with technology since it's always evolving.

    12. knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.
    13. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains

      The more resources you have as a teacher, the better prepared you'll be to handle different situations.

    14. the TPACK framework offers several possibilities for promoting research in teacher education, teacher professional development, and teachers’ use of technology. It offers options for looking at a complex phenomenon like technology integration in ways that are now amenable to analysis and development. Moreover, it allows teachers, researchers, and teacher educators to move beyond oversimplified approaches that treat technology as an “add-on” instead to focus again

      The Professional Developments has to be hands-on .... in my opinion.

    15. By better describing the types of knowledge teachers need (in the form of content, pedagogy, technology, contexts and their interactions), educators are in a better position to understand the variance in levels of technology integration occurring.

      good point

    16. three key components of teacher knowledge: understanding of content, understanding of teaching, and understanding of technology.

      3 components of TK :

    17. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones. By simultaneously integrating knowledge of technology, pedagogy and content, expert teachers bring TPACK into play any time they teach. Each situation presented to teachers is a unique combination of these three factors, and accordingly, there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching.

      Uniqueness..... Customize Learning

    18. develop skills to look beyond most common uses for technologies, reconfiguring them for customized pedagogical purposes. Thus, TPK requires a forward-looking, creative, and open-minded seeking of technology use, not for its own sake but for the sake of advancing student learning and understanding.

      creativity ..... out of the box thinking

    19. TCK, then, is an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the subject matter they teach; they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.

      There has to be a balance ....finding it may take a little work.

    20. Technology and content knowledge have a deep historical relationship.
    21. Specifically, according to Shulman (1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge. PCK covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy.

      PCK.... promotes learning

    22. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.

      There seems to be a lot of evaluating, modifying, and adjusting in this area (PK).

    23. this knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge

      content knowledge

    24. Knowledge of content is of critical importance for teachers.

      Content knowledge is very important

    25. Honoring the idea that teaching with technology is a complex, ill-structured task, we propose that understanding approaches to successful technology integration requires educators to develop new ways of comprehending and accommodating this complexity.

      Thinking outside the box

    26. Teachers often have inadequate (or inappropriate) experience with using digital technologies for teaching and learning. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today. It is, thus, not surprising that they do not consider themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the classroom and often do not appreciate its value or relevance to teaching and learning. Acquiring a new knowledge base and skill set can be challenging, particularly if it is a time-intensive activity that must fit into a busy schedule.

      It's hard to teach something that you're not comfortable with....usually its avoided.

    27. Understanding how these affordances and constraints of specific technologies influence what teachers do in their classrooms is not straightforward and may require rethinking teacher education and teacher professional development.

      Agree

    28. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are hidden from users; Turkle, 1995).
    29. Teaching with technology is complicated further considering the challenges newer technologies present to teachers.

      Technology changes so much that teacher needs consistent refreshing..... once we've mastered something a new technology app/skill come out right behind it.

      Technology is ever improving.

    30. knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      3 important factors

    31. Teachers practice their craft in highly complex, dynamic classroom contexts (Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) that require them constantly to shift and evolve their understanding.

      This is true ...there is a constant shift going on

    32. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.
    33. FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology. FITness, therefore, requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy. Acquiring TK in this manner enables a person to accomplish a variety of different tasks using information technology and to develop different ways of accomplishing a given task. This conceptualization of TK does not posit an “end state,” but rather sees it developmentally, as evolving over a lifetime of generative, open-ended interaction with technology.

      Fluency of Technology Literacy is fluid and must evolve over a person's lifetime, remaining flexible as technology changes. I would guess many of us stop growing in our FITness in our mid-20's as most people tend to stick with the tech tools and ways of doing things that they grew up with.

    34. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them. The interactions between and among the three components, playing out differently across diverse contexts, account for the wide variations seen in the extent and quality of educational technology integration.
    35. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today.

      Importance of lifelong learning.

    36. integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      This brings to issue two main deterrents for my use of technology. 1. The poverty of ideas on the internet for Latin centered classrooms. 2. The poverty of my school and lack of computer resources to engage my students

    37. Many approaches to teachers’ professional development offer a one-size-fits-all approach to technology integration when, in fact, teachers operate in diverse contexts of teaching and learning.

      I cant say how many training I've been to where the focus was on how to use smartnotebook for things like Math equations. It makes it hard to pay attention when we finally do get to other topics closer to what I teach.

    38. The introduction of the Internet, for example – particularly the rise of online learning – is an example of the arrival of a technology that forced educators to think about core pedagogical issues, such as how to represent content on the Web and how to connect students with subject matter and with one another (Peruski & Mishra, 2004).

