924 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
    1. en masse

      From MCCONNELL 202: "in a body, in a crowd"

      From DANAHAY 107: "in one huge mass"

    2. mettle

      GANGNES: In this instance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a person's spirit; courage, strength of character; vigour, spiritedness, vivacity"

    3. laid their guns

      From MCCONNELL 203: "prepared to fire"

    4. ululation

      From MCCONNELL 203: "crying or moaning"

      From DANAHAY 109: "a high-pitched cry that goes up and down the scale"

    5. heavy minute guns

      From MCCONNELL 206: "guns designed to fire at intervals of one minute"

    6. kopjes

      From STOVER 148: "Small hills of South African locution made familiar to English readers in accounts of the Boer War, from behind which Boer guerrillas sniped on English troops. Although the war did not officially break out until 1899, the landscape of the coming conflict was reported by [Rudyard] Kipling."

    7. crammer’s biology class

      From MCCONNELL 191: "an advanced student or younger teacher who, for a fee, tutors other students in preparation for their examinations"

      From DANAHAY 98: a crammer was/is "somebody who helps students 'cram' for their exams. This was usually a graduate student or somebody with an advanced degree; Wells himself worked as a 'crammer' preparing students for science exams."

    1. battery

      From MCCONNELL 173: "four to eight guns in the Horse Artillery of the time"

    2. theodolite

      From MCCONNELL 175: "a surveying instrument with a telescopic sight, for establishing horizontal and vertical angles"

      From DANAHAY 85: "A mirror mounted on a pole, used in this situation to communicate the whereabouts of the Martians and warn the artillery of their approach."

    3. heliograph

      From MCCONNELL 175: "a moveable mirror, usually mounted on a tripod, used to transmit signals by sun flashes"

      From DANAHAY 85: "An apparatus for telegraphing by means of the sun's rays flashed from a mirror."

      Note: There is a photograph of heliograph operators in DANAHAY Appendix I.

    4. assiduously

      From DANAHAY 86: busily

    5. twelve-pounders

      From MCCONNELL 177: "Guns capable of firing a twelve-pound ball. Heavy artillery, like every other aspect of warfare, underwent a gigantic growth in the late nineteenth century--especially after the German munitions maker, Alfred Krupp, developed the first all-steel gun in 1851."

      From DANAHAY 86: "artillery, heavier than field guns described previously"

    6. rampart

      From DANAHAY 87: "a broad embankment raised as a fortification"

    7. omnibus

      From DANAHAY 87: a horse-drawn bus

    8. Sabbatical

      From DANAHAY 87: "literally means day of worship; people are dressed as if for going to church on Sunday"

    9. vicar

      From MCCONNELL 178: "the priest of a parish"

    10. grenadiers

      From MCCONNELL 178: "Originally, grenadiers were especially tall soldiers in a regiment employed to throw grenades. This practice was discontinued by the end of the eighteenth century, though the tallest and finest soldiers of their regiments continued to be called 'grenadiers.' After 1858, the only regiment officially referred to by the name was the Grenadier Guards, the First Regiment of the Household Cavalry."

      From DANAHAY 88: "originally 'grenade throwers,' but by this time an elite army regiment"

    11. outhouse

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the door to "subsidiary building in the grounds of or adjoining a house, as a barn, shed, etc."

    12. pollard willows

      From MCCONNELL 180: "willows cut back to the trunk, so as to produce dense masses of branches"

    13. portmanteau

      From DANAHAY 90: a large travelling bag or suitcase

    14. camera

      From MCCONNELL 182: "The first portable camera, the Kodak, had been patented by George Eastman in 1888. Wells himself was an ardent amateur photographer."

      From DANAHAY 91: "These were very large, box-like cameras."

    15. tidal bore

      From MCCONNELL 182: "an abrupt rise of tidal water flowing inland from the mouth of an estuary"

    16. the thing called a siren in our manufacturing towns

      From MCCONNELL 183: "The word [used in this way] was still new at the time, and referred primarily to factory whistles."

