835 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2013
    1. that oratory is the art of speaking well, since when the best definition is found, he who seeks for another must seek for a worse
    2. With this character of it, the definition that oratory is the science of speaking well agrees excellently, for it embraces all the virtues of oratory at once and includes also the character of the true orator, as he cannot speak well unless he be a good man

      He seems hesitant to commit to one definition

    3. The most common definition therefore is that oratory is the power of persuading. What I call a power, some call a faculty and others a talent, but that this discrepancy may be attended with no ambiguity, I mean by "power" δύναμις (dynamis). 4. This opinion had its origin from Isocrates, if the treatise on the art which is in circulation under his name is really his. That rhetorician, though he had none of the feelings of those who defame the business of the orator, gives too rash a definition of the art when he says, "That rhetoric is the "worker of persuasion," πειθοῦς δημιουργός (peithous dēmiourgos), for I shall not allow myself to use the peculiar term that Ennius applies to Marcus Cethegus, suadae medulla, "marrow of persuasion." 5. In Plato too, Gorgias, in the dialogue inscribed with his name, says almost the same thing, but Plato wishes it to be received as the opinion of Gorgias, not as his own. Cicero, in several passages of his writings, has said that the duty of an orator is to speak in a way adapted to persuade. 6. In his books on rhetoric also, but with which, doubtless, he was not satisfied, he makes the end of eloquence to be persuasion.

      History of term and other defintions

    1. or oratoria will be taken in the same sense as elocutoria, oratrix as elocutrix, but the word rhētorikē, of which we are speaking, is the same sort of word as eloquentia, and it is doubtless used in two senses by the Greeks. 3. In one acceptation, it is an adjective, ars rhetorica, as navis piratica: in the other a substantive, like philosophia or amicitia.

      Key concept--the words are not as interchangeable as I thought

    1. We must not, therefore, start from any and every accepted opinion, but only from those we have defined -- those accepted by our judges or by those whose authority they recognize

      "Truth" as defined by social opinion.

    1. (b) they invest a speech with moral character.

      Maybe the facade of moral character, but if used just because Aristotle's guidebook told the speaker to... I'd question that, anyway.

    2. make his audience feel

      I like that he stresses manipulating the audience's perception of the speaker, rather than actually seeking to possess positive qualities. ;)

    3. A maxim is a general statement about questions of practical conduct. It is an incomplete enthymeme. Four kinds of maxims. Maxims should be used (a) by elderly men, and (b) to controvert popular sayings. Advantages of maxims: (a) they enable a speaker to gratify his commonplace hearers by expressing as a universal truth the opinions which they themselves hold about particular cases; (b) they invest a speech with moral character.

      maxims

    1. Four faults of prose style, with illustrative examples: (1) misuse of compound words; (2) employment of strange words; (3) long, unseasonable, or frequent epithets; (4) inappropriate metaphors.

      Rhetoric as a tool for communication - something that increases the understanding of the audience rather than confusing them until they agree.

    2. the right thing in speaking really is that we should fight our case with no help beyong the bare facts; and yet the arts of language cannot help having a small but real importance, whatever it is we have to expound to others

      Again, defining rhetoric not solely as style, but as the ability to persuade using solid arguments (with style in a place of major, but secondary, importance).

    1. powers of persuasion most of all enhanced by a knowledge

      Rhetoric not solely as skill in speaking, but also as being knowledgeable about a subject/having something real to say.

    1. Fear may be defined as a pain or disturbance due to a mental picture of some destructive or painful evil in the future. Of destructive or painful evils only; for there are some evils, e.g. wickedness or stupidity, the prospect of which does not frighten us: I mean only such as amount to great pains or losses.
    1. Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.

      Most common definition of rhetoric, widely used.

    1. We may define a good thing as that which ought to be chosen for its own sake; or as that for the sake of which we choose something else; or as that which is sought after by all things, or by all things that have sensation or reason, or which will be sought after by any things that acquire reason; or as that which must be prescribed for a given individual by reason generally, or is prescribed for him by his individual reason, this being his individual good; or as that whose presence brings anything into a satisfactory and self-sufficing condition; or as self-sufficiency; or as what produces, maintains, or entails characteristics of this kind, while preventing and destroying their opposites.

      The definition of a good thing.