      Impact of the internet

    39. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.

      Defining purpose of TPACK

    40. An understanding of the affordances of technology and how they can be leveraged differently according to changes in context and purposes is an important part of understanding TPK.

      Understanding that there is more than one way to use technology and use it in such a way that positively impacts learning

    41. Understanding the impact of technology on the practices and knowledge of a given discipline is critical to developing appropriate technological tools for educational purposes.

      Great example is medicine

    42. They argue that FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology

      Definition of "technology" for the TPACK framework

    43. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning.

      Evidence-Based Practices

    44. The cost of not having a comprehensive base of content knowledge can be prohibitive; for example, students can receive incorrect information and develop misconceptions about the content area (National Research Council, 2000; Pfundt, & Duit, 2000). Yet content knowledge, in and of itself, is an ill-structured domain, and as the culture wars (Zimmerman, 2002), the Great Books controversies (Bloom, 1987; Casement, 1997; Levine, 1996), and court battles over the teaching of evolution (Pennock, 2001) demonstrate, issues relating to curriculum content can be areas of significant contention and disagreement.

      In the event the teacher is responsible for all general subject areas, then we should consider the amount and quality of content knowledge and how that affects technology use. For example, self-contained SPED vs. anatomy teacher.

    45. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

      teacher knowledge

    46. The TPACK framework builds on Shulman’s (1987, 1986) descriptions of PCK to describe how teachers’ understanding of educational technologies and PCK interact with one another to produce effective teaching with technology.

      TPACK

    47. content, pedagogy, and technology,
    48. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      Thesis

    49. Many approaches to teachers’ professional development offer a one-size-fits-all approach to technology integration when, in fact, teachers operate in diverse contexts of teaching and learning.

      Diversity of student should be considered here also.

    50. It is, thus, not surprising that they do not consider themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the classroom and often do not appreciate its value or relevance to teaching and learning.

      Agree depending on the flexibility of the teacher to acquire knowledge of developing technological methods

    51. Also complicating teaching with technology is an understanding that technologies are neither neutral nor unbiased

      We see this in the News networks for example

    52. By their very nature, newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.

      Nature of the technology or nature of the teacher here? I argue this is referring to the rapid pace of changing technologies that educators have difficult staying up-to-date with technology while being responsible for teaching

    53. The latter, however, is qualitatively different in that its functioning is more opaque to teachers and offers fundamentally less stability than more traditional technologies.

      Opaque referring to the construction of the system...specific to those individuals that design, construct, and craft the system

    54. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are hidden from users; Turkle, 1995).

      Tangible vs digital here

    55. As a matter of practical significance, however, most of the technologies under consideration in current literature are newer and digital and have some inherent properties that make applying them in straightforward ways difficult.

      Present use of digital media

    56. n this way, teaching is an example of an ill-structured discipline, requiring teachers to apply complex knowledge structures across different cases and contexts

      Use of "ill-structured"--really impactful but places the opinion of the author

    57. Lee Shulman’s construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to include technology knowledge. The development of TPACK by teachers is critical to effective teaching with technology.

      Lee Shulman

    1. connected learning puts progressive, experiential, and learner-centered approaches at the center of technology-enhanced learning.
    2. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them.

      Main idea for reflection post

    3. Powered with possibilities made available by today’s social media, this peer culture can produce learning that’s engaging and powerful.

      Students are most influenced by their peers. It means a lot to be accepted by them.

    4. Connected learning isn’t a burden that one organization shoulders on its own, and is about building connections across different sites of learning.

      More resources equals more availability.

    5. Traditional education is failing to engage many students as they enter their middle school, high school, and college years.

      Engagement is key. Lesson plans should be arranged with that type of thinking in mind. Either through creativity, technology, or the introduction of things/topics they find interesting.

      I do wonder if this is why more parents are interested in Montessori schools early on.

    6. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

      Pushing students to critically think out a situation while being challenged in an area of their interest. Positive feedback from peers can do a lot to help the students self esteem and confidence.

    7. The most engaged learning happens while doing something for a meaningful goal or purpose, whether that is creating something, contributing to a community, or engaging in a friendly competition.

      It feels good to be apart of a team or community. The group accountability forces you to maintain a standard in which everyone agreed upon.

    8. Rather than see technology as a means toward more efficient and automated forms of education, connected learning puts progressive, experiential, and learner-centered approaches at the center of technology-enhanced learning.

