2,698 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2018
    1. The UbD framework helps focus curriculum and teaching on the develop-ment and deepening of student understanding and transfer of learning (i.e., the ability to effectively use content knowledge and skill).

      So important to plan/think ahead and ask yourself questions or whether or not this will be useful and educational for the students.

    2. performance tasks and other evidence.

      I appreciate that the UbD Framework acknowledges that assessment does not just have to be performance based (quizzes, standardized tests, etc.) Understanding can be demonstrated in several other ways including: being able to explain concepts in their own words, interpreting data and text, applying what they have learned in different contexts, demonstrating perspective by being able to see other points of view, empathizing with others, and having self-knowledge by displaying metacognitive awareness.

    3. think purposefully

      The UbD Framework is centered around beginning with the "end in mind"- to start planning after considering questions such as "What do I want my students to achieve in this lesson?" By starting with learning goals in mind, lessons will be much more concise and developmentally appropriate.

    1. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.

      this would always happen. quickly learn something but not actually look into the different components of what we learned. then would move on to the next assignment.

    1. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world

      This is a challenging one for me being in special education and trying to focus on kids with asd (autism spectrum disorder). I know it is still important to integrate this into sped classrooms as well, but with the spectrum being so wide, there are certain areas that need to be focused on other then use of the web. Although I do think there could be great programs we could use via the web to integrate reading, writing skills into the way we teach autistic children

    2. we need to provide people with open access to the skills and know-how needed to use the web to improve their lives, careers, and organizations.

      Having different skills and at least some knowledge of the web and technology is needed in most workplaces.

    3. Synthesize

      This paragraph helped me in writing my own synthesis on Understanding by Design Framework. Instead of simply summarizing the information I learned, I started to think about how I would apply UbD Framework in my own K-3 classroom- how it would engage my students, how my students could get the very most out of my lesson plans when I began planning with learning goals in mind. I also integrated multiple modes in the form of a related YouTube video and included a chart that I found extremely useful in an article I read.

    4. They enable individuals to become teachers, advocates, and community leaders to leverage and advance the web as an open and public resource.

      Its important to be aware that the web is a key source and tool for many opportunities and its crucial to have people be able to spread that knowledge.

    5. Having these skills on the web expands access and opportunity for more people to learn anytime, anywhere, at any pace.

      The internet becoming such a prominent part of our everyday lives opens many doors for a number of things but especially education.

    6. we need to provide people with open access to the skills and know-how needed to use the web to improve their lives, careers, and organizations.

      Being informed on how to use the internet properly will be beneficial in the long run due to the web being so crucial in todays world.

  2. Sep 2018
    1. Although Wikipedia is not a scholarly source, it is usually a good enough first stop to learn about something. However, students need to know how it is updated.

      It seems as though some peoples's arguments and "facts" come from Wikipedia and they don't seem to understand how Wikipedia works. Everyone needs to be educated on how it can provide opinion based information and not the true facts.

    2. nd what posting a photo today might mean for their future employment opportunities?

      Especially high schoolers! I know at least for me, when I posted a picture or comments about something I did not take in to consideration how that could effect me getting a job in the future. Once something is put on the internet, it's there forever.

    3. When we encourage students to use technology, do we remind them of the risks of placing their information online and give them choices of how much personal information to reveal?

      This needs to be brought up to any child who indulges in social media especially at a young age. Social media is becoming very popular and middle school aged children and younger are now using it more and more.

    4. For example, teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities.

      So what I got from this is that digital literacy is taking it to the next level and educating whoever why you can do this and what the appropriate way is.

    5. When we encourage students to use technology, do we remind them of the risks of placing their information online and give them choices of how much personal information to reveal?

      This is how so many students (and adults) get into sticky situations in the digital world. We are thrust into a technology based world, encouraged to put our information online to 'be with the times', and then never asked to think deeper about what it all really means.

    6. Digital skills would focus on which tool to use (e.g., Twitter) and how to use it (e.g., how to tweet, retweet, use TweetDeck), while digital literacy would include in-depth questions: When would you use Twitter instead of a more private forum? Why would you use it for advocacy? Who puts themselves at risk when they do so?

      This encourages students to go beyond the "how" of the situation and go into the "why". By asking in-depth questions, critical thinking skills are brought into a digital space.

    7. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities.

      I do not remember this topic ever being covered in school. We were shown the digital skills but never given any further explanation that encompassed digital literacy. This is very important to teach because these are things students will need to know outside of school. It will also enhance their digital work so it can be used beyond a classroom setting.

    8. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.

      I did not know there was a difference between digital skills and digital literacy. I can see how it is important to differentiate between the two when teaching them.

    9. We should not be throwing students into the public domain to discuss sensitive topics without having conversations with them on what they might face and which of these risks they are willing to take, how they would handle it, and how they might support each other.

      So true. It is so important to highlight the negative aspects of the internet and let students be aware of this before hand. Most of my activities in elementary, middle, and high school were set on private within my classes.

    10. It is important for students to recognize that although technology gives us a lot of power, it also restricts us in many ways, a

      This is always my concern. Technology is a great tool but only if used correctly and it is our job as future educators to know this.

    11. For example, teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities

      I like how there was an example provided for these two terms. I think examples are important in the classroom and these terms.

    12. It is important for students to recognize that although technology gives us a lot of power, it also restricts us in many ways, and we need to question how the affordances of technology modify our communication and our behavior.

      yes! technology can be such a great tool but at the same time it can be dangerous. We must be careful in the way that we use it and teach our children to use it.

    13. I avoid putting my students in high-risk situations, but this does not mean avoiding teaching digital literacy. It means discussing with them why they would post a real photo of themselves as avatars

      this is a scary topic. it is interesting to me though because I rarely think about my audience before I post something of myself online.

    14. I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions. When is it best to do a Google search versus ask a question on Twitter? Why would students tweet to a particular hashtag or person versus another? When they tweet to people from another country in another time zone, what kind of context do they need to consider? What should they add, remove, or modify in order to communicate better?

      one of my professors freshman year used twitter as a tool in our classroom. we did not have a choice of how to use it, however; but i think a choice is important

    15. eight elements of digital literacies, I have just mentioned the civic, critical, creative, and communicative. The other four are cultural, cognitive, constructive, and confidence

      I have never thought about connecting these elements to technology. very interesting

    16. or example, teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities

      I never learned about copyright and what images I could properly use. I just learned how to use them.