    17. towing path

      From MCCONNELL 183: "a path along the bank of a river for the horses or men who tow boats on the river"

    18. clangorous

      From DANAHAY 92: a loud, metallic ringing sound

    19. wheal

      From MCCONNELL 184: "welt or ridge"

    20. CURATE

      From DANAHAY 93: "a member of the clergy who is either in charge of a parish or who is serving as an assistant in a parish."

    21. spinneys

      From DANAHAY 94: "small clumps of trees, not large enough to be a wood"

    22. parboiled

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "partially cooked by boiling"

    23. mackerel sky

      From DANAHAY 95: "A mackerel is a seawater fish that has rows of dark markings on its back. The rows of clouds resemble these markings."

    24. cockchafer

      From MCCONNELL 190: European scarab beetle

      From DANAHAY 97: large European flying beetle

    1. lassitude

      From DANAHAY 68: weariness, lack of energy

    2. a rapidly fluctuating barometer

      GANGNES: This indicates that the weather is volatile and likely heralds an imminent storm. See Oxford English Dictionary on "barometer": "an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of probable changes in the weather, ascertaining the height of an ascent, etc" and Encyclopaedia Britannica entry.

    3. chariot

      From DANAHAY 68: a word for cart

    4. close

      GANGNES: In this usage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "of the atmosphere or weather: Like that of a closed up room; confined, stifling, without free circulation"

    5. sappers

      From MCCONNELL156: "military engineers, builders of trenches, fortifications, etc."

      From DANAHAY 69: "engineers who built bridges, forts and other structures the army might need"

    6. Horse Guards

      From MCCONNELL156: "The famous 'Blues,' or Royal Horse Guards, consolidated in 1819."

      From DANAHAY 69: the Royal Horse Guards: elite British army cavalry unit

    7. stereotyped formula

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "something continued or constantly repeated without change; a stereotyped phrase, formula, etc.; stereotyped diction or usage."

    8. belligerent

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "waging or carrying on regular recognized war; actually engaged in hostilities," which is to say, the narrator is imagining, and is excited about, an epic war between the British and the Martians.

    9. field gun

      From DANAHAY 71: "a piece of mobile artillery, usually pulled by horses"

    10. tea

      GANGNES: In this case, the equivalent of dinner or an evening meal (hence it being "six in the evening"). See Oxford English Dictionary: "locally in the U.K. (esp. northern) ... a cooked evening meal"

    11. bevy

      From DANAHAY 71: large group

    12. horse and dog-cart

      From MCCONNELL 159: "a light, two-wheeled vehicle with two seats, back to back: horse-drawn"

    13. palings

      From MCCONNELL 159: fence pickets

    14. dish cover

      From DANAHAY 72: a large metal cover used to keep food hot

    15. spanking

      From DANAHAY 73: speeding

    16. dog roses

      From MCCONNELL 161: "European variety of rose, with very pale red flowers"

    17. fusillade

      From DANAHAY 74: "a round of coordinated fire by a body of soldiers"

    18. good hap

      From DANAHAY 74: good luck

    19. heard midnight pealing out

      From DANAHAY 75: church bells ringing

      GANGNES: Which is to say, the church bells rang in such a way that indicated the time was midnight

    20. smote

      From DANAHAY 75: struck or hit

    21. tripod

      From MCCONNELL 163: "Any three-legged support, although the most common instance of the 'tripod' for Wells's readers would probably have been the tripod on which older cameras were mounted."

    22. in its wallowing career

      From DANAHAY 76: in its path

      GANGNES: In the 1898 edition, "wallowing" is removed.

    23. articulate

      From DANAHAY 76: jointed, able to bend and/or move

    24. insensate

      From DANAHAY 76: without consciousness

    25. squatter’s

      From DANAHAY 77: a squatter is "a person living in a building without paying rent"

    26. stress

      From DANAHAY 78: force

    27. Colossi

      From MCCONNELL 169: "giant figures"

    28. torpor

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "absence or suspension of motive power, activity, or feeling"

    29. Hist!

      GANGNES: an exclamation to quietly get someone's attention; similar to "Psst!"

