3,061 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. Students critically evaluate online information by considering the credibility (truthfulness) and validity (usefulness) of the information obtained

      We teach them how to evaluate their sources so when they get to this point they will know what to look for. (Talk about this with other article- "Prior knowledge we bring to a text profoundly shapes our interpretation"- New Literacies)

    2. Students collaboratively (with the instructor) identify an area of interest and co-construct a driving question to guide inquiry.

      Driving questions help to solidify what kinds of information that we are trying to acquire. It is important to establish these driving questions before conducting research so that students can understand what information they need to be looking for.

    3. WebQuests typically contain an introduction, task, process, evaluation, and conclusion

      The process of obtaining information from the web which can help students to understand the type of information they are recieving and deciding if it is relevant and accurate

    4. Students collaboratively (with the instructor) identify an area of interest and co-construct a driving question to guide inquiry. Students engage in online collaborative inquiry as they search and sift through online texts using digital tools to address their focus of inquiry. Students critically evaluate online information by considering the credibility (truthfulness) and validity (usefulness) of the information obtained. Students synthesize what they have learned during their online inquiry by actively curating and synthesizing information across multiple, multimodal sources. Student engage in online content construction by synthesizing what they have learned and selecting the best digital text or tool before sharing this answer.

      Phases of IIP

    5. Internet Inquiry Projects are student interest driven, and are more authentic as a learning activity than traditional WebQuests.
    1. pre-publication draft
      • "OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license permitting their free use or re-purposing by others"- finding free tools to use is a good way to keep the cost down while integrating technology in our classrooms
      • "The Internet can be an empowering tool that allows individuals to create, share, connect, and learn with other like-minded individuals around the globe"- connecting to people around the world can help us to get our students engaged and interested in the topics we are discussing. it can also help them to learn more information.
      • "Central to the challenges associated with the use of OER in the classroom are questions about the credibility, value, reliability, and permanence of access of these online materials"- we have to make sure that we are teaching our students to use their critical thinking skills to investigate sources.
      • "Many school policies are vague, unclear, or generally do not permit students to construct and share digital content openly online"- it can be difficult in some cases to integrate the internet in our classrooms. If this happens, then we have to be careful about what we introduce to our students
      • "The use of OERs has the potential to help teachers find quality resources while encouraging them to share resources. This curation and sharing promotes dialogue about thoughtful teaching and learning within an educator’s PLN"- creating and sharing Open Education Resources can be beneficial to how we set up our classroom learning environment. It can also promote the sharing pedagogical ideas and theories. Teachers helping teachers gain perspective of different teaching and learning ideas.
      • "As open learning practices and development of OERs continue to expand and impact practice in K-12 classrooms, issues of ownership, quality, and relevancy must be addressed by education leaders"- we must teach our students about the proper ways to share and search for information online so that they don't have to worry about infringing on copyright or obtaining false information.
    1. video
      • Read- questioning, locating, synthesizing, and communicating information duing online problem based reading tasks
      • Changing nature of literacy- new literacies are central to civic, economic and personal participation in a globalized community and, as a result, the education of all students-constantly thinking about and problematizing information we are teaching our students
      • the internet as a text- the use of internet in schools extends the boundaries of literature/ transforms instructional practices
      • Questioning- can students restate questions in their own words? can they form keywords from this question? can they understand when they have gotten all the information they need?
      • Locating- using different search engines, using internal search engines (search engine within a website), how to find infrmation on a webpage, hot to ignore information they don't need to think about
      • Evaluate- know when information meets their needs, know how to identify an author or publisher of online information, judge an author's authority on a subject, can see how an author supports ther argument
      • Synthesize- know how to select and construct the information they need, know which information to ignore while reading, know how images and numbers help contruct meaning, know when they have the answer
      • Communicate- know how to select the most appropriate communication tool for their purpose, know what information to submit, and what to leave out, share all information needed to completely answer the question
      • Scaffolding online readers- Google Forms, Blogger or EDUblogs, Diigo, Google Custom Search Engine
      • Why is this important? Students that need it the most may be receiving it the least, little known about differences between online and offline reading, authentic, web-based learning assessments
    1. Five Keys to Comprehensive Assessment
      • Assessments need to evolve to reflect the skills and knowledge that we actually value
      • Meaningful Goals and Measures- clear goals help to get students to understand the information
      • Formative Feedback- checking for understanding throughout the lessons- steering students to gaining understanding-keep working with them to make sure that they are staying on track, reflecting, and gaining a full understanding of the information that they are learning
      • Summative Assessments- summative assessments don't have to be a unit test at the end of a lesson. Having them do a project, write an essay, explain what they have learned so that we can understand how to assess their knowledge of the curriculum
      • Performance assessment- collaborting with other effectively, communicate in multiple forms, be critical and creative problem solvers- blend of cognitive and non-cognitive skills and abilities- teaching them to use these skills and abilities so that they can use them in life outside of the classroom- model assessments after real life experience
      • Student ownership- When a student takes ownership of their own learning then we can ensure that every student is learning the information- continually engaged in self-assessment and peer assessment- when students have the ability to take ownership of their learning then they begin to value assessment
      • Produce a learner that is self-initiating, self-motivated, understands the standards internally, continually driving towards excellence, continually developing their own learning skills, and is able to learn on their own and collaborately with others
      • Comprehensive Assessment- improve writing and critical-thinking skills, support engagement and academic performance in a range of subjects, be the most ccost-effective educational intervention
    1. Middle School Project: Public Art

      Kinetic Sculptures

      • Using different classes to teach about curriculum- shop class, english, math, and computer
      • Engaging and taking ownership of the information that the students are learning
    1. Keeping Assessment Relevant and "Authentic"

      authenntic assessment- hit the skills and the needs of the student population identify common mistakes using mistakes to assess connecting math to real life- instead of "here's the formula" use "this is how the ormula works" make tasks authentic anticipate problems emphasis on the "how" of learning assessment as teaching tool

    1. Eli Pariser

      Every person gets different news and search results that are tailored to them. Filter bubble- whats in it is based on who you are and what you do and we don't have control over what is in our filter bubbles.

