1,127 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2018
    1. ltbach and Knight (2007) def ine globalization as “the economic, political, and societal forces pushing 21st centur y higher education toward greater international Audem_06.indd 9911/22/12 7:17 PM100AUDEMinvolvement” (p. 290).

      Globalization definition

  2. Nov 2018
    1. Ce qui est commun aux formes de documentation est la fixation, dans le sens collecte avec indexation, d'informations et de processus stockés menant à une réalisation reproductible et diffusable.
    1. “tactical freeze,” the inability of these movements to adjust tactics, negotiate demands, and push for tangi-ble policy changes, something that grows out of the leaderless nature of these movements (“horizontalism”) and the way digital technologies strengthen their ability to form without much early planning, dealing with issues only as they come up, and by people who show up (“adhocracy”).
    1. . De ce moment, nous saurions ce qu’est la démocratie, et qu’elle a un sens : le peuple refusant de lâcher le pouvoir.

      Point tournant mettant en évidence la signification de la démocratie du point de vue du leader politique.

    1. The discipline of hospital medicine grew out of the increasing complexity of patients requiring hospital care and the need for dedicated clinicians to oversee their management. The hospitalist model supplanted the traditional method of caring for hospitalized patients, which was often done by clinicians also seeing ambulatory patients or with other clinical obligations that limited their ability to provide the intensity of care often required by these patients. By focusing their practice on this specific group of patients, hospitalists gain specialized knowledge in managing very ill patients and are able to provide high-quality, evidence-based, and efficient patient and family-centered care in hospital settings.
    1. Equally pressing is the question of value, definedas the quality of care divided by its cost.10
    2. As a result, we anticipate the rapid growth of anew breed of physicians we call “hospitalists” — spe-cialists in inpatient medicine — who will be respon-sible for managing the care of hospitalized patientsin the same way that primary care physicians are re-sponsible for managing the care of outpatients.
    1. So many medical publications appear worldwide every day that it is no longer possible for an individual medical professional to keep up with the latest state of knowledge. In order to offer support and to encourage new medical research, EBM provides a toolbox of different methods. These tools can be divided into three categories:The first category includes methods that serve to create reliable new knowledge: Someone who would like to compare the advantages and disadvantages of different drugs, for example, will find suitable types of studies here.The second category involves methods that help to summarize the existing knowledge on a subject: They serve to find and select the previously published studies that are best able to answer a particular question. There are now networks of researchers that specialize in looking for the latest research findings and summarizing them to provide easily accessible information.The third category covers methods for presenting information to medical professionals and laypeople in a way that helps them to find, understand and make use of it.The main aim is always to find out what kind of care is most suitable for a particular patient – and how to incorporate their individual preferences and circumstances into the treatment decision.
    2. This is the purpose of evidence-based medicine (EBM): to provide healthcare professionals, patients and those close to them with up-to-date and scientifically proven information on the various medical options that are available to them. It can help to find out what sorts of advantages or disadvantages a treatment or test has, when people might benefit from it and whether it might also be harmful.EBM uses special methods that it has developed to find the highest quality evidence for the benefits of a specific medical intervention. This evidence can be found in conclusive scientific studies. EBM also plays a part in making sure that the research that is done can help patients to answer the most important questions. This means that studies look into both the benefits of a treatment as well as how it affects quality of life, for example.
    1. Patient- and family-centered care encourages the active collaboration and shared decision-making between patients, families, and providers to design and manage a customized and comprehensive care plan. Most definitions of patient-centered care have several common elements that affect the way health systems and facilities are designed and managed, and the way care is delivered: The health care system’s mission, vision, values, leadership, and quality-improvement drivers are aligned to patient-centered goals. Care is collaborative, coordinated, and accessible. The right care is provided at the right time and the right place. Care focuses on physical comfort as well as emotional well-being. Patient and family preferences, values, cultural traditions, and socioeconomic conditions are respected. Patients and their families are an expected part of the care team and play a role in decisions at the patient and system level. The presence of family members in the care setting is encouraged and facilitated. Information is shared fully and in a timely manner so that patients and their family members can make informed decisions.

      Elements of patient-centered care

    2. In patient-centered care, an individual’s specific health needs and desired health outcomes are the driving force behind all health care decisions and quality measurements. Patients are partners with their health care providers, and providers treat patients not only from a clinical perspective, but also from an emotional, mental, spiritual, social, and financial perspective.

      What is patient-centered care?

  3. Oct 2018
    1. waybill

      Waybill - Document issued by a carrier giving details and instructions relating to the shipment of a consignment of goods.

    2. sandwiches

      Need more information - what was in the sandwiches?

      Origin of word: [https://www.wyzant.com/resources/lessons/english/etymology/words-mod-sandwich]

    3. a fait accompli

      Now some French - meaning 'already been decided or done and cannot be changed'

    4. maneuvers

      Another American spelling of 'manoeuvre'.<br> Okay, okay, now I'm just being pedantic..!