    30. gun he drove had been unlimbered

      From MCCONNELL: "To 'unlimber' a gun is to detach it from its limber, a two-wheeled carriage drawn by four to six horses, and prepare it for firing."

    31. limber

      From DANAHAY 81: "the part of the carriage on which the gun is pulled, and from which it has to be 'unlimbered' or detached"

    32. in skirmishing order

      From MCCONNELL 171: "formation for a conventional attack"

    33. ejaculatory

      From DANAHAY 82: disjointed, told in short bursts

    34. cowls

      From DANAHAY 83: the hood of a monk's garment

    1. accosted

      From DANAHAY 56: "spoke to or grabbed hold of"

    2. attenuated

      From DANAHAY 57: thin

    3. Deputation

      GANGNES: In this case, as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary: "a body of persons appointed to go on a mission on behalf of another or others"

    4. furze bush

      From MCCONNELL 143: "a spiny shrub with yellow flowers, very common throughout England and Europe"

    5. mustering

      From DANAHAY 59: "Literally collecting together, but here figuratively meaning becoming more numerous."

    6. parabolic

      From DANAHAY 60: bowl shaped

    7. incontinently

      From DANAHAY 60: immediately

    8. gloaming

      From DANAHAY 60: twilight

    9. mounted

      GANGNES: riding a horse

    10. collision

      GANGNES: In this case, an attack or conflict. Stent and Ogilvy sent their telegraph before there was any sign of overt hostility from the Martians; they contacted the barracks so that the soldiers might come to the pit and protect the Martians from being attacked by humans, not the other way around.

    11. hummock

      From MCCONNELL 146: "a small knoll or hill"

    12. my collar had burst away from its stud

      From MCCONNELL 148: "Collars at the time were detached from the shirt, generally made of celluloid, and fastened around the neck with a stud."

    13. incredible

      GANGNES: In this instance, unbelievable; the narrator is relieved that his wife believes his story about what happened to him because his neighbors did not.

    14. cope

      From DANAHAY 64: a cloak or cape

    15. argon

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "a chemically inactive, odorless, colorless, gaseous element, no. 18 on the Periodic Table of the Elements. It had just been discovered and was in the news. Wells had written it up in 'The Newly Discovered Element' and 'The Protean Gas,' Saturday Review 79 (February 9 and May 4, 1895): 183-184, 576-577."

      GANGNES: The above articles from the Saturday Review are available in scanned facsimile here ("The Newly Discovered Element") and here ("The Protean Gas").

    16. shell

      GANGNES: An artillery projectile. See Wikipedia entry) on different kinds of shells.

    17. erethism

      From MCCONNELL 151: "term describing an unusual state of irritability or stimulation in an organism"

    18. tempering

      From MCCONNELL 151: burning/roasting

    19. canard

      From DANAHAY 66: a joke or hoax

    20. love-making

      GANGNES: In this case, courting.

    21. A boy from the town, trenching on Smith’s monopoly, was selling papers with the afternoon’s news.

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL is somewhat at odds with HUGHES AND GEDULD and STOVER here; H&G's identification of "Smith" as referring to the newsagent W. H. Smith is important to the print culture of Victorian Britain. I include MCCONNELL to show that critical/annotated editions are not infallible.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "Cutting into or 'poaching on' W. H. Smith's monopoly of selling newspapers inside the station. The chain of W. H. Smith to this day has the exclusive rights to selling newspapers, magazines, and books in m any British railroad stations."

      From MCCONNELL 153: "'Trenching' means encroaching. The newsboy is selling his papers at a station where Mr. Smith has a permanent newsstand."

      From STOVER 91: "Reference to W.H. Smith, whose chain of stationery stores to this day has the exclusive rights to sell newspapers, books, and magazines in British railway stations."

