832 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
    1. French windows

      GANGNES: tall windows that open out as glass double-doors

    2. clinker

      From DANAHAY 48: "ash that has formed a hard crust"

    3. public house

      GANGNES: British "pubs"/bars

    4. potman

      From DANAHAY 49: "a bartender opening the public house (pub) for the day"

    5. taproom

      DANAHAY 49: "the pub room where beer is served 'on tap'"

    6. “touch”

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 202: the game of "tag" in Britain

    7. jobbing gardener

      From DANAHAY 51: "a gardener who does occasional work for different people"

    8. “Extra-terrestrial”

      GANGNES: This term was relatively new when Wells wrote the novel; it first emerged in the mid-nineteenth century and was generally used in scientific journals.

      Source:

    9. gas float

      From MCCONNELL 135: "a hollow tube or ball used to regulate the flow of a liquid or gas"

      From STOVER 69: "a harbor beacon erected on a floating hull containing bottled gas to fuel it"

    10. oxide

      From MCCONNELL 135: "Any chemical compound containing oxygen. The surface of the cylinder has been oxidized in the heat generated by its fall through the atmosphere."

    11. three kingdoms

      GANGNES: You will see below that three different annotated editions of the novel give three different definitions of this reference, and they do not agree as to whether it is Wales or Ireland that is meant to be the "third kingdom."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: England, Ireland, and Scotland

      From STOVER 70: Of Great Britain

      From DANAHAY 52: England, Scotland, and Wales

    12. half-a-dozen flys or more from the Woking station standing in the road by the sand-pits, a basket chaise from Chobham and a rather lordly carriage

      From DANAHAY 52: "Flys" and "basket chaises" are light horse carriages with two wheels pulled by one horse.

    13. furze bushes

      From MCCONNELL 143: "a spiny shrub with yellow flowers, very common throughout England and Europe"

    14. fungoid

      From MCCONNELL 139: fungus-like

    1. La définition de l’innovation selon Everett Rogers est un « processus par lequel une innovation est communiquée, à travers certains canaux, dans la durée, parmi les membres d’un système social ». En matière d’innovation en formation, le caractère innovant ou non d’un processus peut être précisé. La dilution de la technologie dans le fait social écarte la simple liaison entre technologie et innovation. La technologie est tellement présente qu’elle ne saurait être un indicateur suffisant d’innovation.

      Définition circulaire mais liée à une page wikipedia

    1. It is very difficult to make the distinction between a 3PL and a 4PL,” says Rosalyn Wilson, senior business analyst at Delcan Corporation, a supply chain consultancy in Vienna

      Difficulty of 4pl definition 1

    1. crammer’s biology class

      From MCCONNELL 191: "an advanced student or younger teacher who, for a fee, tutors other students in preparation for their examinations"

      From DANAHAY 98: a crammer was/is "somebody who helps students 'cram' for their exams. This was usually a graduate student or somebody with an advanced degree; Wells himself worked as a 'crammer' preparing students for science exams."

    1. extractivewith abstractive summaries, finding that the latter are less proneto semantic distortion.

      There are two general approaches to automatic summarization: extraction and abstraction. Extractive methods work by selecting a subset of existing words, phrases, or sentences in the original text to form the summary. In contrast, abstractive methods build an internal semantic representation and then use natural language generation techniques to create a summary that is closer to what a human might express. Such a summary might include verbal innovations.—Wikipedia

  2. Mar 2019
    1. A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation

      Definition of a greenhouse gas.

    1. defining personalized learning This link is included because there is a degree of research-based sources behind their comments. There is an easy to read graphic that succinctly characterizes personalized learning. It is written for someone who is beginning their understanding of this type of learning and plans to implement it at a future point. rating 3/5

    1. what is the definition of mobile learning This is a brief article that explains mobile learning for a layperson (not an academic). It is described in the context of schooling. It does not necessarily relate to informal learning specifically. The advantages (such as motivation and distance) are discussed, as well as the disadvantages (such as the potential for distraction). It is adequate as a definition. rating 3/5

    1. Digital ridesharing platforms, such as Uber and Lyft, are part of a broader suite of disruptive,matching market innovations that constitute what is sometimes referred to as the “sharing economy”

      clear definition of the sharing economy

    1. “sharing economies” of collaborative consumption(Botsman & Rogers, 2010), where people offer and share underuti-lized resources in creative, new ways.