    5. meters

      American spelling of 'metre' e.g. "my gas meter is two metres from my garden wall"

    6. verisimilitude

      verisimilitude - 'the quality of seeming true or of having the appearance of being real'

    1. Retrospective

      looking back on/dealing w/ past situations

    2. aVective

      affective murderer: impulsive, reactive, & emotional

    3. predatory

      predatory murderer: planned, purposeful, & emotionless

    4. frontal hypoperfusion

      decreased blood flow through frontal lobe

    5. prefrontal grey mat-ter volume

      damage to that area can result in pseudopsychopathic personality

    6. EEG

      a test used to find problems related to electrical activity in the brain

    7. executivefunction

      necessary cognitive processes linked to controlling behaviours and achieving goals

    8. focal mediofrontal

      injury specifically in the medial frontal cortex (decision-making)

    9. ventromedial prefrontal injury

      processing of risk and fear

      • damage to this cortex would mean they have less of a grasp on "social risk", thus more likely to do "morally-wrong" actions
    10. orbitofrontal cortex


    11. “Violence” refers to actions that inflict physicalharm in violation of social norms.
    12. aggression as anythreatening or physically assaultive behaviourdirected at persons or the environment
    13. Neuropsychiatry

      difference between neurobiology and neuropsychiatry:

      neurobiology: study of cells in the nervous system, and how the nervous system affects neurological function and behaviour

      neuropsychiatry: medical specialty for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders relating mental disorders to disordered brain function

    1. erroneous

      wrong, incorrect

    2. congruent

      in agreement

    3. Psychological profiling is the investigativetechnique of analyzing crimebehaviors for the identification of probable offender characteristics
    4. empirical research

      research that derives experience from actual experience rather than theories/beliefs

    1. antebellum

      I actually had not heard this word used in a sentence before. If anyone was wondering about the definition - "Occurring or existing before a particular war, especially the American Civil War."

    1. To take an example, moral relativism, according to this approach, is the claim that the truth or justification of beliefs with moral content is relative to specific moral codes. So the sentence “It is wrong to sell people as slaves” is elliptical for “It is wrong to sell people as slaves relative to the moral code of …”. Or alternatively, as Kusch (2010) formulates the idea on behalf of the relativist: “It is wrong-relative-to-the-moral-code-of-…” to sell people as slaves. The resulting sentence(s) turns out to be true, according to the relativist, depending on how we fill in the “…”. So, “It is wrong to sell people as slaves” comes out true relative to the moral code of the United Nations Charter of Human Rights and false relative to the moral code of ancient Greece.

      This is an excellent way of summarizing moral relativism with a great example.

    2. Defenders see it as a harbinger of tolerance and the only ethical and epistemic stance worthy of the open-minded and tolerant. Detractors dismiss it for its alleged incoherence and uncritical intellectual permissiveness.

      The main points for both sides of my paper

    3. Relativism, roughly put, is the view that truth and falsity, right and wrong, standards of reasoning, and procedures of justification are products of differing conventions and frameworks of assessment and that their authority is confined to the context giving rise to them

      Definition, find a twist on this to frame the way I want, at first what seems like a beneficial definition, but one I can reframe and redefine when I need to

  4. Sep 2018
    1. Perpetual progress is a strong statement of the transhumanist commitment to seek “more intelligence, wisdom, and effectiveness, an open-ended lifespan, and the removal of political, cultural, biological, and psychological limits to continuing development. Perpetually overcoming constraints on our progress and possibilities as individuals, as organizations, and as a species. Growing in healthy directions without bound.”

      The author further identify the true meaning of transhumanism as it is now focusing more of a mesh making all humans quite uniform, taking away culture and amplifying the idea of the collective being a single organism. The authors are more so repeating themselves as it is similar to previous points. The repetition may be there to reinforce the claim of the collective being a single organism. It is rather interesting that it diverse from promoting individualism where people gets to have their own culture and political ideologies, the author is effectively saying that humans should not have a mind of their own but interlinked with others to move within a direction with efficiency.

    1. gossamer

      a fine, filmy substance consisting of cobwebs spun by small spiders, seen especially in autumn. • used to refer to something very light, thin, and insubstantial or delicate: in the light from the table lamp, his hair was blond gossamer | [as modifier] : gossamer wings.

      After defining this word, I know how delicate and intricate a spiders web is and how it is essential to a it's survial.

    1. Under Darwin's hypothesis, there is variation among individuals at the start o

      Lamarckism = traits change amongst a population based on current needs--they then get passed down

      Darwinism = variation in traits are present at the beginning--the traits that permit survival are passed down

    2. expounded

      expound - to explain the meaning of something in detail

    3. random genetic drift

      Genetic Drift - a basic mechanism of evolution like natural selection, mutation, and migration

      When allele frequencies of a population change over generations by random chance

  5. Aug 2018
    1. infanticide - the crime of killing a child within a year of birth

      Not so fun fact - Mothers are much more likely to kill their young or other babies than their own than a paternal figure.

    2. Refresher on semiconservative replication

      -genetic replication in which a double-stranded molecule of nucleic acid separates into two single strands each of which serves as a template for the formation of a complementary strand--DNA is reused

    3. Does speciation occur because of divergence?

      Definition of speciation - the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution

      Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent mutations--often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.

      So yes. Speciation can be caused because of divergence.