    1. “Search is not used to set a political agenda and we don’t bias our results toward any political ideology,”

      This is very interesting and seems like the opposite of what is really happening.

    1. Strategy Exchange

      When students share what they found with each other, they are helping each other to find more information.

      By figuring out what is the best out of all the MP3 players, they are comprehending the information that is being presented on each website.

      Collaborating with each other to boost their comprehending skills.

    1. That kind of blind trust may be dangerous for content creators and consumers alike, both in terms of what we see and what we get.

      I have been a little naive when it comes to this. I feel like others would be very surprised as well to find that their search results were being thrown off by an algorithm.

    1. requiring additional skills to effectively read, write, and learn, sometimes on a daily basis

      yes, with the abundance of media in the form of text comes yet another reason for literacy

    2. Critically evaluating online information includes the ability to read and evaluate the level of accuracy, reliability, and bias of information

      Students need to be able to recognize quality content.

    3. These sites teach early offline reading skills while they also provide important early experiences with navigating an online interface.

      Today's students need to begin using online content from the start of their educational careers.

    4. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, online reading may require even greater amounts of higher-level thinking than offline reading. In a context in which anyone may publish anything, higher-level thinking skills such as critical evaluation of source material become especially important online.

      Students have to know what is quality information.

    5. (1) reading to identify important questions, (2) reading to locate information, (3) reading to evaluate information criti-cally, (4) reading to synthesize information, and (5) reading and writing to communicate information.

      Steps to ensure that we are getting the most out of the content we read online.

    6. The new literacies of online research and comprehension frames online reading comprehension as a process of problem-based inquiry involving the skills, strategies, dispositions, and social practices that take place as we use the Internet to conduct research, solve problems, and answer ques-tions.

      What can we learn from the online readings and research

    7. Lowercase theories of new literacies explore several types of elements: (1) a set of new literacies required by a specific technology and its social practices such as text messaging (Lewis & Fabos, 2005); (2) a disciplinary base, such as the semiotics of multimodality in online media (Kress, 2003); or (3) a distinctive, conceptual approach such as new literacy studies (Street, 2003). Lowercase theories of new literacy are better able to keep up with the rapidly changing nature of literacy since they are closer to the specific types of changes that rapidly take place.

      Lowercase literacies are easier to learn and are continual.

    8. However, this does not nec-essarily mean they are skilled in the effective use of online information, perhaps the most important aspect of the Internet. Studies show that stu-dents lack critical evaluation skills when reading online (Bennet, Maton, & Kervin, 2008; Forzani & Maykel, 2013; Graham & Metaxas, 2003) and that they are not especially skilled with reading to locate information

      Students may know how to use the technology but they may not understand the material they are using.

    9. Finally, each online tool regularly is updated; each time this happens new affordances appear, requiring addi-tional skills and strategies.

      New skills have to constantly be learned.

    10. Internet is also altering the nature of literacy, generating New Literacies that require additional skills and strategies. Most importantly, it is reshap-ing the nature of literacy education, providing us with many new and exciting opportunities for our classrooms.

      With technology comes new abilities.

    11. Recognize That aNew Literacies Journey Is One ofContinuousLearning
    12. Use Performance‑Based Assessments forEvaluating Students’ Ability withNewLiteracies
    13. Integrate Online Communication intoLessons
    14. Use Online Reading Experiences toDevelop Critical Thinking Skills andaGeneration of“HealthySkeptics
    15. Teach Online Search Skills Since These Are Important toSuccess intheNew Literacies ofOnline Research andComprehension
    16. Begin Teaching andLearning New Literacies as Early asPossible
    17. 348PERSPECTIVES ON SPECIAL ISSUESThe UnitedStatesIn the United States, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initia-tive (2012) establishes more uniform standards across states to prepare students for college and careers in the 21st century. One of the key design principles in the CCSS, research and media skills, focuses on the integra-tion of online research and comprehension skills within the classroom such as locating, evaluating, synthesizing, and communicating:To be ready for college, workforce training, and life in a technologi-cal society, students need the ability to gather, comprehend, evaluate, synthesize, and report on information and ideas, to conduct original research in order to answer questions or solve problems, and to analyze and create a high volume and extensive range of print and nonprint texts in media forms old and new. The need to conduct research and to produce and consume media is embedded into every aspect of today’s curriculum. (

      United States Standards

    18. The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy and learning within our global community.2.The Internet and related technologies require new literacies to fully access their potential.3.New literacies are deictic; they rapidly change.4.New literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted, and, as a result, our understanding of them benefits from multiple points of view.5.Critical literacies are central to new literacies.6.New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new litera-cies.7.New social practices are a central element of new literacies.8.Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms. (p.11

      New Literacy

    1. The page will appear as it was at the time the snapshot was recorded. The links on the page may or may not work depending on whether or not those URLs were also recorded by the Wayback Machine. If you find that an internal page link does not work, try entering that URL into the Wayback Machine search bar at the top of the page.The search bar within the LEARN page will not work. If this is a page that you intend to access in the future, you may want to bookmark the Wayback Machine URL so you can easily return to it later.