    22. villas

      From DANAHAY 66: "the Victorian term for any large detached modern house"

    23. a squadron of Hussars, two Maxims, and about four hundred men of the Cardigan regiment

      From MCCONNELL 154: "Hussars are light cavalry. The Maxim is the Maxim-Vickers, the first truly automatic machine gun, manufactured in the 1880s." The Cardigan regiment is from Cardiganshire: a county in West Wales.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: "The Maxim gun, patented in 1884 by Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, was an early form of machine gun. After some modification it was adopted by the British Army in 1889. In the field, Maxims were usually mounted on wheeled carriages. ... The Cardigan regiment was named for Cardiganshire, a western county of Wales located between Fishguard and Aberystwyth."

    1. infusoria

      From DANAHAY 41: minute organisms, protozoa

    2. secular

      From MCCONNELL 124: ages-long

    3. attenuated

      From DANAHAY 42: thinner; less dense

    4. opposition of 1894

      From MCCONNELL 126: "opposition" means that Mars is at the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun; the nearest Mars gets to Earth. The opposition of 1877 was when Schiaparelli discovered the Mars canali and an American discovered Mars's moons. The opposition of 1894 allowed for further examinations of Mars.

    5. chronometer

      From MCCONNELL 128: a timepiece

    6. French windows

      GANGNES: tall windows that open out as glass double-doors

    7. clinker

      From DANAHAY 48: "ash that has formed a hard crust"

    8. public house

      GANGNES: British "pubs"/bars

    9. potman

      From DANAHAY 49: "a bartender opening the public house (pub) for the day"

    10. taproom

      DANAHAY 49: "the pub room where beer is served 'on tap'"

    11. “touch”

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 202: the game of "tag" in Britain

    12. jobbing gardener

      From DANAHAY 51: "a gardener who does occasional work for different people"

    13. “Extra-terrestrial”

      GANGNES: This term was relatively new when Wells wrote the novel; it first emerged in the mid-nineteenth century and was generally used in scientific journals.

      Source:

    14. gas float

      From MCCONNELL 135: "a hollow tube or ball used to regulate the flow of a liquid or gas"

      From STOVER 69: "a harbor beacon erected on a floating hull containing bottled gas to fuel it"

    15. oxide

      From MCCONNELL 135: "Any chemical compound containing oxygen. The surface of the cylinder has been oxidized in the heat generated by its fall through the atmosphere."

    16. three kingdoms

      GANGNES: You will see below that three different annotated editions of the novel give three different definitions of this reference, and they do not agree as to whether it is Wales or Ireland that is meant to be the "third kingdom."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: England, Ireland, and Scotland

      From STOVER 70: Of Great Britain

      From DANAHAY 52: England, Scotland, and Wales

    17. half-a-dozen flys or more from the Woking station standing in the road by the sand-pits, a basket chaise from Chobham and a rather lordly carriage

      From DANAHAY 52: "Flys" and "basket chaises" are light horse carriages with two wheels pulled by one horse.

    18. furze bushes

      From MCCONNELL 143: "a spiny shrub with yellow flowers, very common throughout England and Europe"

    19. fungoid

      From MCCONNELL 139: fungus-like

    1. La définition de l’innovation selon Everett Rogers est un « processus par lequel une innovation est communiquée, à travers certains canaux, dans la durée, parmi les membres d’un système social ». En matière d’innovation en formation, le caractère innovant ou non d’un processus peut être précisé. La dilution de la technologie dans le fait social écarte la simple liaison entre technologie et innovation. La technologie est tellement présente qu’elle ne saurait être un indicateur suffisant d’innovation.

      Définition circulaire mais liée à une page wikipedia

    1. It is very difficult to make the distinction between a 3PL and a 4PL,” says Rosalyn Wilson, senior business analyst at Delcan Corporation, a supply chain consultancy in Vienna

      Difficulty of 4pl definition 1

    1. extractivewith abstractive summaries, finding that the latter are less proneto semantic distortion.