    17. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.

      Yes! in school, I felt like it was not about the literacy but more about just completing a task and moving on.

    18. Digital literacies are not solely about technical proficiency but about the issues, norms, and habits of mind surrounding technologies used for a particular purpose.

      this is important to think about when teaching about the digital world because there is more to teach about than just the technology

    19. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.

      It is important for students to be aware of their surroundings and to not judge other people's ideas and posts on the internet because they wouldn't want the same thing to happen to them

    20. We should not be throwing students into the public domain to discuss sensitive topics without having conversations with them on what they might face and which of these risks they are willing to take, how they would handle it, and how they might support each other. Then we should give them a private option if they so choose.

      This is an important idea to teach in the classroom and to allow students to understand the risks of posting sensitive items on the internet. And it is important to also allow them to know that they can put their posts on private

    21. I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions.

      Allowing students to have their own ideas and to be creative allows them to be independent and not forced to do an activity one way but can do it in many different ways.

    22. Teaching digital literacy does not mean teaching digital skills in a vacuum, but doing so in an authentic context that makes sense to students. It means teaching progressively rather than sequentially, which helps learners understand better and more clearly over time.

      Being able to teach new ideas and concepts to students in an authentic way helps them to better grasp the new concept and to understand it in a more complex way.

    23. eight elements of digital literacies, I have just mentioned the civic, critical, creative, and communicative. The other four are cultural, cognitive, constructive, and confidence.

      These eight qualities are important to have and to teach in the classroom, but I had no idea that it related to using technology. It is interesting to see that.

    24. It was a way of both encouraging one another to remain critical and supporting one another through adversity in creative ways.

      I think that is very important to teach in the classroom, students need to be able to encourage each other and the work they are doing.

    25. teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities.

      This helps me better understand how to teach my future students how to use technology appropriately.

    26. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.

      True and useful statement. It is a summary of the entire text. It stresses the importance of digital literacy as opposed to digital skills.

    27. I place students in authentic situations as much as possible. When they tweet and blog, they have a public audience beyond our class. I ask students to tweet to other educators and learners (locally and internationally).

      I think this is a good idea! It can show students how big the internet actually is

    28. When we encourage students to use technology, do we remind them of the risks of placing their information online and give them choices of how much personal information to reveal? Do our students recognize the ways in which Facebook’s privacy settings continually shift without user permission, and what posting a photo today might mean for their future employment opportunities? Do students recognize the importance of password-protecting their devices and having different passwords across platforms?

      Yes! Students need to be educated!!!!! The internet can be scary and not private. People need to learn that instead of making a big mistake that ends up in the public eye.

    29. allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions. When is it best to do a Google search versus ask a question on Twitter? Why would students tweet to a particular hashtag or person versus another? When they tweet to people from another country in another time zone, what kind of context do they need to consider? What should they add, remove, or modify in order to communicate better?

      If a student doesnt use the platform that you hint at does that make then fail an assignment though? Or is there room for creativity in the platforms they use?

    30. It means teaching progressively rather than sequentially, which helps learners understand better and more clearly over time.

      As our world progresses in technology, I think that it is essential to teach progressively starting at a very young age. Technology is hard to keep up with so starting off young will give our students a foot ahead.

    31. When would you use Twitter instead of a more private forum? Why would you use it for advocacy? Who puts themselves at risk when they do so?

      I think that by asking questions people become more self aware of their actions on the internet. If we asked why post that picture on snapchat or Facebook then maybe people wouldnt post things they regret.

    32. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies.

      I strongly feel that the school I grew up in focused on skill rather than literacy. Once we completed a computer assignment we would move on. Example: putting numbers into an excel sheet but never exploring excel

    33. We also need to recognize the risks of blogging/tweeting, which include opening avenues for abus

      I think this is something that hadn't really come up until my generation. Our generation is really where social media bloomed so there weren't really any warnings or preventative measures told to us until the realization that online bullying would be an issue occurred when it started happening. I think because of this, The next generation of parents and educators are going to be hyper aware of this.

    34. fter students have the skill to use multiple platforms, I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions. When is it best to do a Google search versus ask a question on Twitter? Why would students tweet to a particular hashtag or person versus another? When they tweet to people from another country in another time zone, what kind of context do they need to consider? What should they add, remove, or modify in order to communicate better?

      This is a cool exercise because it still allows for creativity while still making sure the student understands which platform best suits the current needs and why.

    35. Digital literacies are not solely about technical proficiency but about the issues, norms, and habits of mind surrounding technologies used for a particular purpose.

      This is something important to keep in mind both to people teaching others about the digital world and those learning about it because your outlook on the internet space depends on it.

    36. I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions.

      I think autonomy in education is very important because it gives students more motivation. And in regards to technology it is important because when they are using technology on their own there are so many platforms and choices they need to learn what fits them best and how they like to collect info and data.

    37. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities.

      The concept of digital literacy is brand new to me, but instantly I see the importance especially in a growing world of technology. Knowing digital literacy seems to prepare students for the real world in jobs and future education. I think it gives more meaning to the use of technology for students.

    38. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.
    39. It means teaching progressively rather than sequentially, which helps learners understand better and more clearly over time.
    40. Doug Belshaw’s eight elements of digital literacies, I have just mentioned the civic, critical, creative, and communicative. The other four are cultural, cognitive, constructive, and confidence. This last one is important and takes time to build
    41. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.
    42. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.

      This quote summarizes the whole article for me. Before reading this, I thought that digital literacy was about the skills of using technology, but now I know it it more than that.

    43. Do our students recognize the ways in which Facebook’s privacy settings continually shift without user permission, and what posting a photo today might mean for their future employment opportunities? Do students recognize the importance of password-protecting their devices and having different passwords across platforms?

      I think this is very interesting and something that students need to be aware of and learn about. I believe internet safety is one of the most important things we need to teach to young children.