      Steps 4 and 5

    2. The calendar will automatically update to the most recent snapshot of that page.Scroll down to where you see a colored circle around the a date and click on that date for a link to the recorded snapshot from that date.You will be taken to the archive of that webpage.

      Step 3

    3. Point your browser to the LEARN NC archive on the Wayback Machine: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.learnnc.org/ Copy and paste the URL into the search bar on the top of the page.

      Steps 1 & 2

  2. Feb 2019
    1. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      their are so many opportunities and all can be learned by the click of a button about a personal interest

    2. This model is based on evidence that the most resilient, adaptive, and effective learning involves individual interest as well as social support to overcome adversity and provide recognition.

      I thoroughly believe that students need a strong support system in order to really excel in school

    3. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      great definition of what connected learning is, helps broaden understanding on how a student can develop connected learning skills

    4. the most resilient, adaptive, and effective learning involves individual interest as well as social support to overcome adversity and provide recognition.

      "Resilient" and "adaptive" are very important words here. Social support is essential as well. Are we teaching people skills and knowledge they can carry outside of the learning environment, and are we giving them the support they need to sustain and implement this knowledge into their lives?

    5. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement

      Helping students to have a relatable interest with their learning can help them to succeed in their futures. Making our lessons more understandable and related to their interests is important when setting up their learning environment.

    6. It advocates for broadened access to learning that is socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity.

      this is a great definition of connected learning

    7. It advocates for broadened access to learning that is socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity.

      Connected learning allows students to see where their interests can take them in the future.

    1. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      shows how education can make a difference when one makes a personal connection

    2. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      how learning can make an impact

    3. Groups that foster connected learning have shared culture and values, are welcoming to newcomers, and encourage sharing, feedback and learning among all participants.

      This statement implies that students who are introduced to connected learning are more welcoming and more open to sharing and communicating with peers

    4. Feeling emotionally and physically safe and a sense of belonging

      This is a HUGE statement. I believe that good mental health is a key aspect to having the best education possible so this statement really shows that YOUmedia students are really getting the best results.

    5. A survey of 30,000 college graduates found that a strong connection to a faculty member doubled the positive life outcomes of graduates.

      This is such an important concept because college is incredibly stressful when going through it by yourself. But when you have a good support system encouraging you to get through the tough classes, it is easier to get through them

    6. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      the diagram below this comment demonstrated how aspects of life are connected through connected learning

    7. Based on her experiences writing online, Abigail decides she wants to become a professional writer.

      It is a good example that because she was exposed to fan finction, she develops a want to become a professional writer

    8. Connected learning combines personal interests, supportive relationships, and opportunities. It is learning in an age of abundant access to information and social connection that embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests of all young people.

      This is a good definition of what connected learning is

    9. In order to support diverse learner pathways, organizations and caring adults can form partnerships, broker connections across settings, and share on openly networked platforms and portfolios.

      connections made across different settings

    10. Learners need to feel a sense of belonging and be able to make meaningful contributions to a community in order to experience connected learning

      learners need a shared purpose

    11. They do this by being sponsors of what youth are genuinely interested in — recognizing diverse interests and providing mentorship, space, and other resources.

      adults connecting to youth's interests

    12. Ongoing shared activities are the backbone of connected learning.

      shared practices

    13. Connected learning does not rely on a single technology or technique. Rather, it is fostered over time through a combination of supports for developing interests, relationships, skills, and a sense of purpose.

      elements of connected learning

    14. It is learning in an age of abundant access to information and social connection that embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests of all young people.

      definition of connected learning

    15. A survey of 30,000 college graduates found that a strong connection to a faculty member doubled the positive life outcomes of graduates.

      At every stage of a child's life they need one friend/close teacher or mentor and at least one thing they're good at. This furthers that belief, and shows how students will do better in their education if they have that strong personal connection with a faculty members

    16. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      Learning has proven to be deeper and more engaging when connections are formed with students' community, passions/ interests and daily experiences.

    17. Based on her experiences writing online, Abigail decides she wants to become a professional writer. She applies and gets accepted to a specialized creative writing program at a magnet high school.

      By further researching her interest online Abigail was able to find a supportive community that furthered her resources and passion for writing.

    18. Success beyond the classroom requires tangible connections to real-world career and civic opportunities.

      opportunities promote learning

    19. Learners need support from peers and mentors to persist through setbacks and challenges

      mentors help students stay on track and keep up with their studies

    20. interest helps us pay attention, make connections, persist and engage in deeper learning

      interest keeps people focused and wanting to learn

    21. is learning in an age of abundant access to information and social connection that embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests of all young people.

      connected learning defined

    22. Based on her experiences writing online, Abigail decides she wants to become a professional writer. She applies and gets accepted to a specialized creative writing program at a magnet high school.

      By using the internet and online resources Abigail was able to find what she is passionate about. She knows that she wants to become a professional writer and without her discovery of fanfiction she might not of found this.

    23. Learners need support from peers and mentors to persist through setbacks and challenges.

      When it comes to learning about improving one's health, this kind of support is particularly essential because it is often a sensitive subject and can feel like a very long road.

    24. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      Irresistible, life-changing learning should always be the goal, and learning is sustained when the learner is interested and provided with supportive relationships and opportunities. Oftentimes, the toughest part is getting the learner motivated and interested in the subject matter, so it is up to the educator to spark that interest early on.

    25. learning in an age of abundant access to information and social connection

      This abundant access can be both good and bad... it is great that we are able to access information more quickly and easily than ever before, but the tricky part is being able to sift through all the information and determine what is credible.