      Gives a clear definition of what is the sharing economy

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    1. Japanese gardens (日本庭園, nihon teien) are traditional gardens[1] whose designs are accompanied by Japanese aesthetic and philosophical ideas, avoid artificial ornamentation, and highlight the natural landscape.

      Brief definition of a Japanese Garden.

    1. naturallzatlon

      for those who didn't know/forgot "the process by which U.S. citizenship is granted to a foreign citizen or national after he or she fulfills the requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)"

    1. tenements

      "A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort, but particularly a run-down apartment building or slum building" for those who don't know

    1. lurid

      lurid - "very vivid in color, especially so as to create an unpleasantly harsh or unnatural effect" For those of you who didn't know

    1. wigwam

      I don't know what this is so I looked it up "A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a semi-permanent domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes"

  3. Feb 2019
    1. or language, in its full extent, means, any way or method whatsoever, by which all that passes in the mind of one man

      A somewhat indirect construction of human? Language is located in the mind? Therefore, humans have minds that they use for language? Or language that they use for minds?

    2. articulate

      Articulate:

      Definition: (noun) Having or showing the ability to speak fluently and coherently; having joints or jointed segments; (verb) pronounce (something) clearly and distinctly; express (an idea or feeling) fluently and coherently; form a joint.

      Origin: Mid-16th century: from Latin articulatus, past participle of articulare ‘divide into joints, utter distinctly’, from articulus ‘small connecting part.

    3. elocution

      Elocution:

      Definition: The skill of clear and expressive speech, especially of distinct pronunciation and articulation; a particular style of speaking.

      Origin: Late Middle English (denoting oratorical or literary style): from Latin elocutio(n-), from eloqui ‘speak out’ (see eloquence).

    4. only those who are in a state of warfare

      I applaud Sheridan's attempt to enlighten our understanding of language in this way. He paints himself into a corner, but rather than stopping, he just keeps painting.

    5. he same in all nations, and consequently can e

      So while words vary widely and have no direct relation to the ideas they represent, tone is universal. Here we have another claim about the human: it is one who uses tone in a certain way.

    6. ing from what

      This seems like a break from Locke, and possibly even from Hume.

      A hu(man) has things other than ideas running through its mind.

    7. fix, the precise meaning

      In the style of Locke and Plato's Socrates, let us start....with definition!

    1. 1. Explore the current situation. Paint a picture in words by including the “presenting problem,” the impact it is having, the consequences of not solving the problem, and the emotions the problem is creating for those involved.

      This step is somewhat similar to the EEC (Evidence/Example Effect Change/Challenge) model, often used with Feedback?

    1. educational mythology presents an unrealistic picture of theefficacy of schooling.

      (helps me distill the argument in this piece)

    1. Wise men induce this condition in themselves by an act of volition.

      So Vico's definition and practice of rhetoric allows for one's self to be both the agent and subject of eloquence. Interesting.

    2. \·e11.m.\· c·o1111111111i

      Oxford reference: "Not common sense in its ordinary meaning, but in Aristotle (De Anima, II, 1–2) and following him Aquinas and others, a central cognitive function that integrates and monitors the delivery of the other distinct senses, as when a shape is both seen and felt."

      Kant discusses this concept extensively, but his definition is closer to "common sense" than Aristotle's.

    1. And if the same qualities, in a continued composition and in a smaller degree, affect not the organs with a sensible delight or uneasiness, we exclude the person from all pretensions to this delicacy.

      Limitations are being set. If organs cannot be affected or if the affect isn't "sensible", what of the one experiencing it?

    2. explanation ofthe tenns commonly ends the controversy

      Hence why definition is needed to start, not once the argument's already gathered steam (as Locke also points out). While I find merit to this, I dislike agreeing with anything Socratic/Platonic on principle.

    1. Who ever that had a mind to under· stand them mistook the ordinary meaning

      Locke assumes that such a person does not exist, defining human as "one who understands all simple modes/ideas."

    2. before they went any further on in this dispute, they would first examine and estab-lish amongst them, what the word liquor signi-fied.

      Thanks, Socrates (she said sarcastically).

    3. which another has not organs of faculties to attain; as the names of colours to a blind man, or sounds to a deaf man, need not here be mentioned.