    44. When would you use Twitter instead of a more private forum? Why would you use it for advocacy? Who puts themselves at risk when they do so?

      I think this would be important for children to learn. I think often children, mostly teenagers, don't understand how widespread something like a tweet can be in the matter of a few seconds.

    1. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      With technology becoming more popular in the classroom and every day life, there needs to be a course students can take to help them get understand the basics.

    2. imply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      With the web building so rapidly, when students do not have the opportunity at an early age to annotate or critically think about what they are reading or watching. Critical thinking is used when students are older but when the web is rapidly changing, it is hard to keep up.

    3. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      This is very true. As stated in another article, students are often taught about digital skills but not digital literacy. And when they not being taught about it, they probably are not being allowed to participate in critical ways.

    4. students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and

      I agree. I was introduced technology growing up but compared to some of my peers I am behind. I think it is highly important to teach children about the internet/how to use it.

    5. This technology facilitates access to an unlimited amount of online information in a participatory learning space.

      So true. Technology is such a big part of today's society and it is important that we as future teachers know how to use it.

    6. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      I agree. when I was in school it was almost frowned upon to use the internet and social media within the school. I think it is important, however, that we educate our students on how to properly use the web and technology because it is our generation.

    7. he World Wide Web has become this generation’s defining technology for literacy. This technology facilitates access to an unlimited amount of online information in a participatory learning space.

      The web is such a big part of our current generation. It amazes me how much information is at the tip of our fingers

    8. These efforts seek not to simply understand the web but to empower adolescents to help build a better open web.

      After reading the draft, I think the Web Literacy Map has good intentions and uses. I think the fundamental strands of exploring, building, and connecting are crucial in every aspect and subject of students learning especially in digital literacy. I appreciated how they pointed out that they do not know what the future of web literacy holds because I think if we continue to encourage children to explore and build and then eventually connect, the possibilities will be incredible and endless.

    9. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      I agree. I think that it is very important that we teach children how to use the web. I had computer classes in elementary school, but by high school and college everything had changed. I think we need to continue to teach children how to use technology and the web because technology is always changing.

    1. three-stage design process (Desired Results, Evidence, and Learning Plan)

      Begin with the end in mind. Know the goals or expectations you want your students to accomplish.

    2. think purposefully about curricular plan-ning.

      Thinking about the purpose of your curriculum and the goals or objectives you want your students to accomplish is key.

    3. The perfor-mance tasks ask students to apply their learning to a new and authentic situation as means of assessing their understand-ing and ability to transfer their learning.

      This seems like a more authentic way of assessing students knowledge.

    4. Understanding is revealed when students autonomously make sense of and transfer their learning through authentic performance. Six facets of under-standing—the capacity to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, empa-thize, and self-assess—can serve as indicators of understanding

      Important critical thinking skills that can be transferred outside of the classroom

    5. Teaching for understanding

      Students need to be able to understand what they are learning and to be able to apply it. They cannot simple just be taught the information, ask no questions, and then move on. Students need to have a deep understanding about the topics taught in class so that they can build more learning off of previous knowledge. They can't do this if they are just simply being taught information that they have to regurgitate on a test.

    6. Can explain concepts, principles, and processes by putting it their own words, teaching it to others, justifying their answers, and showing their reasoning.

      This is important for students to be able to do so that both the student and the teacher knows that the student understood what was being taught in the classroom.

    7. The perfor-mance tasks ask students to apply their learning to a new and authentic situation as means of assessing their understand-ing and ability to transfer their learning.

      The students should be able to use what they learned in what subject area and apply it to another.

    8. An important point in the UbD framework is to recognize that factual knowledge and skills are not taught for their own sake, but as a means to larger ends. Acquisition of content is a means, in the service of meaning making and transfer.

      The students should be able to use what they learned in the classroom across many different areas, such as in the real world or at home, not just in the classroom.

    9. This process helps avoid the common problems of treating the textbook as the curriculum rather than a resource, and activity-oriented teaching in which no clear priorities and purposes are apparent.

      I believe that this is definitely something that should be avoided, using the textbook to plan curriculum.

    10. Furthermore, the format of the test causes many educators to erroneously believe that the state test or provincial exam only assesses low-level knowledge and skill. This, too, is false. Indeed, the data from released national tests show conclusively that the students have the most difficulty with those items that require understanding and transfer, not recall or recognition.

      like I stated before, not memorization but understanding!

    11. The UbD framework promotes not only acquisition, but also the student’s ability to know why the knowl-edge and skills are important, and how to apply or transfer them in meaningful, professional, and socially important ways

      it should be more than just "knowing" the material! students should be able to understand and perform the material.

    12. In Stage 3 of backward design, teachers plan the most appropriate lessons and learning activities to address the three different types of goals identified in Stage 1: transfer, meaning making, and acquisition (T, M, and A).

      after knowing the goal and how it will be assessed, lastly the teacher must come up with lessons on how she will teach the students

    13. • Can explain concepts, principles, and processes by putting it their own words, teaching it to others, justifying their answers, and showing their reasoning.• Can interpret by making sense of data, text, and experience through images, analogies, stories, and models.• Can apply by effectively using and adapting what they know in new and complex contexts.• Demonstrate perspective by seeing the big picture and recognizing differ-ent points of view.• Display empathy by perceiving sensitively and walking in someone else’s shoes.• Have self-knowledge by showing meta-cognitive awareness, using productive habits of mind, and reflect-ing on the meaning of the learning and experience

      these are great examples of how students understand the lesson. we should be assessing our students in more than one way in order to make sure they understand fully.

    14. The perfor-mance tasks ask students to apply their learning to a new and authentic situation as means of assessing their understand-ing and ability to transfer their learning.

      Problem solving? This is beneficial to students because it allows for them to have a better understanding of their learning when they are having to perform what they learned.

    15. An important point in the UbD framework is to recognize that factual knowledge and skills are not taught for their own sake, but as a means to larger ends.

      personally, I learn a lot more efficiently when I am told why I am learning something and how it will help me and make me a better student. If a teacher does not stress why a student is learning something, the student might feel as if the content is useless.