    4. Adaptation is over generations whereas adjustments/acclimations are over one's lifetime.

    5. coral atolls - ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon

    6. propinquity- the state of being close to something

    7. Ontogeny - origination and development of an organism

    8. All of these questions have ultimate answers.

      Senesce - deteriorate with age

  6. Jun 2018
    1. The 80/20 Principle asserts that a minority of causes, inputs or effort usually lead to a majority of the results, outputs or rewards. Taken literally, this means that, for example, 80 per cent of what you achieve in your job comes from 20 per cent of the time spent. Thus for all practical purposes, four-fifths of the effort—a dominant part of it—is largely irrelevant. This is contrary to what people normally expect.
    1. Epistemic democratic theories refer to the capacity of the populace, either through deliberation or aggregation of knowledge, to track the truth and relies on mechanisms to synthesize and apply collective intelligence.
    2. Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
    1. Contrary to the definition we’ve chosen, the term poset frequently is used to meanpartiallyordered set, rather than preordered set. In category theory terminology, therequirement thatxyimpliesxyis known asskeletality. We thus call partiallyordered setsskeletal posets
  7. May 2018
    1. career is a noun describing a post-rationalised sequence of roles consisting of activities, events, and responsibilities that you negotiated according to a set of principles and practices that led you to your current position. In the context of your motoring, career is a verb entailing a barely controlled swerving from side to side, only maintaining a loose sense of intended direction. Imagine the straight, maybe upwardly angling line represented by the former. Imagine the undulating, perhaps violently, perhaps gently, oscillating line represented by the latter.
    1. According to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (n.d.), OER are "teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others" (para. 2). OER can be texts (including open textbooks), videos, assessments, lecture notes, slides, or other learning materials.
    1. minimum wagesfixed by the government exercising the minimum wage fixationpowers given to it by the Minimum wages Act, 1948. Once such a wage is fixed for a given employments the employers are boundunder law to pay such a wage.

      Explaining the concept of minimum wages and what it means

    1. chaise

      "A light open carriage for one or two persons, often having a top or calash; those with four wheels resembling the phaeton, those with two the curricle; also loosely used for pleasure carts and light carriages generally."(OED).

    2. tête-à-tête

      "A private conversation or interview between two people." (OED).

    1. whist

      "A game of cards played (ordinarily) by four persons, of whom each two sitting opposite each other are partners, with a pack of 52 cards, which are dealt face downwards to the players in rotation, so that each has a hand of 13 cards" (OED).

    2. connexions

      This word originated in the 17th Century, stemming from the original English verb “connex." It was replaced by our modern spelling of the verb form, “connect,” between the years 1725 and 1750. (OED).

    3. shillings

      "A former English money of account... of the value of 12d. or 1/ 20 of a pound sterling. No longer in official use after the introduction of decimal coinage in 1971, but still occasionally used to denote five new pence" (OED).

    4. accomplished

      "Of a person: highly trained, educated, or skilled; possessing many accomplishments" (OED).

    5. park

      “A large enclosed area of land or woodland maintained for the decoration of a castle or country house, or for pleasure or recreation, etc." (OED).

    6. lottery tickets

      "a numbered ticket bought in order to participate in a lottery," (OED). Resembling the modern version, "lottery tickets" is a game of chance. It is detailed in full by Edmond Hoyle in his guide, Hoyle's Games: Containing Laws & Directions for Playing the Various Games Now Prevalent : with Many Improvements and Additions.

  8. Apr 2018
    1. mend pens

      During and before the time Pride and Prejudice takes place, the quill feather pen was very popular. Mending a pen is to turn a plain feather into a quill pen.

      (Jane Austen: Celebrating Bath's Most Famous Resident).

    2. pianoforte

      "A formal term for a piano" (OED). Though, it is smaller than a grand piano. (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

    1. gaiety

      “The quality or condition of being gay; cheerfulness, mirth” (OED).

    2. undutiful

      “Lacking in the observance of duty” (OED).

    3. vestibule

      "In modern usage: A chamber or hall immediately between the entrance-door and the interior of a building or house (usually one of some size), to which it gives admittance; an ante-chamber, entrance-hall, or lobby” (OED).

    4. freedom

      “The overstepping of due or customary bounds in speech or behaviour; undue familiarity; an instance of this, a liberty” (OED).

    5. insist

      “To continue steadfastly or persist in a course of action, to follow steadfastly in (on) a person’s steps, etc; to continue with urgency; to preserve. Arch" (OED).

    6. desirable

      “Worthy to be desired; to be wished for. In early use often standing for the qualities which a thing is to be desired: Pleasant, delectable, choice, excellent, goodly” (OED).

    7. bright eyes

      "Alert and lively" (Oxford English Living Dictionaries).

    8. se’nnight

      "A period of seven (days and) nights; a week" (OED).

    9. laity

      "The body of the people not in orders as opposed to the clergy; laymen collectively” (OED).

    10. shoe-roses

      A ‘shoe-rose’ is a piece of shoelace or ribbon tied in a rosette pattern, and worn on one's shoe-front (Pemberly).

    11. amiable appearance

      The action or state of appearing or seeming to be (to eyes or mind) (OED).

    12. per force

      In weakened use: by constraint of circumstances; of necessity, inevitably, unavoidably; as a matter of course (OED).

    13. engaged

      To bind or secure by a pledge (OED).

  9. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. hack chaise.”

      According to the Oxford English Dictionary, “hack” means “a horse used for hire” (OED), and “chaise” means “a light open carriage for one or two persons” (OED), so Mrs. Long arrived in a hired carriage.

    2. chuse

      An old spelling of "choose"; To take by preference out of all that are available; to select; to take as that which one prefers, or in accordance with one's free will and preference (OED).

    3. “To-morrow fortnight.”

      Fortnight: A period of fourteen nights; two weeks (OED). Therefore, "To-morrow fortnight" would be two weeks from tomorrow.

    1. indifferent

      "In poor health, ailing, poorly"(OED).

    2. condescension

      "Voluntary abnegation for the nonce of the privileges of a superior; affability to one's inferiors, with courteous disregard of difference of rank or position; condescendingness"(OED).

    3. vouchsafed

      "To confer or bestow (some thing, favour, or benefit) on a person"(OED).

    4. “Yes, vanity is a weakness indeed. But pride — where there is a real superiority of mind, pride will be always under good regulation.”