      There are two general approaches to automatic summarization: extraction and abstraction. Extractive methods work by selecting a subset of existing words, phrases, or sentences in the original text to form the summary. In contrast, abstractive methods build an internal semantic representation and then use natural language generation techniques to create a summary that is closer to what a human might express. Such a summary might include verbal innovations.—Wikipedia

  2. Mar 2019
    1. A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation

      Definition of a greenhouse gas.

    1. defining personalized learning This link is included because there is a degree of research-based sources behind their comments. There is an easy to read graphic that succinctly characterizes personalized learning. It is written for someone who is beginning their understanding of this type of learning and plans to implement it at a future point. rating 3/5

    1. what is the definition of mobile learning This is a brief article that explains mobile learning for a layperson (not an academic). It is described in the context of schooling. It does not necessarily relate to informal learning specifically. The advantages (such as motivation and distance) are discussed, as well as the disadvantages (such as the potential for distraction). It is adequate as a definition. rating 3/5

    1. Digital ridesharing platforms, such as Uber and Lyft, are part of a broader suite of disruptive,matching market innovations that constitute what is sometimes referred to as the “sharing economy”

      clear definition of the sharing economy

    1. “sharing economies” of collaborative consumption(Botsman & Rogers, 2010), where people offer and share underuti-lized resources in creative, new ways.

      Gives a clear definition of what is the sharing economy

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Japanese gardens (日本庭園, nihon teien) are traditional gardens[1] whose designs are accompanied by Japanese aesthetic and philosophical ideas, avoid artificial ornamentation, and highlight the natural landscape.

      Brief definition of a Japanese Garden.

    1. naturallzatlon

      for those who didn't know/forgot "the process by which U.S. citizenship is granted to a foreign citizen or national after he or she fulfills the requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)"

    1. tenements

      "A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort, but particularly a run-down apartment building or slum building" for those who don't know

    1. lurid

      lurid - "very vivid in color, especially so as to create an unpleasantly harsh or unnatural effect" For those of you who didn't know

    1. wigwam

      I don't know what this is so I looked it up "A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a semi-permanent domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes"

  3. Feb 2019
    1. or language, in its full extent, means, any way or method whatsoever, by which all that passes in the mind of one man

      A somewhat indirect construction of human? Language is located in the mind? Therefore, humans have minds that they use for language? Or language that they use for minds?

    2. articulate

      Articulate:

      Definition: (noun) Having or showing the ability to speak fluently and coherently; having joints or jointed segments; (verb) pronounce (something) clearly and distinctly; express (an idea or feeling) fluently and coherently; form a joint.

      Origin: Mid-16th century: from Latin articulatus, past participle of articulare ‘divide into joints, utter distinctly’, from articulus ‘small connecting part.

    3. elocution

      Elocution:

      Definition: The skill of clear and expressive speech, especially of distinct pronunciation and articulation; a particular style of speaking.

      Origin: Late Middle English (denoting oratorical or literary style): from Latin elocutio(n-), from eloqui ‘speak out’ (see eloquence).

    4. only those who are in a state of warfare

      I applaud Sheridan's attempt to enlighten our understanding of language in this way. He paints himself into a corner, but rather than stopping, he just keeps painting.

    5. he same in all nations, and consequently can e

      So while words vary widely and have no direct relation to the ideas they represent, tone is universal. Here we have another claim about the human: it is one who uses tone in a certain way.

    6. ing from what

      This seems like a break from Locke, and possibly even from Hume.

      A hu(man) has things other than ideas running through its mind.

    7. fix, the precise meaning

      In the style of Locke and Plato's Socrates, let us start....with definition!

    1. 1. Explore the current situation. Paint a picture in words by including the “presenting problem,” the impact it is having, the consequences of not solving the problem, and the emotions the problem is creating for those involved.

      This step is somewhat similar to the EEC (Evidence/Example Effect Change/Challenge) model, often used with Feedback?