    26. Groups that foster connected learning have shared culture and values, are welcoming to newcomers, and encourage sharing, feedback and learning among all participants

      Teaching our students to be open with others' differences is important when setting up their learning environment. We need to have a safe space for every single one of our students no matter who they are.

    27. Sponsorship of Youth Interests

      It is important to get on our students levels when we are teaching them information. We need to find out what their favorite things are and try to base our lesson plans on incorporating what they like along with the curriculum that we need to teach them.

    28. Connected learning does not rely on a single technology or technique. Rather, it is fostered over time through a combination of supports for developing interests, relationships, skills, and a sense of purpose.

      When we start off the year using different teaching methods and establishing healthy relationships with our students, we can help them to grow immensely in the small amount of time that we know them.

    29. Opportunities

      Providing our students with opportunities to learn outside the classroom or using technology as a tool when we are teaching are good ways to get them involved in their learning and can eventually help them to take control of their learning experience all together, with us being the facilitators of knowledge.

    30. Learners need support from peers and mentors to persist through setbacks and challenges

      We can help to guide our students through their mistakes ad hardships by being supportive and encouraging. Building a positive relationship with them is very meaningful and lucrative to setting up their learning environment.

    31. A growing body of research indicates that interest helps us pay attention, make connections, persist and engage in deeper learning

      Making content relatable and interesting to ouor students will help them to be more engaged in what we are teaching.

    32. Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity

      When we understand our student's interests and build relationships with them, we can help them to love learning. We can do this collectively with our classes and we can do it with each student individually.

    33. an age of abundant access to information and social connection that embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests of all young people.

      good way to explain what this age of time looks like with technology and diversity

    34. Learning is motivating when it grows out of personal interest.

      Intrest motivates

    35. It is learning in an age of abundant access to information and social connection that embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests of all young people.
    36. Connected learning combines personal interests, supportive relationships, and opportunities.

      What connected learning combines

    37. Learning is motivating when it grows out of personal interest.

      This is very true

    38. Connected learning<br> Combines personal interests, supportive relationships and opportunities -- embraces the diverse backgrounds and interests and of young people

      Elements of connected learning<br> Interests: interest helps us pay attention, make connections, persist and engage in deeper learning<br> Relationships: learners need supreesport from peers and mentors to persist through setbacks and challenges<br> Opportunities: success requires tangible connections to the real world and opportunities<br>

      Elements of connected learning environments<br> Sponsorship of youth interests: adults must meet youth where they are in order to foster connected learning -- sponsors of youths genuine interests -- provide resources<br> Shared practices: collaborative production, friendly competition, civic action and joint research are examples of shared practices<br> Shared purpose: provides a sense of belonging, learners are able to make contributions to their community -- shared values and culture -- encourage sharing, feedback and learning<br> Connections across settings: access to various programs, communities and opportunities -- partnerships/broker connections/networking platforms

      Results of connected learning<br>

      • sense of belonging
      • more involvement in chosen interests
      • improvement in skills (communication, writing ability and some digital media skill)
      • understanding of opportunities available
    39. Librarians and mentors organize showcases, support the production of various projects and broker connections to other opportunities in their interest area.

      The involvement of authority and support from authority develop a stronger relationship with those involved and they also promote the projects, which give more students opportunities.

    40. digital media production such as music, art, poetry and journalism.

      These are activities that are relatively interactive and appeal to a variety of students, which may increase student interest.

    41. Success beyond the classroom requires tangible connections to real-world career and civic opportunities.

      When students can see other people in their same field of interest, they have the opportunity to use their interests in a new way.

    42. Learners need support from peers and mentors to persist through setbacks and challenges

      Learners need help from people who know more about the subject in order to get a deeper understanding.

    43. interest helps us pay attention, make connections, persist and engage in deeper learning.

      When we are interested in what we are learning, we are more likely to be engaged and willing to learn more.

    44. The research is clear: Learning is irresistible and life-changing when it connects personal interests to meaningful relationships and real-world opportunity.

      Learning is the most meaningful when we can make connections between our interests and the opportunities we have to explore our interests.

    1. SAMR 

      (S)ubstitution, (A)ugmentation, (M)odification, (R)edefinition.

    2. Substitution  The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions What will I gain by replacing the older technology with the new technology? Augmentation The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Substitution to Augmentation Have I added an improvement to the task process that could not be accomplished with the older technology at a fundamental level? How does this feature contribute to my design? Modification The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Augmentation to Modification How is the original task being modified? Does this modification fundamentally depend upon the new technology? How does this modification contribute to my design? Redefinition The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Modification to Redefinition What is the new task? Will any portion of the original task be retained? How is the new task uniquely made possible by the new technology? How does it contribute to my design?

      It is important for teachers to ask themselves these questions when thinking about integrating technology into there lesson

    3. The key to successful technology integration is the efficient use of digital tools tools that are appropriate for the task.  Technology provides us all with the ability to develop our own toolkit of flexible resources for use when needed.

      Good way of looking at it

    4. Teachers in the substitution and augmentation phase can use technology to accomplish traditional tasks,  but the real learning gains result from engaging students in learning experiences that could not be accomplished without technology. At the Modification and Redefinition level, the task changes and extends the walls of the classroom

      Using the whole SAMR model can help our students to use autonomy to learn information and helps us to differentiate their learning experiences.

    5. Researchers have determined that technology integration typically moves through specific levels. The higher the level of an activity the greater the educational benefit.

      The more technology is integrated into our lessons, the more learning will occur. It is important to remember that technology helps us to make content more relatable and interesting to our students.