      Darcy is splitting hairs. Most definitions of vanity and pride are nearly identical to each other: Vanity:"The quality of being personally vain; high opinion of oneself; self-conceit and desire for admiration." (OED) Pride: "A high, esp. an excessively high, opinion of one's own worth or importance which gives rise to a feeling or attitude of superiority over others; inordinate self-esteem.(OED) Only one definition of pride supports Darcy's interpretation: "A consciousness of what befits, is due to, or is worthy of oneself or one's position; self-respect; self-esteem, esp. of a legitimate or healthy kind or degree."(OED)

    5. vices

      Vice: a. Depravity or corruption of morals; evil, immoral, or wicked habits or conduct; indulgence in degrading pleasures or practices. (OED)

    6. follies

      Folly: The quality or state of being foolish or deficient in understanding; want of good sense, weakness or derangement of mind; also, unwise conduct. †to do folly: to act foolishly. (fond, etc.) to a folly, to an absurd degree. (OED)

    1. die-ins

      def: a demonstration in which a group of people lie down as if dead

    1. The other problem is conflating data release with “data publishing,” which has become popular terminology.

      They are not the same thing.

    1. Common Data Elements (CDEs) are standardized terms for the collection and exchange of data. CDEs are metadata; they describe the type of data being collected, not the data itself. A basic example of metadata is the question presented on a form, "Patient Name," whereas an example of data would be "Jane Smith."

      Definition of CDE.

  10. Mar 2018
    1. how people decide to allocate their scarce resources (e.g., time, money, attention, energy), how people interact to satisfy their needs, and how an economy works as a whole

      The 10 principles of economic can be summarized into 3 groups

      • how people decide
      • how people interact
      • how the whole economy works
    1. First Nations

      First Nations refers to the indigenous peoples of Canada south of the Arctic Circle. See here for a brief history of First Nations people.

      There is a First Nations Educational & Cultural Center at IUB for Native American activities, outreach, and research.

    1. No street vendor shall be evicted or, as the case may be, relocated till the surveyspecified under sub-section (1) has been completed and the certificate of vending is issuedto all street vendors.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7 as "The police department has issued a circular - no street vendor can be evicted or relocated until the BBMP conducts a survey of all the street vendors and issues ID cards. Any move to evict is against the new law"

      Also as

      Used in the booklet on Pg 19 as: " The BBMP too cannot evict street vendors. The law is clear that BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all street vendors, and then issue ID Cards. Till then, no one can be evicted ir relocated. The BBMP has also issued a note about this. While clearing footpaths, the BBMP cannot violate the Street Vendors Act. Any move to evict is thus against the law!"

    2. Each Town Vending Committee shall consist of

      Used in the booklet on Pg15 as: "To conduct the survey, BBMP will create a town vending committee, with at least 40% members as street vendors, and rest from the Municipality, police, NGOs, RWAS wtc. Therefore according to the law atleast 40% members should be street vendors"

    3. This Act may be called the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulationof Street Vending) Act, 2014.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7, Pg 10, Pg 12 as " In 2014, the government of India passed a law saying street vending is a lawful activity. No one can stop you from vending" -- This is the main point reiterated through out the booklet in different ways

    4. “street vendor”

      Definition of Street Vendors - Characters and stories in the graphic booklet conceptualized from this

    1. CLAVIER is more difficult to define than the acronym may appear, as I recall Simon and I discussed the choice of letters as I traveled back from a trip to London for a UCML meeting

      CLAVIER Difficulty to define.

    1. grotesques

      a very ugly or comically distorted figure, creature, or image.

    2. beset

      (of a problem or difficulty) trouble or threaten persistently.

    3. ludicrous

      so foolish, unreasonable, or out of place as to be amusing; ridiculous.

    4. Andersonville prison

      Located in Georgia and is a Confederate prisoner-of-war prison

  11. Feb 2018
    1. La ontología política es una forma de contar relatos de manera diferente, de tal forma que, tal vez, puedan abrirse espacios para la realización de las múltiples ontologías que componen el pluriverso.
    2. En todas estas experiencias la ‘comunidad’ es entendida en términos profundamente históricos, abiertos y no esencialistas. En todo caso, hay un énfasis en la creación de nuevos espacios para lo comunal. De ello se desprende que la realización de lo comunal es, siempre, un proceso histórico abierto. En el lenguaje de Maturana y Varela las comunidades, como sistemas sociales, son entidades autopoiéticas de tercer orden definidas por un sistema particular de relaciones entre los componentes que, a través de su dinámica recursiva, crean el sistema que es la comunidad. Esta ‘clausura operacional’ (a menudo codificada por los lugareños en términos de ‘la defensa de nuestra cultura’) se mantiene a lo largo de la relación de la comunidad con su entorno (el contexto sociopolítico y ecológico, en términos generales). En esta forma de relacionamiento siempre en marcha (acoplamiento estructural), las comunidades pueden sufrir cambios estructurales de distintos tipos (e.g., mediante la adopción de las TIC); sin embargo, el sistema básico de relaciones tiene que ser mantenido por la comunidad para preservar su autopoiesis, es decir, su capacidad de autocreación. La autonomía es el nombre dado a este proceso
    3. Me parece útil pensar en la ‘organización’ en este contexto como un sistema de relaciones entre los componentes (e.g., biofísicos, celulares, bioquímicos, nerviosos, etcétera, sólo para pensar en términos biológicos) cuya interacción continua produce la unidad en cuestión.