    1. educational mythology presents an unrealistic picture of theefficacy of schooling.

      (helps me distill the argument in this piece)

    1. Wise men induce this condition in themselves by an act of volition.

      So Vico's definition and practice of rhetoric allows for one's self to be both the agent and subject of eloquence. Interesting.

    2. \·e11.m.\· c·o1111111111i

      Oxford reference: "Not common sense in its ordinary meaning, but in Aristotle (De Anima, II, 1–2) and following him Aquinas and others, a central cognitive function that integrates and monitors the delivery of the other distinct senses, as when a shape is both seen and felt."

      Kant discusses this concept extensively, but his definition is closer to "common sense" than Aristotle's.

    1. And if the same qualities, in a continued composition and in a smaller degree, affect not the organs with a sensible delight or uneasiness, we exclude the person from all pretensions to this delicacy.

      Limitations are being set. If organs cannot be affected or if the affect isn't "sensible", what of the one experiencing it?

    2. explanation ofthe tenns commonly ends the controversy

      Hence why definition is needed to start, not once the argument's already gathered steam (as Locke also points out). While I find merit to this, I dislike agreeing with anything Socratic/Platonic on principle.

    1. Who ever that had a mind to under· stand them mistook the ordinary meaning

      Locke assumes that such a person does not exist, defining human as "one who understands all simple modes/ideas."

    2. before they went any further on in this dispute, they would first examine and estab-lish amongst them, what the word liquor signi-fied.

      Thanks, Socrates (she said sarcastically).

    3. which another has not organs of faculties to attain; as the names of colours to a blind man, or sounds to a deaf man, need not here be mentioned.

      Restrictions on intelligibility and comprehension, which by extension imply a restriction on what's human or universal

    1. epitopes

      An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system

  4. Jan 2019
    1. immanenc

      The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.

    2. This field is notaiming at anything like a consensus about a new ‘humanity’, but it givesus a frame for the actualization of the many missing people, whose‘minor’ or nomadic knowledge is the breeding ground for possiblefutures.

      Again, tagging for definition

    3. o actualize the emergence of amissing people

      tagging for definition

    4. posthumanitie

      commenting just to tag this

    1. caliphate

      A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfa) is a state ruled by an Islamic leader known as a caliph. This is a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and a leader of the entire muslim community.

    1. n short, it may very well be the case that the rhetoricaltriangle is about as useful as a joystick in eXistenZ—in other words, it mayoffer us the sense that we are in control of the game, but we will miss outon all the action as a result

      This is going back to the typical "problem" of not being able to define rhetoric. On one hand, it seems like we have a handle on what rhetoric can be(triangle, joystick), but if we want to stick to that one solid definition, we will miss out on everything else it can be/not be/do/try to do, etc.

    1. Teachingpresence includes three areas: design, facilitation, and directinstruction (Garrison & Akyol)
    2. one of the most influential definitions of sense of communityis the one advanced byMcMillan and Chavis (1986):“a feeling thatmembers matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faiththat members' needs will be meet through their commitment to betogether”(p.9)

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. It is the story that hid my humanity from me

      i.e. one story's version of being human compared to another.Similar to what I was saying in the prior paragraph.

    2. f to do thatis human, if that's what it tak§, tnen I am a human being after all. 'Fully, freely, gladly, for tneficst time.

      This brings us back to the point that the definition of human is similar to the definition of rhetoric. The more you try to define either, the more confusing and exclusionary each can get. Just like rhetoric, there is no one way to define human, but instead you stack all definitions on top of each other, without one superseding the others. The definitions are also situational, like Le Guin being human by this definition, but not by the previous one about killing.