      .....needed to move forward and fill in the gaps

    9. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them

      Support is essential

    10. While wealthy families are embracing the potential of new technologies for learning, and investing more and more in out-of-school and connected learning, less privileged kids are being left behind. Access to specialized, interest-driven and personalized learning used to be difficult and scarce. But in today’s networked world, there’s no reason why all children should not have the opportunity to pursue connected learning.
    11. Traditional education is failing to engage many students as they enter their middle school, high school, and college years. The culture clash between formal education and interest-driven, out-of-school learning is escalating in today’s world where social communication and interactive content is always at our fingertips. We need to harness these new technologies for learning rather than distraction.

      Bringing outside interests into the classroom to keep students engaged - This drop off in engagement is something that drew me to middle grades, I feel like it the last chance to keep them engaged or get them interested in science before full blown teenage apathy sets in during high school.

    12. beyond the formal educational pipeline.

      Will Richardson discussed this in his Youtube video how individuals can take initiative and learn more online and other sources than in a traditional classroom setting. Ex: his daughter playing Journey on the piano.

    13. We need to harness these new technologies for learning rather than distraction.  

      Students are already using these technologies. We need to find a way to use them productively.

    14. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

      Watching children learn through creating and solving problems is really fun to see because they are capable of more than we expect also it sticks with them better so they can come back to the information later when it comes up

    15. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them.

      In connection with Latin, it is hard to see a way that students can pursue interest " to open up opportunities for them"

    16. While wealthy families are embracing the potential of new technologies for learning, and investing more and more in out-of-school and connected learning, less privileged kids are being left behind. Access to specialized, interest-driven and personalized learning used to be difficult and scarce. But in today’s networked world, there’s no reason why all children should not have the opportunity to pursue connected learning.

      Socioeconomic impact for technology: access, funding, etc.

    17. We need to harness these new technologies for learning rather than distraction.

      Entertainment vs production

    18. beyond the formal educational pipeline.

      Learning that extends outside of the classroom for a common interest (e.g., photography, humanitarian work)

    19. connected learning puts progressive, experiential, and learner-centered approaches at the center of technology-enhanced learning.

      Proactive vs passive

    20. does not require technology, new digital and networked technologies expand opportunities

      Technology would certain enhance the connection

    21. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them

      Insightful. The use of personal interest here emphasizes the desire to learn and connect with others that want to learn the same thing.

    22. Connected learning isn’t a burden that one organization shoulders on its own, and is about building connections across different sites of learning

      This is where the community partnerships come in

    23. Traditional education is failing to engage many students as they enter their middle school, high school, and college years.
    1. It’s not about using digital tools to support outdated education strategies and models; it’s about tapping into technology’s potential to amplify human capacity for collaboration, creativity and communication.

      Absolutely. It's about evolving the resources and their impact.

    1. Promote Mastery Orientations

      Highlight their strengths or passions. We tend to focus on weaknesses and challenges more.

    2. Embrace Collaborative Learning

      Group or communal work promotes accountability and usually better results.

    3. Provide Autonomy Support

      Encourage student leadership and engagement.

    4. Foster a Sense of Competence

      Beware of what your students limits are and pay attention to how they react.

    5. Make It Meaningful

      Students are more likely going to be engaged if it's something they care about.

    1. Every English class starts with a moment of quiet after which students are asked to share their energy and stress levels.

      I like this idea. I also think you could get the same results by just having a group share with the class or even let the groups themselves determine the particular job.

    2. n English, juniors are grouped with seniors, which helps the younger students learn how the process works by watching and learning from the older students. Additionally, pairs of students are invited to lead the discussions. The English discussions are also held online, and students are required to participate and comment on at least two other student comments.
    3. While students participate in the group discussions around the Harkness table in English, the teacher selects one student to be the moderator and another to be the discussion tracker who records the flow of the conversations. The moderator can look at the discussion tracker’s notes and see which students he should invite to chime in.
    4. In English, the discussions are open-ended, allowing for multiple right answers.

      One reason I want to be an English teacher.

    5. In English classes, students sit around a Harkness table (a large wooden table capable of seating the entire class), which allows every student to see the teacher and all the members of the class as they speak. The foundation is that students come prepared to discuss and collaborate.

      Good to know for my lesson plan

    6. assigning students to groups to review their homework, do daily class worksheets, participate in moderated discussions, and complete hands-on projects. Often, teachers give students group tests, which, like the class worksheets, are designed to be harder than the individual assignments. Students quickly realize that they are able to solve problems as a group that they would not be able to solve as individuals. Some of the other ways teachers foster a collaborative-learning environment follow

      It allows students to feel in control of something, there's already so much that is forced on them at this age. It also gives the student time to develop peer relationships.

      This practice will also allow them develop skills that will be useful after school.

    7. teachers must be willing to “cede the floor” to the students. Other things to consider are the need to create an effective classroom geography, focus on the process, build accountability, let students teach one another, and encourage students to be in tune with one another.