    4. Su acercamiento a lo vivo es completo, desde el nivel celular a la evolución y la sociedad. Es un intento por explicar la vida ‘desde adentro’ (es decir, en su autonomía), sin depender, principalmente, de conceptos generados por el observador sobre lo que la vida es o hace, ya sea en términos de ‘funciones’ (como las funciones realizadas por una célula o un órgano), inputs o outputs, o la relación del organismo con su entorno. Su teoría se aparta de estos enfoques biológicos bien conocidos y trata de explicar los sistemas vivos como unidades auto-producidas y auto-contenidas cuya única referencia es a sí mismas. El enfoque se deriva de la idea de que la cognición es una operación fundamental de todos los seres vivos y de que no tiene que ver con las representaciones del mundo sino con la acción efectiva de un ser vivo en los ámbitos en los que existe (su entorno). A partir de aquí se deduce que el carácter esencial de lo vivo es tener una organización autónoma que permita esa efectividad operativa, para la que acuñaron el término autopoiesis: “nuestra propuesta es que los seres vivos se caracterizan porque, literalmente, están continuamente auto-produciéndose. Indicamos este proceso cuando llamamos organización autopoiética a la organización que los define”
    5. Varela dio una definición minimalista del concepto que podemos usar como una bisagra hacia una conceptualización más amplia: «de hecho, la clave para la autonomía es que un sistema vivo encuentre su camino hacia el momento siguiente actuando adecuadamente a partir de sus propios recursos» (Varela 1999: 11). Lo mismo ocurre con los mundos y las comunidades, aun, o quizás especialmente, bajo condiciones de ocupación ontológica.
  12. Jan 2018
    1. el término ‘desarrollo sostenible’ se definió por primera vez como “el desarrollo que satisface las necesidades del presente sin comprometer la capacidad de las generaciones futuras para satisfacer sus propias necesidades” (World Commission 1987: 8), los críticos han señalado el hecho

      de que esa definición es contradictoria porque los intereses del desarrollo y las necesidades de la naturaleza no se pueden armonizar bajo los modelos económicos convencionales

    1. elucidate

      elucidate= make something clear

    2. epiphenomenalism

      The position that experiences do not play any causal role, they are the "hum of the machine" (e.g., combustion drives a car engine, and combustion makes noise, but the noise is totally irrelevant to the working of the engine).

    3. This is an ignoratio elenc

      The logical fallacy of making a point that, while perhaps true or a valid argument, is irrelevant to the issue at hand.

    4. secondary qualities

      A secondary quality is one that depends upon the observer (color is the paradigmatic example).

    5. y a contingent

      Definition: contingent = not necessary.

    6. Such sensations would be "nomological danglers," to use Feigl's expressio

      "Nomological" means relating to natural laws, so to say that sensations would be nomological danglers is to say that they would not fall under any natural laws.

    7. Mainly because of Occam's razor

      Occam's Razor: one should prefer the simplest explanation of the phenomena.

    1. the CCC’s internal communicative figuration not only enables the Club to execute direct digital action in the form of hacking, but also allows the hacker organization to communicate with a diversity of relevant actors (including the larger public) in coherent ways. In the case of the CCC, the relations between hacking and the communicative figuration within the Club are best understood as interlocking arrangements (Kubitschko 2015). These, as will be argued below, have wider consequences for the Chaos Computer Club’s standing as a political actor

      Desde HackBo hemos tenido dificultad para emitir una voz coherente, lo cual tiene que ver con la falta de estructuras jerárquicas y voceros. Yo mismo afirmé que las personas no hablamos por HackBo, sino desde HackBo, para indicar que la pertenencia a un lugar no quiere indicar su vocería. A pesar de compartir ciertas apuestas políticas referidas a la desintermediación, la apuesta por los bienes comunes y su instauración en lo estatal, particularmente desde las infraestructuras, dicha mirada no ha configurado un discurso político unificadado a nivel local, y tampoco acciones a nivel internacional. El carácter personal de las formas de vincularse a lo hacker en el hackerspace, no constituye una forma de militancia.

    1. They are motivated by wishful thinking. This error leads the individual to stop gathering information when the evidence gathered so far confirms the views (prejudices) one would like to be true.

      Good explanation

  13. Dec 2017
    1. Humanphysiologyis the scientific study of the chemistryand physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which they work together to support the functions of life. Muchof the study of physiology centers on the body’s tendency toward homeostasis.

      In other words, whereas anatomy involves the study of the parts (structures) of the human body, physiology is the study of how those parts work.

      Here's a video that introduces anatomy and physiology - video

    1. en together, recent theoriza-tion and research highlights the ever more substantial role hackers play for contemporary social and political arrangements. overall, it can be said that recent investigations of hacker cultures bring forward a multi-layered and revealing characterization of hackers by looking closely at who they are, what they do and why they do it, instead of preserving ste-reotypes or proclaiming generalizations. It is this latter conceptual posi-tioning of hackers, hacking and hacktivism that this research is drawing on and aims to expand by adapting a figurational approach
    2. . Tim Jordan (2013) characterizes hacktivism as an explicitly political form of computing. Leah Lievrouw (2011) pictures hacking as ‘alternative computing’ to describe a range of activities that focus on constructive political, social and cultural purposes
    1. How does an insubstantial word like “apple” lead you to think of a real thing—an object of a certain size that is red, round, sweet, and has a shiny, thin-peeled skin? How could a plain acoustic sound produce such complex states of mind, involving all those qualities of color, substance, taste, and shape? Presumably, each different quality involves a different agency. But then—in view of all we’ve said about why different agents can’t communicate—how could such varying recipients all “understand” the selfsame messages? Do language-agents have unusual abilities to communicate with different kinds of agencies?