      Restrictions on intelligibility and comprehension, which by extension imply a restriction on what's human or universal

    1. epitopes

      An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system

  4. Jan 2019
    1. immanenc

      The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.

    2. This field is notaiming at anything like a consensus about a new ‘humanity’, but it givesus a frame for the actualization of the many missing people, whose‘minor’ or nomadic knowledge is the breeding ground for possiblefutures.

      Again, tagging for definition

    3. o actualize the emergence of amissing people

      tagging for definition

    4. posthumanitie

      commenting just to tag this

    1. caliphate

      A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfa) is a state ruled by an Islamic leader known as a caliph. This is a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and a leader of the entire muslim community.

    1. n short, it may very well be the case that the rhetoricaltriangle is about as useful as a joystick in eXistenZ—in other words, it mayoffer us the sense that we are in control of the game, but we will miss outon all the action as a result

      This is going back to the typical "problem" of not being able to define rhetoric. On one hand, it seems like we have a handle on what rhetoric can be(triangle, joystick), but if we want to stick to that one solid definition, we will miss out on everything else it can be/not be/do/try to do, etc.

    1. Teachingpresence includes three areas: design, facilitation, and directinstruction (Garrison & Akyol)
    2. one of the most influential definitions of sense of communityis the one advanced byMcMillan and Chavis (1986):“a feeling thatmembers matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faiththat members' needs will be meet through their commitment to betogether”(p.9)

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    1. It is the story that hid my humanity from me

      i.e. one story's version of being human compared to another.Similar to what I was saying in the prior paragraph.

    2. f to do thatis human, if that's what it tak§, tnen I am a human being after all. 'Fully, freely, gladly, for tneficst time.

      This brings us back to the point that the definition of human is similar to the definition of rhetoric. The more you try to define either, the more confusing and exclusionary each can get. Just like rhetoric, there is no one way to define human, but instead you stack all definitions on top of each other, without one superseding the others. The definitions are also situational, like Le Guin being human by this definition, but not by the previous one about killing.

    3. The society, the civilization they were talking about, these theoreti-cians, was evidently theirs; they owned it, they liked it; they were human, fully human, bashing, sticking, thrusting, killing. Wanting to be human too, I sought for evidence that I was; but if that's what it took, to make a weapon and kill with it, then evidently I was either extremely defective as a human being, or not human at all. That's right, they said. What you are is a woman. Possibly not human at all, certainly defective. Now be quiet while we go on telling the Story of the Ascent of Man the Hero

      Le Guin gives a definition of what it means to be human; the idea of theorists that humans must kill. Then, she makes it clear that this isn't the only definition of human, considering she's human and wouldn't/couldn't act in such a way. Then there's this awesome and gross little paragraph about women possibly not being human, but rather, defective and unworthy of having a say. Ouch.

    1. an opening of alterity

      Relates back to my earlier notion of the freedom that comes with not being definitely defined (or boxed in).

    2. when this question is put to us, it's entirely understandable that we mighthesitate. Maybe we aren't quite sure which idiom is offering us the question (isthe question curious or obligatory, dismissive or confused?). Or maybe we justhaven't come up with an answer that is pithy enough yet

      I have been asked by numerous audiences, "what exactly is rhetoric?" They understand the composition part of my studies, but are perplexed by my inability to explain/define the rhetoric portion. The fact that I can't nail down a definition doesn't make me uncomfortable like it does some. Most definitions I end up giving are to wordy for most... so they stop asking.

    3. With noclearly defined content and no rigorous method, rhetoric could very well beanything at all

      Without a limiting definition, rhetoric's reach is practically limitless.

    1. aesthetic that has emerged in response to media convergence—one that places new demands on consumers and depends on the active partici-pation of knowledge communities. Transmedia storytelling is the art of world making.

      Transmedia storytelling

    2. fective economics" encourages companies to transform brands into what one industry insider calls "lovemarks" and to blur the line between entertainment content and brand mes-sages

      Affective economics - branded content/sponsored content

    3. ck Box Fallacy. Sooner or later, the argument goes, all media content is going to flow through a single black box into our living rooms (

      black box fallacy

    4. isa Gitelman, who offers a model of media that works on two levels: on the first, a medium is a technology that enables communication; on the second, a medium is a set of associated "protocols" or social and cultural practices that have

      Media (from Lisa Gitelman):

      1. technology that enables communication
      2. set of associated protocols, or social or cultural practices, that grow up around that technology
    5. onvergence, I mean the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences who will go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they want. Con
    6. nvergence culture, where old and new media collide, where grassroots and corporate media intersect, where the power of the media producer and the power of the media consumer interact in unpredictable ways.
    1. al axio

      Axiom: a statement or proposition which is regarded as being established, accepted, or self-evidently true.