    16. This first stage in the design process calls for clarity about priorities.

      I feel like so many people struggle with priorities, really when there are 1000 other things going on. This approach forces students to focus on their priorities up front.

    17. In the first stage of backward design, we consider our goals, examine established content standards (national, state, prov-ince, and district), and review curriculum expectations.

      I think this is efficient because I work better with a common goal in mind.

    18. Understanding cannot simply be told; the learner has to actively construct meaning (or misconceptions and forget-fulness will ensue). Teaching for transfer means that learners are given opportuni-ties to apply their learning to new situ-ations and receive timely feedback on their performance to help them improve.

      I think this is a crucial point. Children are not going to simply remember the information let alone understand it if they are just simply told the information by the teacher. Making meaning and forming connections requires students to have engaging activities and a positive experience with the material.

    19. The UbD framework helps focus curriculum and teaching on the develop-ment and deepening of student understanding and transfer of learning (i.e., the ability to effectively use content knowledge and skill)

      When students have a deep understanding they can make connections and when they see that learning can be applied to the real world we have more motivated learners. I feel if students are motivated their ideas and capabilities are boundless. I believe having motivated learners should be a huge part of education, allowing kids to see their potential and how connections can be made.

    1. Determine what types of assessments and measures would clarify (or serve as evidence of) when and whether students can perform the desired outcome.

      It is always important to think about who you are teaching when it comes to lesson planning. It has to be age appropriate or the learning outcomes won't be achieved.

    2. The designer then identifies what types of evidence are sufficient proof of the desired end result. The designer works “backwards” from that end goal and intentionally plans and develops supporting instruction and learning experiences around the desired outcomes and evidence[1].

      With the end in mind it is easier to avoid using the textbook to teach or to use other people's ideas to teach. It is also beneficial to start with the end goal because then you won't lose sight of what the whole unit plan or lesson plan is supposed to be about. You also won't start without knowing what the whole idea behind the unit plan is.

    1. Teachers become most effective when they seek feedback from students and their peers and use that feedback to adjust approaches to design and teaching.

      It is so beneficial to ask students what they thought about the assignments given in class so that if they liked it you can model later activities after this one. Or if they didn't like it, you know not to use it in future classrooms or they can give feedback on how to better improve the assignment; ways that the students would like to do the activity because then it is ideal about what the children enjoy.

    2. Effective curriculum development reflects a three-stage design process called "backward design" that delays the planning of classroom activities until goals have been clarified and assessments designed. This process helps to avoid the twin problems of "textbook coverage" and "activity-oriented" teaching, in which no clear priorities and purposes are apparent.

      It is important to not teach by the textbook because there are so many other creative and engaging ways to learn information that is in the textbook. Students will just read the textbook, memorize what they need to, and then forget all the information later. Students need the engaging activities in the classroom to help them remember what they are learning so that they can apply it later on in their education.

    3. Students reveal their understanding most effectively when they are provided with complex, authentic opportunities to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, empathize, and self-assess. When applied to complex tasks, these "six facets" provide a conceptual lens through which teachers can better assess student understanding.

      Students need to be able to be challenged in an appropriate way in order to be able to understand what they are learning and to develop that knowledge.

    4. A primary goal of education should be the development and deepening of student understanding.

      This is a very important aspect to include in the classroom as they will be using this same knowledge they learn in a elementary class in high school.

    1. Less than 20% of students constructed “Mastery” responses, or responses that questioned the source of the post or the source of the photo. On the other hand, nearly 40% of students argued that the post provided strong evidence because it presented pictorial evidence about conditions near the power plant.

      This is shocking. We need to teach children how to look at things they find online critically. The fact that 40 percent of students argued it was strong enough evidence to show the conditions near the power plant is concerning. These students thought that just because there was picture evidence that it was true.

    2. Our sites for field-testing included under-resourced, inner-city schools in Los Angeles and well-resourced schools in suburbs outside of Minneapolis. Our college assessments, which focused on open web searches, were administered online at six different universities that ranged from Stanford, an institution that rejects 94% of its applicants, to large state universities that admit the majority of students who apply. In what follows, we provide an overview of what we lear

      The differences in the places they tested is a good thing. They tested inner-city schools that are under-resourced, schools in the suburbs that were well resourced and different colleges from Stanford to large state institutions. This shows that many students from completely different backgrounds have the problem of evaluating validity.

    3. only nine percent of high school students in an Advanced Placement history course were able to see through MinimumWage.com’s language to determine that it was a front group for a D.C. lobbyist, or as Salon’s headline put it, “Industry PR

      I remember having to do this in my AP history course when preparing for the AP exam. Some kids in my class didn't seem to understand why the article or charts would be biased.

    4. would hope that middle school students could distinguish an ad from a news story. By high school, we would hope that students reading about gun laws would notice that a chart came from a gun owners’ political action committee. And, in 2016, we would hope college students, who spend hours each day online, would look beyond a .org URL and ask who’s behind a site that presents only one side of a contentious issue.

      Students today often lack this ability which is concerning. I remember having to do work in class that would give us pictures of charts that were published by support groups or action committees and were then asked how the chart might be biased.

    5. Between January 2015 and June 2016, we administered 56 tasks to students across 12 states. In total, we collected and analyzed 7,804 student responses. Our sites for field-testing included under-resourced, inner-city schools in Los Angeles and well-resourced schools in suburbs outside of Minneapolis. Our college assessments, which focused on open web searches, were administered online at six different universities that ranged from Stanford, an institution that rejects 94% of its applicants, to large state universities that admit the majority of students who apply.

      This is important to note because they not only analyzed students in high school but college as well.

    1. Creativity

      This is a big thing for me since I want to be an art teacher and since I want to incorporate technology into my class. I want to teach students how to share/document artwork online even with younger students we could make it private within the class. This would be great so they could comment on each others work.

    2. Being audience and culturally aware, resolving conflict appropriately, using technology tools effectively, and taking responsibility for personal and group productivity.

      Very important to respect different cultures and understand everyone is online.

    3. Extending thinking beyond the individual learner to integrate social networks and tools in problem-solving.

      Important to connect with others/share ideas esp. as a teacher.

    4. Understanding basic principles, purpose, and applications of coding and programming languages.

      I do not have any experience in this. I was not aware of its importance.