    3. The society, the civilization they were talking about, these theoreti-cians, was evidently theirs; they owned it, they liked it; they were human, fully human, bashing, sticking, thrusting, killing. Wanting to be human too, I sought for evidence that I was; but if that's what it took, to make a weapon and kill with it, then evidently I was either extremely defective as a human being, or not human at all. That's right, they said. What you are is a woman. Possibly not human at all, certainly defective. Now be quiet while we go on telling the Story of the Ascent of Man the Hero

      Le Guin gives a definition of what it means to be human; the idea of theorists that humans must kill. Then, she makes it clear that this isn't the only definition of human, considering she's human and wouldn't/couldn't act in such a way. Then there's this awesome and gross little paragraph about women possibly not being human, but rather, defective and unworthy of having a say. Ouch.

    1. an opening of alterity

      Relates back to my earlier notion of the freedom that comes with not being definitely defined (or boxed in).

    2. when this question is put to us, it's entirely understandable that we mighthesitate. Maybe we aren't quite sure which idiom is offering us the question (isthe question curious or obligatory, dismissive or confused?). Or maybe we justhaven't come up with an answer that is pithy enough yet

      I have been asked by numerous audiences, "what exactly is rhetoric?" They understand the composition part of my studies, but are perplexed by my inability to explain/define the rhetoric portion. The fact that I can't nail down a definition doesn't make me uncomfortable like it does some. Most definitions I end up giving are to wordy for most... so they stop asking.

    3. With noclearly defined content and no rigorous method, rhetoric could very well beanything at all

      Without a limiting definition, rhetoric's reach is practically limitless.

    1. aesthetic that has emerged in response to media convergence—one that places new demands on consumers and depends on the active partici-pation of knowledge communities. Transmedia storytelling is the art of world making.

      Transmedia storytelling

    2. fective economics" encourages companies to transform brands into what one industry insider calls "lovemarks" and to blur the line between entertainment content and brand mes-sages

      Affective economics - branded content/sponsored content

    3. ck Box Fallacy. Sooner or later, the argument goes, all media content is going to flow through a single black box into our living rooms (

      black box fallacy

    4. isa Gitelman, who offers a model of media that works on two levels: on the first, a medium is a technology that enables communication; on the second, a medium is a set of associated "protocols" or social and cultural practices that have

      Media (from Lisa Gitelman):

      1. technology that enables communication
      2. set of associated protocols, or social or cultural practices, that grow up around that technology
    5. onvergence, I mean the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences who will go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they want. Con
    6. nvergence culture, where old and new media collide, where grassroots and corporate media intersect, where the power of the media producer and the power of the media consumer interact in unpredictable ways.
    1. al axio

      Axiom: a statement or proposition which is regarded as being established, accepted, or self-evidently true.

    2. depauperate

      "(of a flora, fauna, or ecosystem) lacking in numbers or variety of species"

    3. phytophagous

      A thesaurus' way to say herbivore, or feeding on plants.

    4. ductionism

      Reductionism: "the practice of analyzing and describing a complex phenomenon in terms of phenomena that are held to represent a simpler or more fundamental level, especially when this is said to provide a sufficient explanation" or rather, many biologists are interested in the big picture rather than smaller details for how ecosystems work.

    1. Literacy is the ability to read, write, speak and listen, and use numeracy and technology

      the definition of literacy.

    1. Apost-structuralistapproach: all these cultures do indeed makesense of the world differently: and it is impossible to say that oneis right and the others are wrong. In a sense, people from differ-ent cultures experience reality differently.

      post-structuralist: people from different cultures make sense of and experience reality differently; no one culture is better than the others.

    2. Astructuralistresponse: all these cultures seem to be makingsense of the world differently; but really, underneath, they havecommon structures. They're not all that different; people acrossthe world are basically the same.

      structuralism: belief that all cultures are built on shared structures; they have the same basic building blocks but use them in different ways.

    3. Arealistresponse: my culture has got it right. It simply describesreality. Other cultures are wrong

      realism: belief that one's own culture is the only correct way of knowing.