    2. depauperate

      "(of a flora, fauna, or ecosystem) lacking in numbers or variety of species"

    3. phytophagous

      A thesaurus' way to say herbivore, or feeding on plants.

    4. ductionism

      Reductionism: "the practice of analyzing and describing a complex phenomenon in terms of phenomena that are held to represent a simpler or more fundamental level, especially when this is said to provide a sufficient explanation" or rather, many biologists are interested in the big picture rather than smaller details for how ecosystems work.

    1. Literacy is the ability to read, write, speak and listen, and use numeracy and technology

      the definition of literacy.

    1. Apost-structuralistapproach: all these cultures do indeed makesense of the world differently: and it is impossible to say that oneis right and the others are wrong. In a sense, people from differ-ent cultures experience reality differently.

      post-structuralist: people from different cultures make sense of and experience reality differently; no one culture is better than the others.

    2. Astructuralistresponse: all these cultures seem to be makingsense of the world differently; but really, underneath, they havecommon structures. They're not all that different; people acrossthe world are basically the same.

      structuralism: belief that all cultures are built on shared structures; they have the same basic building blocks but use them in different ways.

    3. Arealistresponse: my culture has got it right. It simply describesreality. Other cultures are wrong

      realism: belief that one's own culture is the only correct way of knowing.

    4. A text issomething that we make meaning from
    5. When we perform textual analysis on a text, we make an educatedguess at some of the most likely interpretations that might be madeof that text

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    1. indexing hyp~thesis,~~ news professionals tend to “index” the range of viewpoints according to the range of views expressed in the mainstream government debate
    2. Attributions of responsibility can be categorized into two types: causal and treatment responsibilities

      Causal responsibility: what/who is the source of the problem Treatment responsibility: who has the power or the responsibility to alleviate the problem

    3. rame building captures what roles are played by social and structur- al factors in the media system and by the characteristics of individual journalists in influencing the production and modification of frames
    1. , journalists look for "pegs"-that is, topical events that provide an opportunity for broader, more long-term coverage and commentary

      Pegs: key topical events that journalists use to provide broader coverage and commentary about an ongoing issue. Aka "critical discourse moments" (Chilton, 1987)

    2. While an indi- vidual columnist is not expected to provide more than one package, a range of "liberal" and "conservative" commentators are used to observe this norm

      Balance Norm, a media practice that influences framing

    3. metaphors, catchphrases, visual images, moral appeals, and other symbolic devices that characterize this discourse

      Interpretive packages: the clusters of metaphors, catchphrases, visual images, moral appeals, and other symbolic devices that characterize the discourse around a policy issue, giving meaning to relevant events.

    4. deas and language resonate with larger cultural themes. Resonances increase the appeal of a package; they make it appear natural and familiar.

      Cultural resonances: ideas or language within an interpretive package that resonate with larger cultural themes, increasing the appeal of the package.

    5. . Journalists' working norms and practices add consid- erable value to the process

      Media practices: journalists' working norms and practices that add value to the process of constructing interpretive packages

    6. Media packages.-We suggested earlier that media discourse can be conceived of as a set of interpretive packages that give meaning to an issue. A package has an internal structure. At its core is a central organiz- ing idea, orframe, for making sense of relevant events, suggesting what is at issue

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  5. Dec 2018
    1. ayesian topic mod-els, the most popular such models today are variants of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, Bleiet al., 2003b), which provides a way to automatically discover latent or implicittopicsin otherwiseunstructured collections of text
    2. Recasens et al. (2013) draw a related distinction betweenframing bias, which involves explicitlysubjective words or phrases linked with a particular point of view, andepistemological bias, whichinvolves implicit assumptions and presuppositions in ostensibly neutral writing.)
    3. process by which a political scientist or communications scholar identi es the catalogue of frames ina political discourse about a particular issue (frame discovery)
    1. Political issues can often be complex, contentious, anddifficult to understand. One way of making sense of theseissues, and the different positions that one can take onan issue, is to think about the frames that structure de-bate about the issue. Frames help organize facts and in-formation. They help define what counts as a problem,diagnose the problem’s causes, and suggest remedies forsolving the problem. These ways of thinking have lots ofdifferent parts, including stereotypes, metaphors, images,catchphrases, and other elements.