    6. Redefinition The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Modification to Redefinition What is the new task? Will any portion of the original task be retained? How is the new task uniquely made possible by the new technology? How does it contribute to my design?

      R

    7. Modification The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Augmentation to Modification How is the original task being modified? Does this modification fundamentally depend upon the new technology? How does this modification contribute to my design?

      M

    8. Augmentation The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions Substitution to Augmentation Have I added an improvement to the task process that could not be accomplished with the older technology at a fundamental level? How does this feature contribute to my design?

      A

    9. Substitution  The SAMR Ladder: Questions and Transitions What will I gain by replacing the older technology with the new technology?

      S

    10. The SAMR model  is a useful tool for helping teachers think about their own tech use as they begin to make small shifts in the design and implementation of  technology driven learning experiences to achieve the next level

      Teachers need to know how to use the technology before they can teach others.

    1. Thus, teachers need to develop fluency and cognitive flexibility not just in each of the key domains (T, P, and C), but also in the manner in which these domains and contextual parameters interrelate, so that they can construct effective solutions.

      emphasis on fluency and cognitive flexibility

    2. . Teachers need to reject functional fixedness

      It's possible to incorporate sources that aren't typically viewed as "educational" and make the use of those resources beneficial to the classroom.

    3. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

      Aspect 1: Content knowledge

    4. produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.

      purpose of tpack

    5. technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge)

      definition of tpack

    6. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning.

      not only should teachers have knowledge on the subject, they should also have knowledge about the process and methods of teaching the content.

    7. t the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

      the three components of teaching with technology are content, pedagogy, and technology

    8. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      technology in the classroom should be specifically altered to fit the subject matter for that class

    9. this knowledge is unlikely to be used unless teachers can conceive of technology uses that are consistent with their existing pedagogical beliefs

      teachers are most likely not going to use new technological advances if it does not correspond to their pedagogical beliefs.

    10. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today

      Technology is constantly changing and teachers learned how to use different forms of technology in the classroom that have transformed today

    11. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are hidden from users;

      digital technologies are said to be unstable since they arent part of the basic technologies

    12. specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function)

      these three are pedagogical technologies

    13. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains

      technology is one of the domains required for teaching

    14. The TPACK framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: Content, pedagogy, and technology. The interaction of these bodies of knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.

      the knowledge and practice of the three bodies of knowledge is essential for integrating technology into teaching

    15. Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function) (Simon, 1969). Over time, these technologies achieve a transparency of perception (Bruce & Hogan, 1998); they become commonplace and, in most cases, are not even considered to be technologies. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are hidden from users; Turkle, 1995).On an academic level, it is easy to argue that a pencil and a software simulation are both technologies. The latter, however, is qualitatively different in that its functioning is more opaque to teachers and offers fundamentally less stability than more traditional technologies. By their very nature, newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.

      technologies used in in education

    16. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      the components of effective teaching

    17. TPACK framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: Content, pedagogy, and technology. The interaction of these bodies of knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.

      TPACK defined

    18. a framework for teacher knowledge for technology integration called technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge)

      technological pedagogical content knowledge

    19. using a new educational technology suddenly forces teachers to confront basic educational issues and reconstruct the dynamic equilibrium among all three elements

      This is important to note that technology can enhance teaching and learning and is a useful resource.

    20. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today

      I think it would be a good idea to educate these teachers in the usefulness of technology.

    21. Teachers practice their craft in highly complex, dynamic classroom contexts (Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) that require them constantly to shift and evolve their understanding.

      Teachers are in a room full of students of all different backgrounds and interests. It is important that teachers change and evolve so that we can understand what they need to succeed and we can teach in their zone of proximal development.

    22. Also complicating teaching with technology is an understanding that technologies are neither neutral nor unbiased. Rather, particular technologies have their own propensities, potentials, affordances, and constraints that make them more suitable for certain tasks than others (Bromley, 1998; Bruce, 1993; Koehler & Mishra, 2008).

      Technology is never neutral or unbiased, meaning that there is always a deeper message or meaning behind how you use technology and hat type of technology you use.

    23. The TPACK framework builds on Shulman’s (1987, 1986) descriptions of PCK to describe how teachers’ understanding of educational technologies and PCK interact with one another to produce effective teaching with technology

      Effective teaching with tech. What does that look like?

    24. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      Integrating tech into every lesson may not be something that is realistic for teachers. This might not be the best approach when it comes to every lesson.

    25. Rather, particular technologies have their own propensities, potentials, affordances, and constraints that make them more suitable for certain tasks than others

      Since technology is our reality what will I future classrooms look like with these technologies? What's a form of technology that will help support our future students grow and learn? What are the pros and cons to chromebooks or having ipads in the classroom?

    26. A primary goal of this research is to understand the relationships between two key domains: (a) teacher thought processes and knowledge and (b) teachers’ actions and their observable effects. The current work on the TPACK framework seeks to extend this tradition of research and scholarship by bringing technology integration into the kinds of knowledge that teachers need to consider when teaching

      How can teachers instruct using what they know about teaching, their content knowledge about a subject, and their knowledge about technology tools that will help them to gain full student understanding?

    27. Each situation presented to teachers is a unique combination of these three factors, and accordingly, there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching. Rather, solutions lie in the ability of a teacher to flexibly navigate the spaces defined by the three elements of content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex interactions among these elements in specific contexts

      Every teacher is student and every group of students are different. The way to use this information is to base it on how we teach the best and how our students learn the best. There is no "right" or "wrong" way but there are many different ways that work for different teachers and students

    28. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.