      Their needs to be a respectful relationship between the student and teacher. Students need to feel a stake in their own education. John Dewey and Paulo Freire both brought up these subjects when writing out their pedagogy's.

    8. The collaborative-learning style incorporated into the fabric of the school helps students to be resilient by aiding them with identifying their resources (peers) and testing their theories to see if they are on the right track all while developing habits of mind that form the foundation of scholarship

      More schools should replicate this

    9. In math classes, the students sit face-to-face in groups of four tables to collaborate. In English classes, students sit around a Harkness table (a large wooden table capable of seating the entire class), which allows every student to see the teacher and all the members of the class as they speak. The foundation is that students come prepared to discuss and collaborate.

      This is a good concept so no one is let out.... everyone can contribute

    10. assigning students to groups to review their homework, do daily class worksheets, participate in moderated discussions, and complete hands-on projects. Often, teachers give students group tests, which, like the class worksheets, are designed to be harder than the individual assignments. Students quickly realize that they are able to solve problems as a group that they would not be able to solve as individuals. Some of the other ways teachers foster a collaborative-learning environment follow:

      taking responsibility for their own education.......

    11. teachers must be willing to “cede the floor” to the students. Other things to consider are the need to create an effective classroom geography, focus on the process, build accountability, let students teach one another, and encourage students to be in tune with one another.

      sense of independence .... autonomy

    12. Collaborative Learning Builds Deeper Understanding Encouraging students to reach out to one another to solve problems not only builds collaboration skills but leads to deeper learning and understanding.

      deeper understanding

    13. Every English class starts with a moment of quiet after which students are asked to share their energy and stress levels.

      I like the idea of having students share something about themselves in the beginning of class. I always enjoyed working together in math because I often struggled and it was easier for me to ask a student for help rather than a teacher. I think collaborative learning is a great way to make sure everyone is understanding the content and not just hiding behind their peers.

    14. In math, four times a year, each student is given a set of values or codes to substitute in the equations so that even though the students are working together, they have to focus on the mathematical process and not just the “right answer.” In English, the discussions are open-ended, allowing for multiple right answers.

      Yes! This is how I plan to teach science. I will give them questions but they have to find the answers.

    15. In math classes, students frequently take group tests and can consult with one another on the answers, but the teacher chooses only one test at random to grade for the group. Because the group work is intentionally more difficult, this process keeps individual students accountable for full participation in group work. To measure how well the groups work together, the teacher also gives out a group-collaboration grade for each unit, which is worth 10 percent of a student’s grade. While students participate in the group discussions around the Harkness table in English, the teacher selects one student to be the moderator and another to be the discussion tracker who records the flow of the conversations. The moderator can look at the discussion tracker’s notes and see which students he should invite to chime in.

      This is similar to how I have run my Mythological project in the past. It is important to not only give a final grade but to include part as a child's participation in the group and therefore keeping everyone accountable.

    1. For children in low-income school districts, inadequate access to technology can hinder them from learning the tech skills that are crucial to success in today’s economy

      great article

    1. Starting with a good toolkit is essential for designing learning experiences that reach the Modification and Transformation level of the SAMAR model.

      Knowing how and when to use the right tool.

    2. the real learning gains result from engaging students in learning experiences that could not be accomplished without technology.
    3. The SAMR model  is a useful tool for helping teachers think about their own tech use as they begin to make small shifts in the design and implementation of  technology driven learning experiences to achieve the next level.
    4. Starting with a good toolkit is essential for designing learning experiences that reach the Modification and Transformation level of the SAMAR model.

      I think it is important that the technology you decide to use is actually providing the students with and advantage and is a useful tool. I have seen technology be extremely beneficial but when it is not well thought through it can feel out of place and confusing.

    5. eachers in the substitution and augmentation phase can use technology to accomplish traditional tasks,  but the real learning gains result from engaging students in learning experiences that could not be accomplished without technology. At the Modification and Redefinition level, the task changes and extends the walls of the classroom.

      I feel like the push to use tech in the classroom results in mostly just substitution/replacement and doesn't really add anything to the learning outcomes. If you yourself are unaware of "learning experiences that could not be accomplished without technology," its going to be a bigger challenge to use tech in a meaningful way.

    6.   Image created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura, Ph.D. http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/

      This best describes the issues with Latin technological integration. We have augmented and substituted but we have yet to get to redefinition, the inability to do this, I feel, truly shows our lack of experience in the integration.