      Non-academic definition of framing

    1. Social scientists refer to the feeling of imagining oneself to be a lonely minority when in fact there are many people who agree with you, maybe even a majority, as “pluralistic ignorance.”39 Pluralistic ignorance is thinking that one is the only person bored at a class lecture and not knowing that the sentiment is shared, or that dissent and discontent are rare feelings in a country when in fact they are common but remain unspoken.
    2. homophily
    1. ltbach and Knight (2007) def ine globalization as “the economic, political, and societal forces pushing 21st centur y higher education toward greater international Audem_06.indd 9911/22/12 7:17 PM100AUDEMinvolvement” (p. 290).

      Globalization definition

  6. Nov 2018
    1. Ce qui est commun aux formes de documentation est la fixation, dans le sens collecte avec indexation, d'informations et de processus stockés menant à une réalisation reproductible et diffusable.
    1. “tactical freeze,” the inability of these movements to adjust tactics, negotiate demands, and push for tangi-ble policy changes, something that grows out of the leaderless nature of these movements (“horizontalism”) and the way digital technologies strengthen their ability to form without much early planning, dealing with issues only as they come up, and by people who show up (“adhocracy”).
    1. . De ce moment, nous saurions ce qu’est la démocratie, et qu’elle a un sens : le peuple refusant de lâcher le pouvoir.

      Point tournant mettant en évidence la signification de la démocratie du point de vue du leader politique.

    1. The discipline of hospital medicine grew out of the increasing complexity of patients requiring hospital care and the need for dedicated clinicians to oversee their management. The hospitalist model supplanted the traditional method of caring for hospitalized patients, which was often done by clinicians also seeing ambulatory patients or with other clinical obligations that limited their ability to provide the intensity of care often required by these patients. By focusing their practice on this specific group of patients, hospitalists gain specialized knowledge in managing very ill patients and are able to provide high-quality, evidence-based, and efficient patient and family-centered care in hospital settings.
    1. Equally pressing is the question of value, definedas the quality of care divided by its cost.10
    2. As a result, we anticipate the rapid growth of anew breed of physicians we call “hospitalists” — spe-cialists in inpatient medicine — who will be respon-sible for managing the care of hospitalized patientsin the same way that primary care physicians are re-sponsible for managing the care of outpatients.
    1. So many medical publications appear worldwide every day that it is no longer possible for an individual medical professional to keep up with the latest state of knowledge. In order to offer support and to encourage new medical research, EBM provides a toolbox of different methods. These tools can be divided into three categories:The first category includes methods that serve to create reliable new knowledge: Someone who would like to compare the advantages and disadvantages of different drugs, for example, will find suitable types of studies here.The second category involves methods that help to summarize the existing knowledge on a subject: They serve to find and select the previously published studies that are best able to answer a particular question. There are now networks of researchers that specialize in looking for the latest research findings and summarizing them to provide easily accessible information.The third category covers methods for presenting information to medical professionals and laypeople in a way that helps them to find, understand and make use of it.The main aim is always to find out what kind of care is most suitable for a particular patient – and how to incorporate their individual preferences and circumstances into the treatment decision.
    2. This is the purpose of evidence-based medicine (EBM): to provide healthcare professionals, patients and those close to them with up-to-date and scientifically proven information on the various medical options that are available to them. It can help to find out what sorts of advantages or disadvantages a treatment or test has, when people might benefit from it and whether it might also be harmful.EBM uses special methods that it has developed to find the highest quality evidence for the benefits of a specific medical intervention. This evidence can be found in conclusive scientific studies. EBM also plays a part in making sure that the research that is done can help patients to answer the most important questions. This means that studies look into both the benefits of a treatment as well as how it affects quality of life, for example.
    1. Patient- and family-centered care encourages the active collaboration and shared decision-making between patients, families, and providers to design and manage a customized and comprehensive care plan. Most definitions of patient-centered care have several common elements that affect the way health systems and facilities are designed and managed, and the way care is delivered: The health care system’s mission, vision, values, leadership, and quality-improvement drivers are aligned to patient-centered goals. Care is collaborative, coordinated, and accessible. The right care is provided at the right time and the right place. Care focuses on physical comfort as well as emotional well-being. Patient and family preferences, values, cultural traditions, and socioeconomic conditions are respected. Patients and their families are an expected part of the care team and play a role in decisions at the patient and system level. The presence of family members in the care setting is encouraged and facilitated. Information is shared fully and in a timely manner so that patients and their family members can make informed decisions.