      Using technology to incorporate content knowledge and teaching strategies in our lessons will help students to better understand the information that we are trying to teach them.

    29. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom

      Theories help us relate what we are teaching to the learning abilities of our students. Every student learns in a different way so it is important to understand the ways that have worked in the past and relate them to our students now.

    30. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning

      (Maybe use this quote). Understanding students and how they learn helps us to incorporate technology and teach content so that they can get a full understanding of what we are trying to teach.

    31. The cost of not having a comprehensive base of content knowledge can be prohibitive; for example, students can receive incorrect information and develop misconceptions about the content area (National Research Council, 2000; Pfundt, & Duit, 2000)

      The importance of understanding the full extent of the content we are teaching is to give our students correct information. Learning incorrect information and having "misconceptions about the content area" is detrimental to our students' learning.

    32. As Shulman (1986) noted, this knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should understand the deeper knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines in which they teach

      It is important to not only understand what the content is that we are teaching but to understand what goes into the content that we are teaching. The article gives exampled of art and science; the importance is not only on the art or science it is the history and understanding of artists and their meaning and "knowledge of scientific facts and theories, the scientific method, and evidence-based reasoning"

    33. Equally important to the model are the interactions between and among these bodies of knowledge, represented as PCK, TCK (technological content knowledge), TPK (technological pedagogicalknowledge), and TPACK

      The interaction of all three areas is important because it will help us to understand technology when it comes to lesson planning and content knowledge. Knowing what types of technology to use based on our pedagogical methods and the content that we are teaching our students will help us to implement them to ensure full understanding from our students.

    34. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them. The interactions between and among the three components, playing out differently across diverse contexts, account for the wide variations seen in the extent and quality of educational technology integration

      Incorporating technology on its own will not be helpful to us when we are teaching. We must also base what tools we use around the content that we are teaching, our teaching methods and ability to differentiate a lesson, and the type of technology we are trying to incorporate. Technoology is useful when used correctly and wisely, so when we lesson plan, we must think about these before implementing our instruction.

    35. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts

      We should find ways to incorporate technology based on the content that we are teaching, the students' abilities in our classes, and our understanding of the technology that we are using. If we don't understand a certain technology or it doesn't relate to what we are teaching or the technology is too advanced for our students then incorporating the technology will be unuseful in our lessons.

    36. Furthermore, teachers have often been provided with inadequate training for this task. Many approaches to teachers’ professional development offer a one-size-fits-all approach to technology integration when, in fact, teachers operate in diverse contexts of teaching and learning

      Technology is always changing, how will we keep up with the changes and how will we incorporate tools that we are unsure about? It is understandable that in college, we learn about the current technology of that time, but it is our responsibility to understand that technology will always change and that we should try to keep up-to-date on what tools we can use to teach our lessons.

    37. Understanding how these affordances and constraints of specific technologies influence what teachers do in their classrooms is not straightforward and may require rethinking teacher education and teacher professional development

      We must continue to learn new information and about new technologies so that we can better teach our students. Professional development can help us to understand the problems that can arise when using technology so that we can easily work through them when they do happen.

    38. Rather, particular technologies have their own propensities, potentials, affordances, and constraints that make them more suitable for certain tasks than others

      How will we use these technologies to help our students learn even though they will have problems that come along with it? How can we make sure that we limit the amount of problems that will occur in our lessons?

    39. By their very nature, newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching

      How do we incorporate new technology into our teaching? What are ways in which these new technology features can be used in other ways than instruction? There has to be some place that we can use the new technology that will be beneficial to our students.

    40. Teaching with technology is complicated further considering the challenges newer technologies present to teachers. In our work, the word technology applies equally to analog and digital, as well as new and old, technologies

      We must always be prepared to learn about new information or new technology so that we can plan lessons around them. New technology and information will always come about so we must be ready when things do change (which is often).

    41. Teachers practice their craft in highly complex, dynamic classroom contexts (Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) that require them constantly to shift and evolve their understanding

      As teachers, we must be able to think on the fly and change the direction of the lesson if students are not understanding the information we are teaching them. When we lesson plan, we try to make sure that all the students in our class are learning the information. Sometimes it doesn't work out as planned, so we have to be ready for any type of mishap or misunderstanding.

    42. Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge.

      TPCK

    43. TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies.

      TPK

    44. TCK, then, is an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the subject matter they teach; they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.

      TCK

    45. FITness, therefore, requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy.

      TK

    46. PCK covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy.

      PCK

    47. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding.

      What is PK

    48. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning.

      Pedagogical Knowledge

    49. this knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge.

      What content knowledge includes

    50. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

      Content Knowledge

    51. In this model (see Figure 1), there are three main components of teachers’ knowledge: content, pedagogy, and technology. Equally important to the model are the interactions between and among these bodies of knowledge, represented as PCK, TCK (technological content knowledge), TPK (technological pedagogicalknowledge), and TPACK.

      Model 1

    52. In this way, teaching is an example of an ill-structured discipline, requiring teachers to apply complex knowledge structures across different cases and contexts

      interesting way to put it

    53. Rather, solutions lie in the ability of a teacher to flexibly navigate the spaces defined by the three elements of content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex interactions among these elements in specific contexts.

      Teachers have different ways of combining each of the elements. They have to do what is best for them and their classroom

    54. Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge.
    55. The choice of technologies affords and constrains the types of content ideas that can be taught. Likewise, certain content decisions can limit the types of technologies that can be used. Technology can constrain the types of possible representations, but also can afford the construction of newer and more varied representations. Furthermore, technological tools can provide a greater degree of flexibility in navigating across these representations.

