1,129 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2017
    1. kairos

      The definition of kairos is "a propitious moment for decision or action," but I was wondering if the etymology would yield anything interesting. Nope.

      Etymology: "1930s: Greek, literally ‘opportunity.’"

  2. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. curricle

      "A light, open, two-wheeled carriage pulled by two horses side by side" (OED).

    2. muslin

      A thin, cotton material imported from India by England in the 17th and 18th century ("Vic", Muslin: A Beautiful & Versatile Cloth for Regency Fashion, https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2011/09/08/muslin-muslin-versatile-cloth-for-regency-fashion/)

    3. accomplishment

      "Embellishments, elegance, ornament of mind or body" (Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language).

    4. baronets

      "A member of the lowest hereditary titled British order, with the status of a commoner but able to use the prefix 'Sir'" (OED).

    1. milieu

      noun. a person's social environment.

    2. interlocutors

      noun. formal. pl people who take part in a dialogue or conversation.

    3. paideia

      definition: "system of broad cultural education" origin: ancient Greece https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/paideia

    4. Dictionary definitions give us an idea of how unstable the concepts are that can be signified by Signifyin(g).

      I imagine this instability results from signifyin as being a living rhetorical mode, something that is constantly evolving as it is practiced; I think it also suggests how oral and everyday it is--signifyin' and its different forms are in practice in everyday conversations among African Americans. It's difficult to capture something so oral and performative in something as rigid as definitions.

    5. antiphonal

      definition: "(of music, especially church music, or a section of a church liturgy) sung, recited, or played alternately by two groups" https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/antiphonal

    6. catechresis

      "use of a word in an incorrect way, for example the use of mitigate for militate" https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/catachresis

    7. antanaclasis
    8. vertiginous
    1. Data citations are formal ways to ground the research findings in a manuscript, upon their supporting evidence, when that evidence consists of externally archived datasets.

      Nice definition of data citation

    1. crinoline

      Crinoline is the name of a stiff fabric made of a mix of threads and horsehair. It is most often used for giving structure to petticoats and is a common lining for garments. Hoop skirts are also referred to as a crinoline, due to the majority of its frame support being comprised of the material. Strips of crinoline would be attached to a starting hoop (normally the top hoop that sits at the waist) with heavy thread, wire, or rope. Subsequent hoops of increasing size could be attached while the crinoline is bent down and outward to achieve a noticeable “bell” shape. Cheaply made frames could be fragile and easily damaged by applying pressure to the structure, making sitting and moving around a constant concern for the wearer. Stronger frames were more expensive, but were also much heavier due to the types of materials used. Where lighter frames could be made of soft wood or leather hoops, others were made of whalebone or steel, making for a very cumbersome garment.

      Moving in one of these stronger frames would be even more difficult, not only does the weight slow down the wearer; the unbending frames often make sitting or even passing through narrow openings nearly impossible. Though certain artisans could make changes and generate more user friendly designs, these crinolines would remain burdensome. Many women began to forgo them for lighter and more open options, sometimes referring to them as cages or weights. There are even notable print and stage parodies of these frames that highlight the bulky nature of the frames. Characters comically bump into others, knock over furniture, get stuck in odd places, or are vain caricatures with impossibly wide frames that match their egos.

    2. termagant

      Literally just a word for a “violently” scornful woman, in this context it is probably poking at a demeaning prudishness. However, in other literary sources that predate Fern, “termagant” appears to reference ranting in a belligerent manner, like that of a nag or a bully. There are even references to old medieval plays, where a fictional deity embodies the more negative aspects of the term by asserting itself as a moral authority whilst acting shrewdly.

    3. Turkish trousers

      “Turkish trousers” are the European name for the culturally adopted Ottoman dimije. Dimije are baggy pants that gather just above the ankle, which aid in dispelling heat with their flowing material and breezy nature. Normally worn by common folk in the areas of Turkey, India, and the Middle East, the European empires had influenced widespread cultural mixing via trade and colonization that brought many new styles back West. Fashion began to shift into being a form of self-expression (more like our modern interpretation of the use of clothing) instead of a marker of class level. Women’s movements took in these new cultural styles in order to address oppression by linking traditional clothing models to ideas of confinement, restriction, and encumbrance. These changes of clothing were like shedding of shackles, they became visual political statements that can be made publicly that could harken to the larger movements passively.

  3. Mar 2017
    1. axiology

      nonun - 1) the study of the nature of value and valuation, and of the kinds of things that are valuable.

      2) a particular theory of axiology. "all consequentialists start with an axiology which tells us what things are valuable or fitting to desire"

    2. hermeneutical
    3. grapheme?

      def. noun, the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.