      Elements of patient-centered care

    2. In patient-centered care, an individual’s specific health needs and desired health outcomes are the driving force behind all health care decisions and quality measurements. Patients are partners with their health care providers, and providers treat patients not only from a clinical perspective, but also from an emotional, mental, spiritual, social, and financial perspective.

      What is patient-centered care?

  7. Oct 2018
    1. waybill

      Waybill - Document issued by a carrier giving details and instructions relating to the shipment of a consignment of goods.

    2. sandwiches

      Need more information - what was in the sandwiches?

      Origin of word: [https://www.wyzant.com/resources/lessons/english/etymology/words-mod-sandwich]

    3. a fait accompli

      Now some French - meaning 'already been decided or done and cannot be changed'

    4. maneuvers

      Another American spelling of 'manoeuvre'.<br> Okay, okay, now I'm just being pedantic..!

    5. meters

      American spelling of 'metre' e.g. "my gas meter is two metres from my garden wall"

    6. verisimilitude

      verisimilitude - 'the quality of seeming true or of having the appearance of being real'

    1. Retrospective

      looking back on/dealing w/ past situations

    2. aVective

      affective murderer: impulsive, reactive, & emotional

    3. predatory

      predatory murderer: planned, purposeful, & emotionless

    4. frontal hypoperfusion

      decreased blood flow through frontal lobe

    5. prefrontal grey mat-ter volume

      damage to that area can result in pseudopsychopathic personality

    6. EEG

      a test used to find problems related to electrical activity in the brain

    7. executivefunction

      necessary cognitive processes linked to controlling behaviours and achieving goals

    8. focal mediofrontal

      injury specifically in the medial frontal cortex (decision-making)

    9. ventromedial prefrontal injury

      processing of risk and fear

      • damage to this cortex would mean they have less of a grasp on "social risk", thus more likely to do "morally-wrong" actions
    10. orbitofrontal cortex

      decision-making

    11. “Violence” refers to actions that inflict physicalharm in violation of social norms.
    12. aggression as anythreatening or physically assaultive behaviourdirected at persons or the environment
    13. Neuropsychiatry

      difference between neurobiology and neuropsychiatry:

      neurobiology: study of cells in the nervous system, and how the nervous system affects neurological function and behaviour

      neuropsychiatry: medical specialty for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders relating mental disorders to disordered brain function

    1. erroneous

      wrong, incorrect

    2. congruent

      in agreement

    3. Psychological profiling is the investigativetechnique of analyzing crimebehaviors for the identification of probable offender characteristics
    4. empirical research

      research that derives experience from actual experience rather than theories/beliefs

    1. antebellum

      I actually had not heard this word used in a sentence before. If anyone was wondering about the definition - "Occurring or existing before a particular war, especially the American Civil War."

    1. To take an example, moral relativism, according to this approach, is the claim that the truth or justification of beliefs with moral content is relative to specific moral codes. So the sentence “It is wrong to sell people as slaves” is elliptical for “It is wrong to sell people as slaves relative to the moral code of …”. Or alternatively, as Kusch (2010) formulates the idea on behalf of the relativist: “It is wrong-relative-to-the-moral-code-of-…” to sell people as slaves. The resulting sentence(s) turns out to be true, according to the relativist, depending on how we fill in the “…”. So, “It is wrong to sell people as slaves” comes out true relative to the moral code of the United Nations Charter of Human Rights and false relative to the moral code of ancient Greece.

      This is an excellent way of summarizing moral relativism with a great example.

    2. Defenders see it as a harbinger of tolerance and the only ethical and epistemic stance worthy of the open-minded and tolerant. Detractors dismiss it for its alleged incoherence and uncritical intellectual permissiveness.