    5. Writing on the web enables one to build and create

      our websites!

    6. Comparing and evaluating information from a number of sources online to test credibility and relevance. 21C Skill: Problem-solving

      Need to focus on this because technology/sources can be helpful, but if the correct information is not provided then this is where it gets messy.

    7. Detecting information in a website using the internal search engine.

      I just learned how to do this. I think it is important to being these steps in the classroom more.

    8. locate people, resources, and information. They then know how to judge the credibility of these sources.1

      This is true and important. When I was in school I was taught how to find credible sources and this is important to know as a future teacher.

    9. What we concluded is that people needed the map to be more approachable, accessible, and applicable f

      I agree. I think if it is more available and easier to use then more people will approve.

    10. foundational

      I think it is crazy that technology is included in this, but it is very true. It is important to be able to work technology and incorporate it in the classroom because it is so prominent in today's society.

    11. Developing and presenting effective messages, and contributing to groups through appropriate interactions and active listening.

      It is important to be able to communicate to the people around you because that is always going to be present in a classroom setting or in a real-world setting.

    12. Generating, connecting, synthesizing, transforming, and refining ideas.

      Being creative while doing any type of assignments is important for students.

    13. Being audience and culturally aware, resolving conflict appropriately, using technology tools effectively, and taking responsibility for personal and group productivity.

      This is very important for students to learn at a young age. They need to know how to work collaboratively in a group setting because it is something that will occur often throughout their education and into their future careers.

    14. college and career readiness, and workforce development.

      I think this is important for students to start preparing for at a young age because it will help them in the long run when they do start applying to colleges and jobs.

    15. Managing and maintaining the privacy and security of your digital identity through behaviors and digital tool settings.

      I think that this is very important to incorporate into the classroom because students, especially at young ages, need to have their privacy on the internet.

    16. Writing on the web enables one to build and create content to make meaning.

      I want my students to be able to create things on the web, but I don't know what is developmentally appropriate for a kindergartner.

    17. Comparing and evaluating information from a number of sources online to test credibility and relevance.

      This is very important to do and to teach in the classroom because not all sites are valuable and credible.

    18. Understanding the basic structure of the web

      How are young students in a kindergarten classroom supposed to understand the basic structure of the internet?

    19. Using questions and keywords to find the information you need.

      This is very important for students to grasp because if they are typing whole sentences into the search box they aren't going to get the exact information they are looking for

    20. Good online readers know the tools and strategies that can be used to search for and locate people, resources, and information. They then know how to judge the credibility of these sources.

      This is important for my students to know, but how exactly do I teach this in the classroom?

    21. Approachable and accessible to diverse audiences and their needs. The map needs to be written in a language that is easy to understand, and relevant—why do web literacy skills matter to them. Applicable to interest and/or expertise. The map needs to connect to curriculum, credentials, professional development, and other resources to teach people the skills they need to engage online and offline.

      I feel as a future educator that I need to understand how to appropriately and effectively use technology in order to be able to teach my students how to use technology appropriately and effectively. I need to be a model for my students in many ways and how to use technology is now one of those ways.

    22. They can evaluate web content, and identify what is useful and trustworthy.

      How is a young student in kindergarten supposed to be able to know what is trustworthy on the internet?

    23. critical thinking, collaboration, problem solving, creativity, communication), these digital-age skills help us live and work in today’s world.

      I want my students to have all of these skills and qualities in my classroom and if I can provide that through the use of technology then I will try to incorporate it as much as I can.

    24. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic

      This still baffles me as a student, but as a future educator I understand that technology is a growing and developing idea and will always be around. therefore, I need to find beneficial ways to incorporate it into my classroom curriculum.

    25. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has

      Definition of web or digital literacy.

    26. he web literacy skills and competencies identified under reading on the web are as follows.

      All of the following are things that people could be tested on. As I previously mentioned, I wonder if our children will eventually be tested on this kind of web literacy. The guidelines below are a pretty good rubric for testing (not that I believe in testing in the first place but it is the way of the world these days)

    27. skills to move from being a consumer to a maker on the web.

      Yes!! I think that the web would be a better place if it was treated more as a learning tool as opposed to a means of entertainment.

    28. What we concluded is that people needed the map to be more approachable, accessible, and applicable for learning and teaching web literacy skills.

      I strongly agree with this!

    29. What leadership skills are being developed as a result?

      Is classroom and daily life leadership different from web leadership? One is in person while the other may be behind a screen.

    30. “Participate” is how we connect on the web.

      Before this class my idea of participating on the web was having a social media account. I was so wrong in that assumption.

    31. degree to which you can read, write, and participate on the web while producing, synthesizing, evaluating, and communicating information shapes what you can imagine—and what you can do. follows:

      Do does anyone else wonder if the degree to which we can do all online things will eventually become a part of standardized testing? Maybe a test people need to take to get into college?

    32. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic

      It sure is! My question is at what age should we start teaching this skill.

    33. impact policies and practices to ensure the web remains a healthy open and public resource for all.

      As teachers I think we should have policies in our classrooms that model having a healthy and positive relationship with the internet and all of its users

    34. Evaluate Comparing and evaluating information

      Making sure what you have found is reliable by comparing to other sources

    35. Synthesize Integrating separate and unique information from multiple online sources.

      Taking what you know and applying

    36. Navigate Understanding the basic structure of the web

      Being able to use the web

    37. Understanding basic principles, purpose, and applications of coding and programming languages.

      I never really thought coding was important but I guess it would make sense to be educated in at least the basics of coding.

    38. Comparing and evaluating information from a number of sources online to test credibility and relevance

      This is another important thing I learned in computer club, I used to believe anything that popped up when I googled it and we had to recognize the difference in the .org, .com, .gov etc. and which one would be more reliable for what we were looking for.

    39. Using questions and keywords to find the information you need.

      this is such an important skill. I joined a computer club in middle school and they emphasized that you really need to choose key words that will be you the best results possible, because the more you type into the search engine the more results you get in varying relativeness.

    40. What we concluded is that people needed the map to be more approachable, accessible, and applicable for learning and teaching web literacy skills.