      What article doesn't bring up is the context of the environment that the person grew up in. If we were to describe the word apple to someone who has never seen or tasted it, they would not be able to visualize what it is with just the word. The mind would try to relate it to an object that you have already experience to fill in what an "apple" may be.

  14. Nov 2017
    1. Accordingly, the correct instrumental definition of technology still does not show us technology’s essence.

      Technology's essence is more than the ability of humans to control it, as thought with most previous technologies. While establishing definitions in the introduction, Heidegger finds it important to establish a distinction between what was instrumental to technology in the past and what we will find technology can become without definitions that limit technology to something outside of the basic, instrumental necessities.

    1. Atanyrate,thisbringsustothesecondgroupwementionedearlier:hacktivists.Thetermisnotanelegantone,andithashadalimitedtraction,probablyforthatreason.Butitintroducesavitaldistinctionintermsofunderstandingtheeffectsofwhathackersdoinorbysayingsomethingandthusdoingsomethingwithcode.JordanandTaylorcapturedthisvitaldifferencebydesignatinghacktivistsasrebelswithacauseandyetposingthisstatementwithaquestionmarktoindicatethattheeffectsarenotstraightforwardtointerpret.

      For example, they admit that although hacktivism arises from hackers, it is difficult to draw the line between the two: ‘[B]ecause hacktivism uses computer techniques borrowed from the pre-existing hacker community, it is difficult to identify definitively where hacking ends and hacktivism begins.’[55] They understand hacktivism as ‘the emergence of popular political action, of the selfactivity of groups of people, in cyberspace. It is a combination of grassroots political protest with computer hacking. Jordan and Taylor also provide a historical overview of dissent and civil disobedience as repertoires of politics, which we would call ‘acts of digital citizens’. They discuss how, for example, electronic civil disobedience by Zapatistas, the Mexican dissident group, changed the terms of policies by engaging incipient Internet technologies in the 1990s to argue that Zapatismo—the convention combined of grassroots and electronic activism—was in many ways the birthplace of hacktivism as a disruptive convention. [...] At this point in time it is difficult to know how much of a disturbance these acts of electronic civil disobedience specifically make. What we do know is that neoliberal power is extremely concerned by these acts.’

      En el caso de La Gobernatón, lo que hicimos fue auditar los términos de la contratación pública usando técnicas de verificación de integridad de software, basadas en firmas de integridad criptográfica (una combinación alfanúmérica única asociada a un archivo, que se modifica bastante, si el archivo cambia en lo más mínimo, por ejemplo, agregando un espacio). Fue el hecho de aunar técnicas computacionales clásicas, como seas las que activaron la idea de la Gobernatón y luego del Data Week. Esto ocurrió localmente, al margen de las prácticas anteriores y paralelas que hacían los zapatistas, o los peiordistas de datos. Era una idea cuyo tiempo había llegado y se empezaba a originar e distintos lugares, con las variaciones propias de cada contexto).

    2. Whataretheeffectsofdigitalactsofhacking?Whatconventionsdotheseactsbreak?Whatconventionsdotheseactsresignify?Theyareasbroadastherearetypesofhackers

      [...] We want to consider these combined and diffuse effects of acts of hacking in terms of actions against closings such as filtering, tracking, and normalizing. These actions that feed the imaginary force of acts of hacking perhaps explain the joy of the deep hack mode that Coleman documents. Yet a generalized conclusion cannot be reached since hackers can create dangerous effects that also participate in closings of the Internet.

      Valdría la pena mantener la definición de Hacker como diversa y abierta, (Coleman), pero también como cotidiana (Schrock), pero con algún acto distintivo que la haga valiosa (no todo es "hackear"). La ruptura y resignificación de la convención a través de la técnica sería el acto determinante de Hackear. Dicho entrenamiento en la técnica ocurre de manera cotidiana, apreciando y apropiando otras técnicas (licenciamiento, programación, instalación de software, trabajo con arduino, activismo político, etc). Es la diversidad de dicha técnica y la posibilidad de romper o rehacer la condición la que le da el caracter diverso al acto del hacking a la vez que lo mantiene abierto y sin embargo no lo hace corresponder a cualquier cosa.

    3. Levydrewamorenuancedandpanoramicviewofhackersyetstillpracticallyreproducedtheclandestineimage.Critiquingthisimage,TimJordanandPaulTaylorarguethatvariousclassesofhackersemergedovertimeandneedtobedistinguished.

      Coleman (Coding Freedom) dice lo mismo.

      [...] By the 1990s, hackers were already functioning in at least four ways: original hackers (dissident and libertarian), microserfs (subservient and submissive), a growing group of open-source software developers (critical and resilient), and politically motivated hacktivists (political and subversive).[44] These two last groups—open-source developers and hacktivists—constitute the most significant groups for understanding the emergence of citizen subjects in cyberspace.

    4. whatdifferentiateshackersfromprogrammersisthatinorbysayingsomethingthroughcode,hackerschallenge,ifnotsubvert,conventionsinwhichtheyfindthemselves.Hackersarethosewhoseactssubvertconventionsgoverningthemselvesanddigitalcitizens.Colemanrecognizesthat‘manyhackersarecitizensofliberaldemocracies,andhavedrawnonthetypesofaccessibleliberaltropes—notablyfreespeech—asameanstoconceptualizetheirtechnicalpracticeandsecurenovelpoliticalclaims.’ButgiventheextensityoftheInternet,whilethisstatementmayhavebeentrueinthepast,itwouldbehardtosubstantiatetodaythathackersareonlycitizensofliberaldemocracies,meaningtheyarelegalholdersofcitizenshipstatusinliberaldemocraticstates.
    5. Colemanarguesthatbymostlycircumventingcopyrightlawswiththeircommitmenttothefreecirculationofintellectualproperty,hackerscontradicttheexistingliberalconceptionofintellectualpropertyastherighttoexcludeandcontrol.Yetbyadvancingvaluesofcivillibertiesandpromotingindividualautonomyand,aboveall,acommitmenttofreespeech,hackersarethemostardentpromotersofliberalvalues.Thus,forColeman,hackersoccupybothacentralandmarginal—wemightsayaparadoxical—placewithintheliberaltradition.