    1. According to Mandinach and Cline, educators go through 4 stages of development with their use of technology: Based upon the work of Mandinach & Cline. With this in mind, as leaders of technology in our establishments, we need to be mindful of our responsibility to our students and our staff when it comes to technology use. Strategic planning and building in  training for staff is critical if we want transformational learning happening.

      stages of development for technology = teacher confidence

    2. According to Mandinach and Cline, educators go through 4 stages of development with their use of technology:

      Technology capabilities play a major part in the use of technology in the classroom.

    1. For example, this year teachers said they were more comfortable using technology than ever before.

      This is a good point. I think older/seasoned teachers may have some difficulty using some of the programs. I know some college professors that have trouble turning on the smart board

    1. you do need open minds and the willingness to trust students with their learning. You need a culture that values every student's strengths and a school community that believes everyone can learn from each other. In other words, it requires the very things that nearly every school strives for. So why not give it a try?

      open-minded

    2. ceding the floor to her students was at first "unsettling." But now it's clear to her why allowing her students to learn in this way is so powerful. "They're learning more than just math," she says. "They're learning to be more proactive; they're learning how to depend on their peers. When they go off to college, they already know how to work with people and draw out their strengths." And their graduates seem to bear this out. College Prep alumni consistently report back -- through surveys and anecdotes -- how well the school prepared them for the academic challenges of college, teaching them how to reach out for help when needed and helping them to develop the confidence to contribute to college seminars with their own analyses.

      importance of ceding the floor .......

    3. What our collaborative learning style empowers and enables is a student's resilience -- how do you look to your neighbor as a resource, how do you test your own theories, how do you understand if you're on the right track or the wrong track?" says Monique DeVane, College Prep's head of school. "It teaches them that it's not just about content; it's about cultivating habits of mind that are the underpinnings of deeper scholarship."

      Collaborative Learning

    4. How Collaborative Learning Leads to Student Success Encouraging students to reach out to each other to solve problems and share knowledge not only builds collaboration skills, it leads to deeper learning and understanding

      Collaborative Learning = Success

    5. "What our collaborative learning style empowers and enables is a student's resilience -- how do you look to your neighbor as a resource, how do you test your own theories, how do you understand if you're on the right track or the wrong track?" says Monique DeVane, College Prep's head of school. "It teaches them that it's not just about content; it's about cultivating habits of mind that are the underpinnings of deeper scholarship."
    1. In Collaborative Reasoning discussions, students are engaged with texts through reasoning and deliberation with one another about the multi-faceted issues raised in the text(s). The discussion is a process of teasing out and working through "big" issues; handling of ambiguity and opposing viewpoints; reasoning, exploring, evaluation and building of arguments; and holding one's own or letting go within a social context.

      Collaborative Reasoning

    1. , the teacher poses a question likely to incite different points of view, and students provide reasons to support their positions. Collaborative reasoning aims to "encourage students to use reasoned discourse as a means for choosing among alternative perspectives on an issue" while drawing on personal experiences, background knowledge, and text for interpretive support (Murphy et al., 2009). This approach has been shown to improve argumentation and students' use of the text to defend arguments, while decreasing teacher talk and control of the topic (Murphy et al., 2009).

      collaborative reasoning

    2. Providing students with opportunities to ask questions that examine multiple interpretations of a text has been shown to strengthen critical-thinking and reasoning skills

      critical thinking

    1. socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      Again .... Support is very important.

    1. Clusters of 21st Century Cognitive Competencies

      Chart makes connections between 21st Century Skills & Personality Factors.

    2. Connected learning posits that by connecting and translating between in-school and out-of-school learning, we can guide more young people to engaging, resilient, and useful learning that will help them become effective contributors and participants in adult society. We also believe that networked and digital technologies have an important role to play in building these sites of connection and translation
    3. 1. Formal education is often disconnected and lacking in relevanceClassroom ethnographers have documented how school learning is often disconnected from the contexts where young people find meaning and social connection. School subjects are often thought to impart knowledge and skills that will be useful, or will “transfer to” everyday life and future work, but these connections have proven elu-sive to learning researchers and students alike. In fact, a recent report by the National Academies concluded that “Over a century of research on transfer has yielded little evidence that teaching can develop general cognitive competencies that are trans-ferable to any new discipline, problem or context, in or out of school” (National Research Council, 2012).
    4. To “learn from experience” is to make a backward and forward connection between what we do to things and what we enjoy or suffer from things in consequence. Under such conditions, doing becomes a trying; an experiment with the world to find out what it is like; the undergoing becomes instruction—discovery of the connection of things.

      Trying out different interests, hobbies and even career paths.