      This makes perfect sense because in any subject if it appears to be unapproachable people shy away from it.

    41. teachers and in-school educators, scientists, afterschool leaders, community members, web and technology advocates and experts, and international leaders of emerging markets and digital learning networks.

      I like how their focus groups were so mixed to get different perspectives.

    42. Does one need to code in order to be considered web literate?

      I don't think that one has to necessarily know how to code in order to be considered web literate. I think that is more of an extra thing.

    43. we need to provide people with open access to the skills and know-how needed to use the web to improve their lives, careers, and organizations.

      The earlier this is introduced to people the more "tech savvy" they will be later in life.

    44. web remains a healthy open and public resource for all.

      I think this is a very important factor. The web and the digital space in general can become a very nasty place and a very addictive place. If not used correctly the original purpose gets lost.

    45. Being audience and culturally aware, resolving conflict appropriately, using technology tools effectively, and taking responsibility for personal and group productivity.

      this is so important because this will be useful as the years come as well

    46. Learning through making involves constructing new content.

      by creating our own website, we will create a new meaning by doing something new

    47. Approachable and accessible to diverse audiences and their needs. The map needs to be written in a language that is easy to understand, and relevant—why do web literacy skills matter to them. Applicable to interest and/or expertise. The map needs to connect to curriculum, credentials, professional development, and other resources to teach people the skills they need to engage online and offline.

      The map must be appropriate for everyone. If it had more complicated language, one may not be able to understand it.

    48. Does one need to code in order to be considered web literate?

      this is one thing that came to my mind. do i have to know code in order to build a website??

    49. degree to which you can read, write, and participate on the web while producing, synthesizing, evaluating, and communicating information shapes what you can imagine—and what you can do. follows:

      now a days it is become a necessity for children to be able to use in the wed in order to be successful.

    50. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic

      This is important to keep in mind as a teacher-it is very important to begin teaching how to use technology

    51. It includes interacting with others to making your own experience and the web richer to working in the open.

      As the web world becomes larger, its more important to put our own ideas and interpretations out there for everyone to see.

    52. Approachable and accessible to diverse audiences and their needs

      This is the most important aspect of the web literacy map, because those that have ore understanding of the web are not the ones that need all of this. It needs to include those that are not computer or web experts, or else it is just another thing that deters some people from using the web/technology. The web/tech world is also a place were equity is not always included.

    53. the degree to which you can read, write, and participate on the web while producing, synthesizing, evaluating, and communicating information

      It's interesting to see these components combined together. Within a learning environment all of these will be used at some point, but rarely do teachers illustrate or explain that all of these need to intricately work together in order to get the best and most useful outcome.

    54. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world.

      This is extremely important to remember in a school setting. Kids need to learn how to operate technology and the online world in order to keep up with everyone around them.

    55. college and career readiness, and workforce development

      Learning these skills will help students be better prepared for college and the workforce

    56. Managing and maintaining the privacy and security of your digital identity through behaviors and digital tool settings.

      This is very important with things such as social media!

    57. Good online readers know the tools and strategies that can be used to search for and locate people, resources, and information. They then know how to judge the credibility of these sources.

      Again, I think it is SO important to teach students the tools and strategies in order to search for things and be able to judge the credibility of the sources.

    58. The map needs to be written in a language that is easy to understand, and relevant—why do web literacy skills matter to them.

      I think that writing the map in a language people can understand is very important. I think many people give up on trying to become digitally literate because of how confusing some of the words used can be.

    59. “21C Skills” refers to a broad set of knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are important to succeed in today’s world, particularly for college and career readiness and in the workplace. Examples of these skills include collaboration, communication, creativity, and problem-solving.

      These are the skills needed to succeed in today's world.

    60. They can evaluate web content, and identify what is useful and trustworthy.

      I think this is something we really need to teach students. There are so many untrustworthy websites that people end up trusting because it is on the internet. I see it constantly while scrolling through facebook. People share some extremely fake things, but they actually think the articles are real and it really concerns me.

    61. critical thinking, collaboration, problem solving, creativity, communication), these digital-age skills help us live and work in today’s world.

      These are the digital age skills needed

    62. web remains a healthy open and public resource for all.

      I think this is very important. We need to make sure that we keep the web a healthy place to be for all individuals.

    1. Therefore, it can be stated that teachers often focus more on teaching rather than learning. This perspective can lead to the misconception that learning is the activity when, in fact, learning is derived from a careful consideration of the meaning of the activity.

      I agree. the teachers, atleast when i was in school, tended to focus more on teaching and passing the test rather than learning and understaning

    1. This statement to me is very powerful because the web is an amazing platform for collaboration that can lead to amazing products, discussions, creativity, and so much more. If literacy of the web is missing from people's knowledge they are less likely to attempt to or don not have the means to share and explore on the web and that is a missed opportunity. This paragraph states that learning and teaching digital literacy skills, "allows more and diverse people to shape the Web." Just think how much more power that gives to society and especially our students.

    1. Studentsmust be taught to read both sources from a critical perspective.

      This is important. Children need to be able to understand the differences between real and fake things.

    2. 17Their writing is much more open to the public and can have more far-reaching consequences.The young people are creating new modes of expression that are poorly understood by adults,and as a result they receive little to no guidance or supervision.

      I think this is important. Many adults do not understand these new modes of expression and it leads children to be very vulnerable on the web.

    1. We need a leadership alliance between education and technology developers

      So true!!! Teachers cannot figure it all out on their own!!

    2. But if web literacy, including web programming, was adopted by every school as a fourth basic literacy, kids would not only learn how to code, they would learn about interactivity, collaboration, the melding of the artistic and the scientific, creativity, and precision.

      Alot of schools in charleston are shifting towards this. Problem is that not all schools can afford that.

    3. Learning the basics of intellectual property is part of web literacy.

      Something that should be taught in schools.

    4. Making web literacy the fourth literacy begins with the premise that not only are humans capable of learning together–we’re doing it, contributing to peer learning online, every day of our lives. That is a major educational paradigm shift, the great gift we’ve been given by those who built the web on open architecture.

      Interesting perspective. Most people view us as still trying how to use the internet instead of already learning from it.