    4. A text issomething that we make meaning from
    5. When we perform textual analysis on a text, we make an educatedguess at some of the most likely interpretations that might be madeof that text

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    Annotators

    1. indexing hyp~thesis,~~ news professionals tend to “index” the range of viewpoints according to the range of views expressed in the mainstream government debate
    2. Attributions of responsibility can be categorized into two types: causal and treatment responsibilities

      Causal responsibility: what/who is the source of the problem Treatment responsibility: who has the power or the responsibility to alleviate the problem

    3. rame building captures what roles are played by social and structur- al factors in the media system and by the characteristics of individual journalists in influencing the production and modification of frames
    1. , journalists look for "pegs"-that is, topical events that provide an opportunity for broader, more long-term coverage and commentary

      Pegs: key topical events that journalists use to provide broader coverage and commentary about an ongoing issue. Aka "critical discourse moments" (Chilton, 1987)

    2. While an indi- vidual columnist is not expected to provide more than one package, a range of "liberal" and "conservative" commentators are used to observe this norm

      Balance Norm, a media practice that influences framing

    3. metaphors, catchphrases, visual images, moral appeals, and other symbolic devices that characterize this discourse

      Interpretive packages: the clusters of metaphors, catchphrases, visual images, moral appeals, and other symbolic devices that characterize the discourse around a policy issue, giving meaning to relevant events.

    4. deas and language resonate with larger cultural themes. Resonances increase the appeal of a package; they make it appear natural and familiar.

      Cultural resonances: ideas or language within an interpretive package that resonate with larger cultural themes, increasing the appeal of the package.

    5. . Journalists' working norms and practices add consid- erable value to the process

      Media practices: journalists' working norms and practices that add value to the process of constructing interpretive packages

    6. Media packages.-We suggested earlier that media discourse can be conceived of as a set of interpretive packages that give meaning to an issue. A package has an internal structure. At its core is a central organiz- ing idea, orframe, for making sense of relevant events, suggesting what is at issue

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  5. Dec 2018
    1. ayesian topic mod-els, the most popular such models today are variants of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, Bleiet al., 2003b), which provides a way to automatically discover latent or implicittopicsin otherwiseunstructured collections of text
    2. Recasens et al. (2013) draw a related distinction betweenframing bias, which involves explicitlysubjective words or phrases linked with a particular point of view, andepistemological bias, whichinvolves implicit assumptions and presuppositions in ostensibly neutral writing.)
    3. process by which a political scientist or communications scholar identi es the catalogue of frames ina political discourse about a particular issue (frame discovery)
    1. Political issues can often be complex, contentious, anddifficult to understand. One way of making sense of theseissues, and the different positions that one can take onan issue, is to think about the frames that structure de-bate about the issue. Frames help organize facts and in-formation. They help define what counts as a problem,diagnose the problem’s causes, and suggest remedies forsolving the problem. These ways of thinking have lots ofdifferent parts, including stereotypes, metaphors, images,catchphrases, and other elements.

      Non-academic definition of framing

    1. Social scientists refer to the feeling of imagining oneself to be a lonely minority when in fact there are many people who agree with you, maybe even a majority, as “pluralistic ignorance.”39 Pluralistic ignorance is thinking that one is the only person bored at a class lecture and not knowing that the sentiment is shared, or that dissent and discontent are rare feelings in a country when in fact they are common but remain unspoken.
    2. homophily
    1. ltbach and Knight (2007) def ine globalization as “the economic, political, and societal forces pushing 21st centur y higher education toward greater international Audem_06.indd 9911/22/12 7:17 PM100AUDEMinvolvement” (p. 290).

      Globalization definition

  6. Nov 2018
    1. Ce qui est commun aux formes de documentation est la fixation, dans le sens collecte avec indexation, d'informations et de processus stockés menant à une réalisation reproductible et diffusable.
    1. “tactical freeze,” the inability of these movements to adjust tactics, negotiate demands, and push for tangi-ble policy changes, something that grows out of the leaderless nature of these movements (“horizontalism”) and the way digital technologies strengthen their ability to form without much early planning, dealing with issues only as they come up, and by people who show up (“adhocracy”).