    4. polysemy

      I would define polysemy here, but I think that would be missing the point.

      One possible meaning of the word, though, is a word that has multiple meanings. I can't find any other meanings, which seems like a remarkable oversight

    1. specious
    2. sundered
    3. definition of "literature"

      written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit.

    4. heuristic,

      The definition of heuristic is roughly "allowing someone to learn something for themselves" but I was interested in the etymology.

      Apparently, it's "early 19th century: formed irregularly from Greek heuriskein ‘find.’" I wonder if this is where we get the phrase "to find out."

    5. desideratum

      def. noun something that is needed or wanted.

      (synonym, requirement)

    1. Dogma

      a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted

    2. the common sense he shares with his fel-lows would teach

      Booth really emphasizes "common sense" as "the sense that is common between parties," rather than the gee-shucks folksy wisdom it's often defined as.

    1. y. Writing and talking are not merely tools of our trade; they are our product and our raw material and the subjects of our investiga- Patrick W. Conner is Professor of English at West Virginia University where he teaches and researches Anglo-Saxon language and literature. He is the author of Anglo-Saxon Exeter (Boydell and Brewer, 1992) and the editor of The Abingdon Chronicle, volume 12 in the Collaborative Edi- tion of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (forthcoming). He is also creator of The Beowulf Workstation, a HyperCard application to aid students in studying Beowulf. tion

      On the work of the humanist

    1. remonstrance

      This is a form of protest or a specific document outlining the reasons for protest/opposition, mainly used in political and theological context. Simply put, “the ‘protest’ of the Apostles” refers to disagreements the followers of Jesus had with human law that contradicted or attempted to supersede the rules put in place by God through Jesus as a teacher. These instances are found all throughout scripture, and they always point back to the holiest and highest authority as being the right and just ruler of the people.

    1. dyspeptic

      Normally referring to indigestion, it can also be a synonym for irritability. In this sentence, “with a(n) ‘irritable’ nervousness” would be better phrased as “with anxiousness” or “with distress”.

    2. luny

      A shorter slang version of lunatic, which is an adjective meant to describe insanity or great foolishness. It is a sibling of the more commonly used adjective form of loon or loony. All of these words share an ancestor in luna, a Latin word referencing the moon. Lunacy and thusly lunatic are derived out of the old pseudoscientific belief that the phases of the moon controlled the mental states of man and beast, and these terms grew around this notion.

    1. imperious

      assuming power or authority without justification; arrogant and domineering.

    2. matrix

      This is a very loaded word. So for procreation, Aristotle thought that the man actively imprinted on the passive woman, and one of the definitions for matrix is a "mould in which something, such as a record or printing type, is cast or shaped." (It's also the "cultural, social, or political environment in which something develops.") https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/matrix

      Reading Cixous reminds me of cyberfeminism, which is often about "writing the feminine" through technology. I think VNS Matrix (their manifesto is below) is often considered a pioneer of cyberfeminism.

    3. Let the priests tremble, we're going to show them our sexts!

      I looked at this for a long time. At first I assumed I misread it. Then I laughed a lot. I know she couldn't have known how the word "sext" would change, but it's damn funny.

      On a serious note, though, I assume she meant something like "sexed texts"? As in, texts written in women's writing?

      PS Apparently sext as a noun is "a service forming part of the Divine Office of the Western Christian Church, traditionally said (or chanted) at the sixth hour of the day (i.e., noon)." So now I'm more confused than I was before.

    4. Pe11i.me

      Fancy word for "penis envy," which is a concept that did need a fancy word. Interesting Google results!

    1. This probability—the probability that a score at least as large as the observed score would occur in data drawn according to the null hypothesis—is called the P-value.

      A good description of p-value.

    1. trivium

      Definition: "grammar, rhetoric, and logic," the first three of the seven liberal arts in the Middle Ages, considered initiatory and foundational to the other four: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.

      Etymology: From Latin "trivium," tri (three) + via (road); a place where three roads meet.

      Wikipedia has it broken down as "grammar, logic, and rhetoric" = "input, process, and output." This is pretty consistent with Enlightenment thinking that logic is the process and rhetoric is the presentation. I'm interested in how this gets appropriated to a trivium of "syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics."

    2. ramming for an exam on the names of tropes

      There's a line in Burke's Rhetoric of Motives about how literally everything had a trope title. Initially for pragmatic reasons, but later for ornamentation.