    5. Today’s American youth are entering a labor market strikingly different from earlier generations. Over the last decade, global economic integration and the collapse of the Soviet Union have led to what economist Richard Freeman (2008) has called a “dou-bling” of the global labor market, from a pool of 1.46 to 2.93 billion. This has created a chronic shortage of jobs relative to those who seek them. The economic downturn that resulted from the 2007 financial panic has worsened this shortfall (see Figures 1 and 2).2

      And the shortage of jobs will only increase with more automation.

    6. Despite its power to advance learning, many parents, educators, and policymak-ers perceive new media as a distraction from academic learning, civic engagement,

      It certainly can be a distraction when only used for entertainment and the use of new is not accompanied with oppotunities to build digital literacies.

    7. onnected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      Essentially, this is conecting personal interests to content learning to real world applications.

    1. S

      Substitution="block is a block no matter where accessed"

      Augmentation=functionality--shareable Google doc. Same tasks but technology changes it

      Modification=Tech is used to redesign parts of tasks

      Redefinition=design and create new tasks (ex. connecting to another classroom via Google Docs)

    1. T

      Research first island that houses trash then connect it back to recent local ban on plastic bag. -Use of examples -Use of research the science problem -Students make a powerpoint w/ links then moviemaker application for project -Once content is there, technology concept is introduced.

    1. “Chicago in particular probably highlights the digital divide that’s across the country,” Patrick said. “Some schools may have access to one-to-one pilots, and other schools have old infrastructure that is barely functional, so that kids don’t have access to the computers.”

      I think this is really important when looking about technology in schools. What about those students who are being left behind due to the lack of school funding

    1. The surprising truth about what motivates us

      Motivating until encounter rudimentary cognitive tasks

    1. Will Richardson

      Not waiting for curriculum to learn but finding the resources themselves

    1. Specifically, these skills are described as:

      Possessing these skills is critical to advancements in not only technology, but outside of the classroom

    2. To help people become good citizens of the web, Mozilla focuses on the following goals: 1) develop more educators, advocates, and community leaders who can leverage and advance the web as an open and public resource, and 2) impact policies and practices to ensure the web remains a healthy open and public resource for all.

      cofcedu...This concept matches those of some of the videos we watched, that companies update their technology to keep up with advancements, but try to keep it adaptable for all generations using technology

    3. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world.

      I have a hard time knowing where digital literacy falls in terms of priority for students with disabilities. While it is no doubt just as important for them to grasp in order to better interact with our rapidly changing world, it is difficult to integrate the use of technology when trying to help students grasp certain skills.

    4. Having these skills on the web expands access and opportunity for more people to learn anytime, anywhere, at any pace.

      These skills truly opens up opportunities for students to study outside the classroom setting as we are doing now. Technology and the web has opened numerous doors.

    5. Specifically, these skills are described as

      Read, write, participate, and 21C skills are defined

    6. read, write, and participate
    1. Collaboration was central to the project. Students formed teams of three or four and began planning what tasks they would do and how they would work together.

      I love that project-based learning opens up opportunities for meaningful collaboration. Sometimes collaboration can be shallow, with students talking at each other rather than having genuine discussions.

    1. In this Edutopia video, we get a good overview of how PBL is different from the kind of instruction most of us are used to.

      This video is useful in terms of breaking down the parts of PBL and giving examples of what each part looks like in action. I enjoy that it shows PBL in different classroom settings. However, all of the classroom shown are general education classrooms. I wonder if there are videos that show PBL used in SPED classrooms.

    1. lStudents will understand their own eating patterns and ways in which these patterns may be improved.Using these standards as the starting point, I need to decide what enduring understanding I want my students to take away from the unit. Although I've never deliberately thought about enduring knowledge, per se, I like the concept and think that it will help me focus my teaching and limited class time on the truly important aspects of this unit.

      I like the idea of developing an end goal at the beginning of the unit that way you can revolve the whole lesson and all assessments around that goal in order to ensure it is reached.

    2. The teacher as designer is similarly constrained. We are not free to teach any topic we choose. Rather, we are guided by national, state, district, or institutional standards that specify what students should know and be able to do. These standards provide a framework to help us identify teaching and learning priorities and guide our design of curriculum and assessments

      These standards do guide a teacher planning/goals, but the focus shouldn't be solely on the standard than the concept that is to be understood so that students can transfer it to other areas. Yes, it's standard driven but you want results.

      I do understand that the standard are in place for a purpose. Highly qualified educators and specialist have collaborated to set these standards. Be mindful to know your students and not just push standards into them to say that you went over them, but they don't comprehend and can't transfer them. What was the purpose?

    3. In addition to external standards, we also consider the needs of our students when designing learning experiences. For example, student interests, developmental levels, and previous achievements influence our designs

      For me, this is where Maslow comse inot play. Some students have other needs that need to be meet before you can dive into a standard with them.