      [...] Coleman says that hackers ‘tend to value a set of liberal principles: freedom, privacy, and access.’ It is difficult for us to see freedom, privacy, and access as either values or principles, though they express certain values. From our point of view, things such as freedom, privacy, and access are rights, and, like all rights, they are born of social and political struggles, and these struggles both predate and are wider than what liberalism implies. Thus, we wonder whether it is possible to understand hacking cultures in ethical and aesthetic terms without also considering their broader politics. The joy (deep hack mode) that hackers experience in creating a collaborative culture by sharing their skills and talents is wonderful, but understanding the ways in which this joy can be assimilated into obedient, submissive, or subversive ways of being hackers requires a broader perspective.

    6. Forus,probablythemostpertinentdistinctionisbetweenprogrammersandhackers.Inorbysayingsomethingincodeperformsbothillocutionaryandperlocutionaryacts.

      The difference between programmers and hackers is, however, the effects of their acts, which have dramatically changed over time. Programmers are those— either employed by software companies or working independently—who make a living by writing code, which includes anything between snippets (short code) and apps. Hackers may also program code in this fashion, but the culture that gives them the name emanates from a distinct set of ethical and aesthetic values that combine to create a different kind of politics than programming does. This difference is hard to express, but it is also the difference that is of interest to us. It is hard to express perhaps because so much has been said and written about hackers—mostly negative. As a consequence, a unified, typically clandestine, selfish, young, male, and outlaw image has become dominant, which more recent studies have shown is grotesquely simplified. We want to argue that hackers are those whose acts break conventions of programming.

  15. Oct 2017
    1. definition of field: The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementa- tion, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of set- tings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Professionals in the field of instructional design and technology often use systematic instruc- tional design procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals. More- over, in recent years, they have paid increasing atten- tion to non-instructional solutions to some performance problems. Research and theory related to each of the aforementioned areas is also an important part of the field. (Reiser, in p

      Definition of instructional design by Reiser

  16. Sep 2017
    1. Thefieldbeginswithcitizenshipdefinedasrights,obligations,andbelongingtothenation-state.Threerights(civil,political,andsocial)andthreeobligations(conscription,taxation,andfranchise)governrelationshipsbetweencitizensandstates.Civilrightsincludetherighttofreespeech,toconscience,andtodignity;politicalrightsincludevotingandstandingforoffice;andsocialrightsincludeunemploymentinsurance,universalhealthcare,

      and welfare.



    1. I retain hacker because hackers pace members draw upon hacker culture, broadly considered, even though the sites that identify as HMSs vary widely.

      Estos términos son auto-denotativos. Es una manera en que los miembros de la comunidad se refieren a sí mismos.

    2. Hacker and maker spaces arise from grassroots networks through a shared interest in maintaining a semi-permanent space for solo and collaborative work. They generally employ democratic and meritocratic conventions rather than ''top-down" organizational practices. These conventions evolve over time as they are reflexively modified by members through communication (McPhee & Zaug, 2009) and practices (Cox, 2005; Wenger, 1998) in and around physical space. This loose organizational structure and plurality of participant identities results in a tremendous variety of spaces that are best thought of as having a family resemblance (Wittgenstein, 1953) of organizational conventions and shared histories rather than consistency in interests or ideology. Some are firmly entrenched in information security (infosec) while others maintain a focus on artistic endeavors involving welding and woodwork. Several have arisen with an overtly feminist orientation and push back against the often male-dominant nature of these spaces.
    3. Hacker and maker spaces (HMSs) are open-access workshops devoted to creative and technical work. Their growing numbers (over 500 worldwide) make them a significant grassroots movement supporting informal learning. Scholars have found pedagogical benefits of tinkering and hacking, but the cultural contexts from which these practices arise remain under-studied.

      Nótese que también se habla de espacios creativos y no sólo técnicos.

    1. Initially at least, civic hackathons were initially positioned as a form of public outreach for civic hackers, a loose-knit community interested in applying technology for social good. James Crabtree (2007) defined “civic hacking” as “the development of applications to allow mutual aid among citizens rather than through the state.” In particular, he suggested an extra-institutional definition, thatcivic hacking filled in where e-democracy had failed. The meaning of “civic” at this stage leaned towards a libertarian perspective, which remains a persistent critique of hacking among critical studies scholars (Golumbia, 2013).
    1. They tried to preserve some of their world within the interstices left by conquerors. Direct confrontation was seldom successful, but infiltra-tion could be practiced in everyday life, in many aspects of cultural production. Power was always at stake.The baroque practice originated in Europe, where it was encouraged by Rome within a Counter-Reform strategy in which movement, dance, and popular art were used to counteract protestant rigor. In the Americas, the baroque took on a new life as it infil-trated spaces intentionally left vacant by the Iberian conquerors (Zamora and Kaup, 2010) and created an opportunity for the oppressed to state their presence, insert their messages, and suggest their views of the universe.