      The main points for both sides of my paper

    3. Relativism, roughly put, is the view that truth and falsity, right and wrong, standards of reasoning, and procedures of justification are products of differing conventions and frameworks of assessment and that their authority is confined to the context giving rise to them

      Definition, find a twist on this to frame the way I want, at first what seems like a beneficial definition, but one I can reframe and redefine when I need to

  8. Sep 2018
    1. Perpetual progress is a strong statement of the transhumanist commitment to seek “more intelligence, wisdom, and effectiveness, an open-ended lifespan, and the removal of political, cultural, biological, and psychological limits to continuing development. Perpetually overcoming constraints on our progress and possibilities as individuals, as organizations, and as a species. Growing in healthy directions without bound.”

      The author further identify the true meaning of transhumanism as it is now focusing more of a mesh making all humans quite uniform, taking away culture and amplifying the idea of the collective being a single organism. The authors are more so repeating themselves as it is similar to previous points. The repetition may be there to reinforce the claim of the collective being a single organism. It is rather interesting that it diverse from promoting individualism where people gets to have their own culture and political ideologies, the author is effectively saying that humans should not have a mind of their own but interlinked with others to move within a direction with efficiency.

    1. gossamer

      a fine, filmy substance consisting of cobwebs spun by small spiders, seen especially in autumn. • used to refer to something very light, thin, and insubstantial or delicate: in the light from the table lamp, his hair was blond gossamer | [as modifier] : gossamer wings.

      After defining this word, I know how delicate and intricate a spiders web is and how it is essential to a it's survial.

    1. Under Darwin's hypothesis, there is variation among individuals at the start o

      Lamarckism = traits change amongst a population based on current needs--they then get passed down

      Darwinism = variation in traits are present at the beginning--the traits that permit survival are passed down

    2. expounded

      expound - to explain the meaning of something in detail

    3. random genetic drift

      Genetic Drift - a basic mechanism of evolution like natural selection, mutation, and migration

      When allele frequencies of a population change over generations by random chance

  9. Aug 2018
    1. infanticide - the crime of killing a child within a year of birth

      Not so fun fact - Mothers are much more likely to kill their young or other babies than their own than a paternal figure.

    2. Refresher on semiconservative replication

      -genetic replication in which a double-stranded molecule of nucleic acid separates into two single strands each of which serves as a template for the formation of a complementary strand--DNA is reused

    3. Does speciation occur because of divergence?

      Definition of speciation - the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution

      Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent mutations--often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.

      So yes. Speciation can be caused because of divergence.

    4. Adaptation is over generations whereas adjustments/acclimations are over one's lifetime.

    5. coral atolls - ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon

    6. propinquity- the state of being close to something

    7. Ontogeny - origination and development of an organism

    8. All of these questions have ultimate answers.

      Senesce - deteriorate with age

  10. Jun 2018
    1. The 80/20 Principle asserts that a minority of causes, inputs or effort usually lead to a majority of the results, outputs or rewards. Taken literally, this means that, for example, 80 per cent of what you achieve in your job comes from 20 per cent of the time spent. Thus for all practical purposes, four-fifths of the effort—a dominant part of it—is largely irrelevant. This is contrary to what people normally expect.
    1. Epistemic democratic theories refer to the capacity of the populace, either through deliberation or aggregation of knowledge, to track the truth and relies on mechanisms to synthesize and apply collective intelligence.
    2. Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
    1. Contrary to the definition we’ve chosen, the term poset frequently is used to meanpartiallyordered set, rather than preordered set. In category theory terminology, therequirement thatxyimpliesxyis known asskeletality. We thus call partiallyordered setsskeletal posets
  11. May 2018
    1. career is a noun describing a post-rationalised sequence of roles consisting of activities, events, and responsibilities that you negotiated according to a set of principles and practices that led you to your current position. In the context of your motoring, career is a verb entailing a barely controlled swerving from side to side, only maintaining a loose sense of intended direction. Imagine the straight, maybe upwardly angling line represented by the former. Imagine the undulating, perhaps violently, perhaps gently, oscillating line represented by the latter.
    1. According to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (n.d.), OER are "teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others" (para. 2). OER can be texts (including open textbooks), videos, assessments, lecture notes, slides, or other learning materials.
    1. minimum wagesfixed by the government exercising the minimum wage fixationpowers given to it by the Minimum wages Act, 1948. Once such a wage is fixed for a given employments the employers are boundunder law to pay such a wage.

      Explaining the concept of minimum wages and what it means