    5. would build the largest encyclopedia the world has ever known, because we love to share what we know with others, and we’re even willing to spend endless hours creating our own community standards, editing, and making it right.

      Although we did build a large encyclopedia, it is not completely accurate

    6. No one would have believed that peers could contribute knowledge and advice, helping one another to learn through YouTube videos, Wikipedia, or other sites.

      No one wouldve guessed this but it is now what the internet is for!

    7. the conceptual DNA that helps you to understand and negotiate the world you live in.

      The truth of the matter is that this is the world we live in with technology. We have the choice to get with the technology program or get confused.

    8. You don’t just learn “about” reading: you learn to read. You don’t just learn “about” arithmetic: you learn to count and calculate. You don’t just learn “about” the web: you learn to make your own website.

      Best way I've heard this idea put into words so far!

    1. Netherlands covering different age groups found a general prevalence of 5.5% among adolescents 13 to 20 years of age and a prevalence of 5.4% among adults.15

      Its interesting to see how the differing of cultures has an effect on the amount of people reflecting these symptoms.

    2. The American Psychiatric Association recently included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a potential diagnosis

      I really believe this is a thing as needs to be treated and prevented.

    3. discourage the placement of media in children’s bedrooms and encourage parents to limit the total amount of entertainment screen time in general to <1 to 2 hours per day

      As a future educator, I would hope that all of the parents of my students enforce some sort of media restriction. However, I know that I will be teaching children from different socio-economic backgrounds, different families with different values, etc., and this will not always be the case. I will make it my mission as an educator to find an appropriate balance between appropriately accessing technology in my classroom and spending time with physical print.

    4. clinically significant impairment or distress.”

      Connecting to the other article I read, Digital Media, Anxiety and Depression in Children, extreme exposure to technology, as described in Internet Gaming Disorder, can eventually lead to anxiety and depression.

    5. The increasing prevalence of digital media has led to growing public concerns about potential detrimental effects, including the possibility that video game play may be “addicting.”

      Through becoming an RA, I got the chance to meet several residents that, for all intents and purposes, were addicted to video games. Sometimes I would not see them come out of their rooms for hours upon hours, even days if a new game or update had just been released. I looked out for all of my residents but especially my few residents who I knew had a gaming addiction.

    6. Withdrawal symptoms when gaming is taken away: These symptoms are typically described as irritability, anxiety, or sadness;

      After reading this I instantly thought about the kids I used to mentor. When it was time for them to figure out how to work a math problem out, or read a book they would become very irritable and frustrated. However, when it was time to play Fortnite they were all pumped and ready to go and knew exactly how to play.

    1. Interactive digital media, on the other hand, generally require some kind of behavioral actions from users, and thus the sequential flow of content is influenced by user behavior.

      So basically they are saying that interactive technology has more of a cognitive impact compared to tv because it requires the audience to interact?

    2. This is why it is important that even at a young age we filter what things children watch and we only give screen time in moderation

    3. The cognitive impact of television use on infants and toddlers (<∼2.5 years old) is related to the amount of exposure, the program content, and the social context of viewing.

      This is an important age for screen time to be balanced. Too much screen time at a young age can clearly impact them cognitively. So it is important to make sure that their screen time is in moderation.

    4. The cognitive impact of these media depends on the age of the child, the kind of programming (educational programming versus programming produced for adults), the social context of viewing, as well the particular kind of interactive media (eg, computer games)

      Its important to know that there are many factors that go behind a cognitive impact. Its not reliant on just one circumstance. An impact from screen time, as clearly stated, is made up of multiple factors.

    1. So many adults are quick to judge social media and say all of the terrible effects it has, but I do not think a lot of them take the time to look at the benefits it comes with.

    2. Social media can thus provide a good forum to practice skills related to identity development, such as self-presentation and self-disclosure.

      I believe that this is one the huge benefits of social media and the internet. A mentioned above and below this quote, adolescents can find individuals that are like them on social media which thus helps them feel better about themselves. If you find people that are like you, you no longer feel so uncomfortable with who you are. I also believe that social media helps us shape who we are through our social media mistakes and phases. If you mess up online, or go back and look through what you used to put on the internet, you may feel better about the person you have become or you may decide I want to go back to being like that. It keeps a timeline of our ever changing emotions, personas, and life events.

    1. The tendency to be constantly connected to one’s social network through digital devices, therefore, potentially contributes to feelings of anxiety.

      I, for one, can personally attest to feeling anxious about not being active on social media. I try to establish a presence on many social media platforms- Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Twitter to name my most frequently visited. When I haven't posted in a while or I have become inactive, I do get anxious and begin to feel somehow left out or like people have begun to forget me. Of course, this is not reality, but I can't help but feel anxious about inactivity.

    2. depression has been postulated to be caused by substituted digital communication, such as excessive mobile phone use that takes the place of face-to-face contact and causes subsequent social isolation

      Revisiting what I said earlier about the students my aunt taught that were unable to form social skills because of too much digital communication, research has actually proven that too much exposure can later cause depression in children.

    3. Adolescents may seek digital distraction from emerging anxiety or distress emotions, creating a reinforced behavioral avoidance of emotional experiences.

      The thought of a child using digital distractions as a coping mechanism for anxiety or distress is a very scary thought. When I was growing up, if I was upset I would simply go outside and play with my friends or read a book. My parents did not always allow me the opportunity to play a video game or get on the computer. My screentime was extremely limited. The fact that today's children are using digital distractions to cope with anxiety is only going to FURTHER damage them psychologically. Although it is easy to sit an upset child in front of a television, parents should encourage their child to seek healthier ways to deal with distress.

    4. Little research has been conducted on acute fear reactions delivered by newer technologies, such as the Internet, social media, and portable devices.

      Although little research has been conducted on the effects from frightening media via Internet, social media, etc., today's children were, for all intents and purposes, born with a cell phone/tablet/laptop in their hands. Children KNOW how to access developmentally inappropriate content in a variety of ways. The greater access to technology is only going to further prove the research that has already been proven- the same frightening content that children are accessing via television and movies will be accessed in a multitude of other ways and will have the same damaging effects.