      Teachers have to find the appropriate balance and relationship between content and technology

    56. FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology.
    57. Central to Shulman’s conceptualization of PCK is the notion of the transformation of the subject matter for teaching. Specifically, according to Shulman (1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge.

      Once teachers understand what they need to teach, they can find ways to present it that meet their students' needs.

    58. PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content.
    59. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.

      Teachers know how their students think and learn and how to teach to their abilities.

    60. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning.

      Teachers each have their own beliefs and methods of teaching.

    61. his knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge.

      Teachers need to have a good understanding of all aspects of the content they are going to teach.

    62. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught

      Basis for lesson

    63. These three knowledge bases (content, pedagogy, and technology) form the core of the technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework
    64. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them
    65. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts.

      There is never one right answer for how to integrate tech into teaching. Everyone has a different classroom with different students and subjects to teach.

    66. Rather, particular technologies have their own propensities, potentials, affordances, and constraints that make them more suitable for certain tasks than others

      There are many types of technologies that do the same and different things. It is important to find the one that fits the situation the best.

    67. Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function)

      We know what analog technology we are using, how we are going to use it, and how it works. We usually are able to find one form of analog technology (whiteboards) and use it in many ways for many years

    68. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are hidden from users; Turkle, 1995).

      Digital technology is more difficult to use because it is always changing and we can't always see that change.

    69. Thus, effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      Teachers have to always be learning about the material and how students learn

    1. The use of the automated Web-based ANODE e-coaching program in patients with T2DM and abdominal obesity was associated with a significant control-subtracted improvement in diet quality and several important cardiometabolic risk factors. The program can be delivered remotely with limited human resources, and therefore has potential for cost-effectiveness, and subsequently broad dissemination if generalizability and longer-term sustainability are demonstrated.

      Excellent. More programs like this are needed. Perhaps adding a support group component could make it even better.

    2. fully automated but interactive

      How can we develop and improve more programs like this?

    3. However, a high-intensity, multidisciplinary intervention (as recommended) is often impossible to implement in real life environments due to limited human resources and the high costs of long-term care. In addition, geographically isolated patients cannot easily access face-to-face education programs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop innovative approaches to improve the adoption of a healthy lifestyle.

      Very real limitations. New methods of intervention are essential.

    4. Among patients with T2DM and abdominal obesity, the use of a fully automated Web-based program resulted in a significant improvement in dietary habits and favorable clinical and laboratory changes.

      Wow. This could be the future of health education.

    1. SAMR in 120 Second

      Notes -framework for providing technology in the classroom -Substitution- same task. new tech replaces old tech but doesn't change the rules of how to use it (ex- microsoft word vs. gooogle docs) -Augmentation- same task. Provides more functionality (ex- sharing google doc and shares to cloud more easily) -Modification- midifies task. Technology is used to redesign parts of the task (students collaborating in google docs and commenting to each other) -Redefinition- design and create new tasks that were once unimaginable (connecting to a classroom across the world using google docs)

    1. TPACK Example

      Notes from video -pedagogy, content, and technological knowledge and the integration of all three in lessons -Combining and Creating the Lesson- let them do some research- relate to the plastic ban- research how it is harming wildlife in the area and make a commercial to promote a plastic ban to their area -Content area lesson- utilize a variety of research tools to find the information that they need to do the projects technology -Technology lesson- examples and instruction

    1. RSA ANIMATE: Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us

      Notes from Video -Group of students and gave them a set of challenges- to incentivize their performance 3 levels of rewards- High, middle, and lower levels of rewards -mechanical skills- bonuses worked as expected- higher pay brought better performance -rudimentary cognitive skills- larger reward led to poorer performance-rewards don't work that way once you get to rudimentary cognitive skills- defies laws of behavioral physics -did the experiment in india- small rewards (2 weeks salary) medium rewards (1 months salary) highest reward (2 months salary)- Higher incentive led to worse performance -replicated over and over again- simple straight forward tasks- rewards work

      • when task get s more complicated and it requres some conceptual, creative thinking- rewards don't work -3 factors lead to better performance- (autonomy)- self direction is better- (mastery)- getting better at stuff- (purpose)- need to have a reason for doing something -more organizatoins want to have a purpose- not money or profit- -if we start treating people like people- we can build organizations to make the world a little better
    1. In this case, you ask yourself if the technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

      How has technology created a unique experience?

    2. this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?

      Big changes to the lesson plan.

    3. but with significant enhancements to the student experience. In other words, you ask yourself if the technology increases or augments a student's productivity and potential in some way.

      What is the purpose of the change?

    4. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement.

      Small replacements to start the change.

    5. Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. Substitution and Augmentation are considered "Enhancement" steps, while Modification and Redefinition are termed "Transformation" steps

      Moving from making learning better to creating a pedagogy change.