    4. We focus on a particular topic (e.g., racial prejudice), use a particular resource (e.g., To Kill a Mockingbird), and choose specific instructional methods (e.g., Socratic seminar to discuss the book and cooperative groups to analyze stereotypical images in films and on television) to cause learning to meet a given standard (e.g., the student will understand the nature of prejudice, and the difference between generalizations and stereotypes).
    1. When he read the Web address, http://pubweb.northwestern.edu/~abutz/di/intro.html, he assumed that the domain name “northwestern.edu” automatically meant it was a credible source. He did not understand that the “~” character, inserted after the domain name, should be read as a personal Web page and not an official document of the university.

      I don't think this is common knowledge though. I personally didn't know this.

    2. When he read the Web address, http://pubweb.northwestern.edu/~abutz/di/intro.html, he assumed that the domain name “northwestern.edu” automatically meant it was a credible source. He did not understand that the “~” character, inserted after the domain name, should be read as a personal Web page and not an official document of the university.

      Even though I consider myself web literate enough to tell the difference between a personal and academic page, I honestly didn't know that the "~" denoted that. I really need to get better about thinking of web addresses and code as a language (which they are).

    1. Teaching for transfer means that learners are given opportuni-ties to apply their learning to new situ-ations and receive timely feedback on their performance to help them improve.

      make a connection ... Text to text, text to self, text to world

    2. Teaching for understanding requires that students be given numerous opportunities to draw inferences and make generaliza-tions for themselves (with teacher sup-port).

      It teaches student to be thinkers and not just obtain facts/information.

    3. The UbD framework promotes not only acquisition, but also the student’s ability to know why the knowl-edge and skills are important, and how to apply or transfer them in meaningful, professional, and socially important ways
    4. Can apply by effectively using and adapting what they know in new and complex contexts.• Demonstrate perspective by seeing the big picture and recognizing differ-ent points of view.• Display empathy by perceiving sensitively and walking in someone else’s shoes.• Have self-knowledge by showing meta-cognitive awareness, using productive habits of mind, and reflect-ing on the meaning of the learning and experience.

      I also think applying the skills/concept to other areas is important. When a student can put it in their own words and present it to others in a different setting this is a great accomplishment. This is also great in math when a student solve a problem a different way and gets the same answer. It shows that people have different thought processes , everyone doesn't think the same, and there's more than one way to "skin a cat". They'll learn to accept people's differnce while working together.

    5. When someone truly under-stands, they• Can explain concepts, principles, and processes by putting it their own words, teaching it to others, justifying their answers, and showing their reasoning.• Can interpret by making sense of data, text, and experience through images, analogies, stories, and models.

      This is a great assessment/indicator that a student comprhended the lesson. When they can explain it to a friend in their own words.

    6. Stage 1 focuses on “transfer of learning.”

      This is the goal...... to get them to transfer what they've learned to other areas.

    7. Learning priorities are established by long-term performance goals—what it is we want students, in the end, to be able to do with what they have learned. The bottom-line goal of education is transfer. The point of school is not to simply excel in each class, but to be able to use one’s learning in other settings.

      This goes with the saying " plan with the end in mind." It's easier to plan when you know what the destination is.

    8. Furthermore, the format of the test causes many educators to erroneously believe that the state test or provincial exam only assesses low-level knowledge and skill. This, too, is false. Indeed, the data from released national tests show conclusively that the students have the most difficulty with those items that require understanding and transfer, not recall or recognition.
    9. he Three Stages of Backward DesignThe UbD framework offers a three-stage backward design process for curriculum planning, and includes a template and set of design tools that embody the process. A key concept in UbD framework is align-ment (i.e., all three stages must clearly align not only to standards, but also to one another). In other words, the Stage 1 con-tent and understanding must be what is assessed in Stage 2 and taught in Stage 3.
    10. Teachers are coaches of understanding, not mere purveyors of content knowl-edge, skill, or activity. They focus on ensuring that learning happens, not just teaching (and assuming that what was taught was learned); they always aim and check for successful meaning making and transfer by the learner.
    11. Six facets of under-standing—the capacity to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, empa-thize, and self-assess—can serve as indicators of understanding.

      Empathy demonstrates understanding, even if you can't actually place yourself in someone else's shoes/relate, you can still understand their perspective. A lack of empathy goes hand-in-hand with hatred and fear of the "other" or what is different.

    1. According to Maslow, individuals must meet the needs at the lower levels of the pyramid before they can successfully be motivated to tackle the next levels.
    2. eople become actualized to accomplish higher motives only after they have fulfi lled certain basic needs

      Basic needs must be fulfilled FIRST!