    1. .Theopendatadefinitionthatemergedfocusedoneightqualitiesofdata:completeness,pri-macy,timeliness,easeofphysicalandelectronicaccess,machinereadability,non-discrimination,useofcommonlyownedstandards,licensing,permanence,andusagecosts.
    1. The open data definition drafted at Sebastopol describes data’s completeness, primacy, timeliness, ease of physical and electronic access, machine readability, non-discrimination, use of commonly owned standards, licensing, permanence, and usage costs. This description made it clear what the proper-ties of data were, even as outcomes, fitting with an open-source model, were more

      [...] ambitious

    2. In 1902’s What is Publicity? political professor Henry Adams described publicity as “an essential agency for the control of trusts” (p. 895).
    3. Civic hacking can broadly be described as a form of alternative/activist media that “employ or modify the communication artifacts, practices, and social arrangements of new information and communication technologies to challenge or alter dominant, expected, or accepted ways of doing society, culture, and politics” (Lievrouw, 2011: 19). Ample research has considered how changes in technology and access have created “an environment for politics that is increasingly information-rich and communication-inten-sive” (Bimber, 2001). Earl and Kimport (2011) argue that such digital activism draws attention to modes of protest—“digital repertoires of contention” (p. 180)—more than formalized political movements

      La idea de tener "repertorios de contención" es similar a la de exaptación en el diseño.

    4. Other definitions capture broader notions of civil society. A 2010 study backed by the Open Society Foundation described civic hackers as “deploying information technology tools to enrich civic life, or to solve particular problems of a civic nature, such as democratic engagement” (Hogge, 2010: 10).
  17. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. anthology

      The definition of "anthology" is "a collection of selected literary pieces or passages or works of art or music". Interestingly enough however, the Ancient Greek words of this word are "ἄνθος" (anthos), which means "flower", and "λέγειν" (legein), which means "to pick" or "to say". This formed the word "ἀνθολογία" (anthologia), which initially meant "the gathering of flowers". It eventually evolved in Greek to also mean its current definition because of Meléagros of Gadara comparing anthologized poets to flowers in one of the first anthologies ever, "The Garland". This is why the New Latin meaning of the word became "a collection of epigrams" and got was adopted by romance languages.

      Sources: https://el.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B8%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%BF%CE%B3%CE%AF%CE%B1 , http://perseus.uchicago.edu/perseus-cgi/morph.pl?id=905329&prev=true&lang=greek , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthology , https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anthology , my knowledge of Ancient and Modern Greek.

  18. Aug 2017
    1. We propose that, in order to be cited as a data author, a person must have made substantial contributions to the original acquisition, quality control, and curation of the data, be accountable for all aspects of the accuracy and integrity of the data provided, and ensure that the available data set follows FAIR Guiding Principles, which instruct that the data and metadata meet criteria of findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability

      Definition of what constitutes authorship; does not preclude other forms of contributions

    2. data author

      I disagreed with this before I attended the workshop that discussed this proposal, but have now come to support it. It broadens out the concept of authorship to these other types of digital works.

    1. These receptors are known as cannabinoid receptors (CBs), and along with their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids (ECs), and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, constitute the endocannabinoid system [6, 7].

      Definition of endocannabinoids

  19. Jul 2017
    1. Machine readable is not synonymous with digitally accessible. A digitally accessible document may be online, making it easier for humans to access via computers, but its content is much harder to extract, transform and process via computer programming logic if it is not in machine-readable format.

      Good distinction to make

    1. egalitarianism

      Definition of egalitarianism

      1: a belief in human equality especially with respect to social, political, and economic affairs

      2: a social philosophy advocating the removal of inequalities among people


    1. We propose, therefore, to combine three elements—data transformed into RDF, which is described by Triple Descriptors, and served via TPF-compliant URLs. We call this combination of technologies a ”FAIR Projector”.
    1. Utilitarianism as a philosophical system states that the most moral action is the one that maximizes utility
    2. Meritocracy is the idea that individuals can and should be measured on the basis of their intellectual contributions, divorced from identity, social status, gender, race, religion, or other distinguishing characteristics.
  20. May 2017
    1. house was handsome and handsomely fitted up

      This saying refers to a home in the eighteenth or nineteenth century that had elegant furniture throughout the home; and elegant dishes and dinnerware. The servants lived in brand new liveries. (janeaustens world)

    2. elucidation

      "Throwing light upon, making plain or intelligible" (OED).

    3. Pall Mall

      "The name of a street in central London (running between St James's Street and Haymarket) which developed from an alley [in the 17th century] in which the game of pall-mall was played"(OED). The game: players attempt to get wooden ball with a mallet down the alley and through a raised iron ring in as few strokes possible. Smith’s New Map of London, 1809, showing the Palace between the Mall and Pall Mall

  21. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. sanguine

      "Hopeful or confident with reference to some particular issue" (OED).

    2. disapprobation

      "The action or fact of disapproving; the feeling or utterance of moral condemnation; disapproval" (OED).

    3. indecorous

      "Unbecoming, inappropriate" (OED).

    1. ext, story, and fabula, eac

      Looked it up--we've got this as an ebook in the library. Text is the literal text of the book, and different variations have different texts, but the same story. The fabula is the "world" the story takes place in--so if there's a revelation in flashback, the fabula is how the story holds together that that flashback information was always in the story world, even when the reader didn't know what was up.

  22. Apr 2017
    1. ontological

      Def. adj. 1) relating to the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.

      2) showing the relations between the concepts and categories in a subject area or domain.