    1. Motivating Learners

      Notes from Video -embracing change -hardcore gamers- surprising things that you find- kids are incredibly bottom-line oriented- want to be measured to see how much they are improving -"if i am not learning, then i am not having fun"- embracing change, leveling up, higher order tasks, or the game is changing -Questioning position helps students to embrace change -Compete with each other and collaborate each other -Start looking at other people online to help them to learn new things -kids that have been turned on to learning- there is no stopping them -passionate community interest group that students can join -learning has to do with learning how to join a group with a common interest -what you are doing becomes a platform for something new -trajectories through life pace as opposed to fixed points -power and importance of play- how to I take an idea and play with it to become something new -learn that not everything works- need to be willing to realize that instead of being afraid of things not working- we need to be willing to change what hasnt worked to make it work for us

    1. Will Richardson

      Notes from video

      -Students don't need to have official instruction to learn new information -interactions with online tools can help students to learn on their own and with the help of teachers can help them to learn even more information -"Sharing my work online has become a huge part of the way I learn. Those connections make it possible for me to gain a bigger audience, which means more feedback and more learning" -Teaching information can be facilitated in many different ways- incorporating technology can help students to better learn information than with just us teaching them. -Hard truth- formation of schools how they were established are not relevant in how students are learning today- schools have to be places for deep inquiry where they can solve big problems- create important work where they can collaborate with people around the world-LIFE PREP- getting our students ready for real life and helping them to solve future problems that may occur.

    1. Her aims are to help students visualize the concepts already introduced in the classroom and to reinforce the learning through group collaboration. The assignment requires teamwork, communication, and precision

      Using tools outside the classroom to help students better understang the content that they have already learned.

    2. Encouraging students to reach out to each other to solve problems and share knowledge not only builds collaboration skills, it leads to deeper learning and understanding

      Students can help each other learn by collaborating their efforts. Each student can bring a certain strength to the group so that they can all work out problems together

    3. Encouraging students to reach out to each other to solve problems and share knowledge not only builds collaboration skills, it leads to deeper learning and understanding

      Collaborative learning

    1. Connected learning, as its name implies, works to connect these spheres more pur-posefully. The goal is not to fully integrate these spheres of learning—each requires its own autonomous space—but to build connections, hand-offs, and sites of trans-lation in order to reach more young people where they are.

      Every connection must have a purpose.

    2. Connected learn-ing seeks to integrate three spheres of learning that are often disconnected and at war with each other in young people’s lives: peer culture, interests, and academic content.

      -

    3. Are mentors present who can help young people to connect their interest/activity to academic/institutional domains?

      It is at the hands of the mentors to link interests and academia.

    4. When young people do well and are well behaved in the classroom, it improves the class-room experience, but it does not elevate culture at large or expand a valuable social network if the activity ends at the classroom walls.

      This is why opportunities outside of the school are important.

    5. Making use of social media platforms and channels such as Facebook, YouTube, Livestream, and Twitter, the HPA connects young people who are inspired by the civic virtues portrayed in the Harry Potter books, and want to apply them to the real world.

      Connected learning often incorporates the use of technology.

    6. Public schools like Q2L have an impor-tant role to play in broadening access to connected learning, providing opportuni-ties and guidance for young people to connect their social and recreational learning to academic subjects and prospects.

      Goal is to tie interests and academia.

    7. It is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement.

      Primary outcome of connected learning and how its beneficial to the student.

    8. Preparing children for creative jobs does not guarantee that those jobs will materialize just because workers are stand-ing by.

      Even if children are prepared for these jobs, the jobs aren't always available.

    9. A strong current in the workforce readiness view holds that “creative work” is where the security will be, and that the current education system must produce students who are capable of the critical and creative thinking skills

      There needs to be more of an emphasis on creativity, open-mindedness, innovation, etc, but currently schools focus more on standards and "facts" for exams.

    10. Since the late seventies, there has been significant growth in college attendance among youth in higher income brackets, while rates of college attendance among poor youth have remained relatively flat (Bailey and Dynarski, 2011).

      Another example of a further divide due to income differences -- leads to even less opportunities presented to those of lower income.

    11. Employment Status of high school graduates not attending college full-time

      The largest differences between the pre-recession and the recession 'era' are between "employed, full-time" which dropped from ~37% to ~18% and between "unemployed, looking for work" which rose from ~23% to ~37%.

    12. Based on this history, the message to young people has been that they should seek college educations and professional certifications as a reliable eco-nomic investment.

      This is not always the case now. You have to take job availability into consideration and simply having a degree does not equate to getting a good paying job. You have to be competitive and have a lot to show and know how to display your knowledge and skills with little experience in the work field.

    13. He describes how he feels his teachers “set you up for failure” and he has watched the majority of his friends drop out from high school.

      This is likely due to a lack of connection between authority and the students.

    14. Privileged families also support tailored learning opportunities through clubs, camps, sports, and other programs where their children get recognition, gain skills, and make meaningful con-tributions.

      This is not something that is available to all children. Without a diversified learning environment available to the general public, the divide between groups becomes greater.

    15. 14 | CONNECTED LEARNINGoday’s educational institutions are struggling to fulfill their mission of provid-ing pathways to opportunity for all youth. In the past two decades, earnings have dropped for those without high school degrees, while dropout rates have continued to remain high among vulnerable populations. At the same time, privileged families are turning to costly private schools and enrichment activities for an educa-tional edge, preparing their children for a competitive and volatile market for profes-sional and fulfilling jobs.

      Opportunity for all youth is not equal.

      • wages dropping for those w/o high school degrees
      • dropout rates remain high
      • privileged (rich) families turn to expensive private schools and enrichment activities, providing more preparation for a competitive job environment
    1. Good online readers know the tools and strategies that can be used to search for and locate people, resources, and information. They then know how to judge the credibility of these sources.1

      This is an important skill for both educators and students to have

    2. 1) develop more educators, advocates, and community leaders who can leverage and advance the web as an open and public resource, and 2) impact policies and practices to ensure the web remains a healthy open and public resource for all. In order to accomplish this, we need to provide people with open access to the skills and know-how needed to use the web to improve their lives, careers, and organizations.

      The goals here represent how Mozilla focuses on how to help people through giving positive internet resources for everyone