    1. Backwarddesignmaybethoughtof,inotherwords,aspurposefultaskanalysis:Givenaworthytasktobeaccomplished,howdowebestgeteveryoneequipped?Orwemightthinkofitasbuildingawiseitinerary,usingamap:Givenadestination,what'sthemosteffectiveandefficientroute?Orwemightthinkofitasplanningforcoaching:Whatmustlearnersmasteriftheyaretoeffectivelyperform?Whatwillcountasevidenceonthefield,notmerelyindrills,thattheyreallygetitandarereadytoperformwithunderstanding,knowledge,andskillontheirown?

      Great example of how teachers are coaches. I actaully used this example in a response to another post.

    1. Garth is an adolescent male attending high school in the northeast of the United States. You can review his work on his YouTube channel.

      I really enjoyed this interview because it shows that we have a lot to gain from students in terms of technology. The children who I babysit are 7 and 9 and they are often assisting me with technology. It just goes to show you that they have a huge capacity to learn especially when it is something they are interested in.

    2. Yet, as early adopters, history’s first generation of “always connected” individuals do not have the knowledge and skills to critically explore, build, and connect online. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      This is very interesting. I think this also somewhat applies to the late adopters of "always connected," aka, my parents generation. They view social media and the use of the internet as largely "for fun," and not for civic engagement. While that is certainly true, I think most of my generation views their online presence as an extension of who they really are. My parents don't take a stand or voice strong opinions on social media... but they also wouldn't face to face unless it was with close friends or family. On the other end of the spectrum are the young people today who express every thought and gut reaction online, but would never do so face to face. Everyone has been given a platform to freely engage and exchange ideas but few know how to "critically explore, build and connect."

    1. I think this is good advice for using the design process also gives a really good Student Project Design Matrix example

    1. One of my favorite tools to use in doing this is the CRAAP test developed by the University of California at Chico. This method requires students to evaluate a source based on its Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose. In fact, this method could easily be applied to “traditional” sources as well.
  2. Jan 2017
    1. videos and podcasts

      I love that we are moving towards more unique ways of presenting projects rather than just tri-fold poster boards!!

    2. "entry event"

      I really like this idea of an entry event, and it is something I never thought much about before, from the student perspective. When a teacher introduces a new topic in school, if they do so in a visual, auditory, or fun way, I would be way more likely to be interested in doing a project about the topic, compared to if they had just handed me a huge packet at the beginning of class.

    3. A classroom filled with student posters may suggest that students have engaged in meaningful learning. But it is the process of students' learning and the depth of their cognitive engagement— rather than the resulting product—that distinguishes projects from busywork.

      I agree SO much with this statement! Yes, from the outside a classroom may portray extreme learning through the posters and pictures displayed, but did the student really retain the information throughout the project-process? Or did they just cram and do the project the night before to get an A?

    1. 5 Keys to Rigorous Project-Based Learning

      A great video for those aural or visual learners out there! @5:01 I could see how PBL could improve learning.

    1. Risks of Problem-Based Learning

      PBL is definitely something different that students may not be used to. And they may not be used to all the hands on they have to learn to do. It is really all about interaction and for students to transition from traditional learning to this could become frustrating.

    1. “It’s gotta be fun. The more fun the project is, the more interested they’ll be, the more they’ll learn,” he said. “In fact, I have parents say, ‘I’m really concerned. My kids really like school. My kid’s having too much fun.’

      It makes an all around better atmosphere for the students learning and it gets them more involved.

    1. . Projects, as a means to make schooling more useful and readily applied to the world, first became popular in the early part of the century within the United States

      I think that project based learning really does help you get prepared for the world more than just reading from a textbook. Today, our technology is so advanced you can read your textbook online and almost everything can be done on a computer so why are we still teaching things not relevant to all the advances we have today?

    1. Why Project Based Learning (PBL)?

      what i gathered from reading this first article is that it seams like project based learning should be in every school system? If it gets students more into the project and makes them learn easier and remember things better then why wouldn't we be practicing it in every school?

    1. PBL is the ongoing act of learning about different subjects simultaneously. This is achieved by guiding students to identify, through research, a real-world problem (local to global) developing its solution using evidence to support the claim, and presenting the solution through a multimedia approach based in a set of 21st-century tools.

      Interesting look at PBL and 21st century learning

    2. PBL is the ongoing act of learning about different subjects simultaneously. This is achieved by guiding students to identify, through research, a real-world problem (local to global) developing its solution using evidence to support the claim, and presenting the solution through a multimedia approach based in a set of 21st-century tools

      Interesting look at PBL AND 21st century learning.

    1. With project based learning, the content is baked inside of a long-term projec

      Good definition!