    1. We may define happiness as prosperity combined with virtue; or as independence of life; or as the secure enjoyment of the maximum of pleasure; or as a good condition of property and body, together with the power of guarding one's property and body and making use of them. That happiness is one or more of these things, pretty well everybody agrees.

      The definition of happiness.

    1. It is clear, then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion.
  2. Sep 2013
    1. But rhetoric we look upon as the power of observing the means of persuasion on almost any subject presented to us; and that is why we say that, in its technical character, it is not concerned with any special or definite class of subjects.

      further defined

    2. Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. This is not a function of any other art.

      definition and distinction

    1. Definition of pleasure, and analysis of things pleasant. -- The motives for wrongdoing, viz. advantage and pleasure, have thus been discussed in chapters 6, 7, 11.

      definitions of pleasure and motives for wrongdoing

    2. enthymeme

      enthymeme |ˈenθəˌmēm| noun Logic an argument in which one premise is not explicitly stated.

    3. Definition of rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
    1. we are in no respect superior to other living creatures; nay, we are inferior to many in swiftness and in strength and in other resources; but, because there has been implanted in us the power to persuade each other and to make clear to each other whatever we desire, not only have we escaped the life of wild beasts, but we have come together and founded cities and made laws and invented arts; and, generally speaking, there is no institution devised by man which the power of speech has not helped us to establish.

      There's a TED talk about mirror neurons, neurons which allow humans to identify with and learn from the actions of others. The speaker credits these with the formation of human civilization and invention of language. In other words, the ability to communicate ideas, emotions, actions, and states of mind with others (rhetoric) may very well distinguish us from other living creatures.

      http://www.ted.com/talks/vs_ramachandran_the_neurons_that_shaped_civilization.html

    1. who devote themselves to disputation,(2) since they pretend to search for truth, but straightway at the beginning of their professions attempt to deceive us with lies?

      He sees strong distinctions between different rhetoricians - the philosophers, educators, and court speakers.

  3. caseyboyle.net caseyboyle.net
    1. Rhetoric, according to my view, is the ghost or counterfeit of a part of politics.

      Rhetoric defined as trickery; Socrates sees nothing noble about it. Because it's target audience is the ignorant, and it's purpose is to engender belief rather than truth, Socrates seems convinced that rhetoric can do nothing but deceive.

    2. GORGIAS: No: the definition seems to me very fair, Socrates; for persuasion is the chief end of rhetoric.

      Rhetoric is persuasion

    3. Then hear me, Gorgias, for I am quite sure that if there ever was a man who entered on the discussion of a matter from a pure love of knowing the truth

      Philosophy = love of knowledge = rhetoric? (as per Socrates)

    4. SOCRATES: Now I think, Gorgias, that you have very accurately explained what you conceive to be the art of rhetoric; and you mean to say, if I am not mistaken, that rhetoric is the artificer of persuasion, having this and no other business, and that this is her crown and end.

      Restating Gorigas' definition of rhetoric

    5. art of rhetoric; and you mean to say, if I am not mistaken, that rhetoric is the artificer of persuasion, having this and no other business, and that this is her crown and end. Do you know any other effect of rhetoric over and above that of producing persuasion

      Defining rhetoric as persuasion.

    6. it is not an art at all, in my opinion

      Socrates denies Gorgias's definition of rhetoric as an art.

    7. Rhetoric, according to my view, is the ghost or counterfeit of a part of politics.

      Definition of rhetoric as politics.

    8. that rhetoric is the artificer of persuasion

      This is also how I defined rhetoric as well. As articulated ad nauseum in this piece so far, Rhetoric is all encompassing and has a part in many things. While I might disagree that it is all powerful in all things as is hinted at, it is always there.

    9. Then rhetoric, as would appear, is the artificer of a persuasion which creates belief about the just and unjust, but gives no instruction about them?

      Definition of rhetoric (2 - revised).

    10. rhetoric is the artificer of persuasion

      Definition of rhetoric (1).

    11. rhetoric is the art of persuasion in courts of law and other assemblies, as I was just now saying, and about the just and unjust

      Definition of rhetoric (2).

    1. libido

      object-instincts: sadistic (affection replaced by cruelty) Neurosis struggle b/t self-preservation and demands of the libido--the ego won over libido at the price of sever sufferings and renunciation