    5. A variety of surveys dating back as far as the 1930s have shown that a substantial proportion of children experience acute fearful reactions to various aspects of the content of media, especially movies, television dramas, and the news.1

      I find it extremely interesting that surveys regarding children's responses to the content of media have dated as far back as the 1930's, when movies at the theater were a huge technological advancement and by far THE most exciting advancement in entertainment. Now, nearly 90 years later when media has consumed essentially every aspect of our day, I can only imagine the impact that content of media has had on children.

    6. anxiety resulting from lack of emotion-regulation skills because of substituted digital media use

      This is becoming an ever-increasingly important discussion in regards to today's youth. My aunt, who has been an public elementary school teacher for over 30 years now, told me that she has seen students come through her classroom that literally do not know how to socialize with their peers. She blames the social media and video game culture for keeping kids indoors and not engaged in outdoor or even indoor play with one another. She feared that her students that were lacking emotion-regulation skills went home each afternoon and spent the entire night playing video games.

    7. Researchers have documented that the options of texting, instant messaging, and emailing have become preferred by some individuals over face-to-face interactions for some types of contact.

      It's very easy to deal with someone over the internet because you can be whoever you want to be! You gain confidence because you aren't having to deal with someone face to face. This is where cyber bullying comes in to play. You can hide behind a screen and you can even be anonymous! It just makes it that much easier for someone to pretend.

    8. In contrast, research with adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression

      Most adults that I know are strictly using social media to connect with friends and family. Facebook, being the most popular in our parent's and grandparent's generation. They aren't call caught up in Twitter, Snapchat, or Instagram. Heck, I don't even know if the majority of adult's know how to use the apps or what they are used for.

    9. Key topics of inquiry include the following: anxiety and depression associated with technology-based negative social comparison

      This is one of the biggest reasons I have quit some social media apps such as Instagram. It is so easy to compare yourself to other people when thousands and thousands of people use the app. Also, most pictures out there are edited to make people fit the stereotypical "pretty."

    1. Many new vehicles come equipped with wireless technology, voice commands, and touchscreen liquid crystal displays that allows motorists to place calls, send voice-based text messages, navigate with the GPS, stream music, search the Internet, engage in using social media, and interact with other “infotainment” systems. The majority of these interactions are significant sources of driver distraction,17

      With my dad's new car, it has everything inside of it, GPS, voice call, voice text, and etc.. Its so easy for you to be driving and the car will start talking to you. Also, driving while using the GPS in the car also is a major distraction and I did not realize it until after reading this article.

    1. Rather, it is more helpful to think in terms of a healthy media diet that incorporates similar properties to a healthy food diet: moderation in amount, consuming more of the helpful and less of the harmful content, and having regard for the age of the consumer.

      I love this analogy because it perfectly describes what consists of healthy media use. I believe all things should be done in moderation because too much of anything can be bad (except money lol). I also believe parents and teachers must have a regard for age and only allow developmentally appropriate media use.

    2. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy.

      I've always thought watching violent media would cause the child to be more violent but I never thought much about the many other effects it has on children's behavior,

    3. Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous.

      Violence is seen everywhere in multiple domains of media. I watch a video/movie or play a game before or with my daughter prior to allowing her to by herself to ensure it's developmentally appropriate.

    1. Active mediation refers to parent-child conversations about media, including parental attempts to provide children with critical viewing skills regarding media. For example, a parent might discuss themes of bullying after the child views a television program containing aggressive behavior.9 Finally, co-viewing is when parents view, use, or consume media with their children but do not necessarily discuss the content with them

      I was not surprised by Sara Dewitt's findings discussed during her ted talk. Children benefited the most when watching a television show or playing a game and talking about the content with their parents, I use active mediation and restrictive mediation with my daughter. I try to talk to her about the content she plays or watches and I also restrict her from playing or watching anything inappropriate. I also like the idea of co-viewing but still discussing the content with them.

    2. Children today average more hours engaged with media each week than they do engaged with almost any other activity (between 6 and 9 hours/day).

      I believe screen time should be limited and only used in moderation. 6 - 9 hours sounds excessive. We must find a balance for our children and students in how much they use screens and how much they don't.

    3. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents’ own use of media all can influence children’s media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children.
    4. For young children, active mediation can influence their comprehension of media, learning, and language exposure. When parents ask questions and scaffold interactions during media use, children as young as 3 can learn from videos and transfer learning to other settings.14 Between ages 1 and 2, toddlers can interact over video chat more effectively with parent support and learn content from media more readily when a parent co-views and teaches them the presented material.

      This is beneficial for the child. If parents can have conversations with their children about what they are doing on their devices, then this sparks a conversation in general. Children need to be scaffolded and talked to because their interaction with their parents are important

    1. Sleep deprivation has been associated with increased obesity and weight gain among children, most consistently among those between ages 3 and 7

      Sleep is very very important when it comes to maintaining personal health. A middle school aged child should be getting 8-9 hours of sleep a night. Most kids that are "addicted" will be up past midnight getting maybe 4-5 hours a sleep a night. This will eventually take a tole on one's body.

    2. This suggests that displacement of physical activity may not be a strong link between screen time and obesity.

      This was very interesting to read and I am going to have to say I disagree with this statement. Like stated in the article, there are difficulties when it comes to measuring screen media exposure and physical activity. Based off of experience such as babysitting, once the kids are glued in to a show or game, there is no way I am getting them to go outside. A 3 year old that I babysat threw a tantrum when I told him we were done watching TV and it was time to go on a walk. I think physical activity and screen time directly correlates with obesity.

    3. Observational studies have also revealed that greater screen time is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors more broadly, including hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, elevated inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome.2

      Screen time has to physical aspect to it so I without a doubt believe these side effects are associated with excessive screen time.

    4. Current evidence suggests that screen media exposure leads to obesity in children and adolescents through increased eating while viewing; exposure to high-calorie, low-nutrient food and beverage marketing that influences children’s preferences, purchase requests, consumption habits; and reduced sleep duration

      I also think screen media exposure becomes addicting and kids are no longer interested in going outside to play with their friends anymore. Why play outside when you both can be playing the same game and communicate through it?