      I don't really know my tropes that well, couldn't really define Zeugma or Hyperbaton without consulting Silvae Rhetoricae. I don't know if that's that much of a loss, but I do respect people with an encyclopedic knowledge and recall of figures of speech.

    1. hortatory

      adjective. Tending or aiming to exhort.

      the central bank relied on hortatory messages and voluntary compliance

    2. casuistries

      noun, plural casuistries. 1. specious, deceptive, or oversubtle reasoning, especially in questions of morality; fallacious or dishonest application of general principles; sophistry.

      2. the application of general ethical principles to particular cases of conscience or conduct.

    3. peripety

      definition: "fortune or change in circumstance" https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/peripeteia

  4. Feb 2017
    1. grist for his mill,

      Ah, yes, "grist for his mill," that phrase we all know!

      I was really thrown by this phrase, so I thought others might find this helpful:

      If you say that something is grist to the mill, you mean that it is useful for a particular purpose or helps support someone's point of view.

      def. anything that can be turned to profit or advantage

      Etymology notes: Grist is the corn that is brought to a mill to be ground into flour. In the days when farmers took 'grist to the mill' the phrase would have been used literally to denote produce that was a source of profit.

    1. datum


      ˈdādəm,ˈdadəm/ noun 1. a piece of information. 2. a fixed starting point of a scale or operation.

      I thought the etymology was interesting, too: From the Latin dare (to give). The Latin datum (something given), brings us to the mid 18th century usage of datum (a given).

    2. sui generis

      def. so͞oˌī ˈjenərəs,ˌso͞oē/ adjective unique. (not like anything else) "the sui generis nature of animals"

    1. dissimulation,

      Def. noun. Concealment of one's thoughts, feelings, or character; pretense.

    2. anthropomorphisms:

      Def. noun, pl. The attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology

    3. officiousness
    4. he entire universe as the infinitely multiplied copy of one original pic-ture-man.

      I'm trying to remember Baudrillard's treatise on simulacra, because it sounds like Nietzsche's describing something very similar.

      simulacrum definition: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/simulacrum

    1. escriptivists,

      Descriptivists describe, systematically recording and analyzing the endlessly changing ways people speak and write. Descriptive advice is, as Jesse Sheidlower put it, almost an oxymoron.

    2. or the purposes of lhis treatis

      Nice qualification: there isn't a stable definition of rhetoric, so Hill's using the definition that suits his purpose.

    1. collocation
    2. pleonasms

      definition: using more words than necessary to convey meaning https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/pleonasm

    3. on, bound as a book, with intro-·st published in Wem11insrer Rc-,ncern rhetoric or language, ex-his ideas about evolution to the ,f Psyclw/ogy (1855) develops fchological evolution. Spencer > ull bmnches of science. From , (2 vols., 1864-07), Pririciple.1· ,., 1892-93). Es.mys: Sciemijic, le of Spencer's views on evo\u-l11tobiography ( 1904). is the Twayne series' Herberr s issued facsimile editions of oral)' A.1·ses.mw111.1·, ed. M. W. . H. Huxley, and others. Marie Rhetoric Society Quarterly I 2 · to Spencer and G. H. Lewes :cs Spencer's mechanistic lun-cmry one of De Quincey, J. H. ing Spencer is James Zappcn's Centuries: Herbert Spencer, if the Professio11.1·, ed. Charles applies Spencer's theories a]. ophyofC0111posirio11 (1977). 1t a knowledge of the prin-lher makes, nor is essential , doubtless true. Thus, too, , Dr. Latham, condemning in Lindley Murray, rightly garity is a fault to be pre-r prevention is to be got ;." Similarly, there can be Jd composition is far Jess intance with its laws, than 1ral aptitude. A clear head, nd a sensitive ear, will go I rhetorical precepts need-irs and reads well-framed y more or less tend to use re there exists any mental idiosyncrasy

      a mode of behavior or way of thought peculiar to an individual.

    4. Heiglw

      Um, what?! I had no idea, until this very moment, that heigh-ho was an actual word and not a nonsense-sound for the Seven Dwarves to sing.

      Def. used typically to express boredom, weariness, or sadness or sometimes as a cry of encouragement

      Etymology: The phrase "Heigh-Ho" was first recorded in 1553 and is defined as an expression of "yawning, sighing, languor, weariness, disappointment". Eventually, it blended meanings with the similarly spelled "hey-ho".

    5. immense pomposity of sesquipedalian verbiage:

      Ain't that just a beautiful phrasing. "Sesquipedalian," btw, just means "long words," which is, itself, the epitome of sesquipedalianism

    1. [onus probandil 811rde11 of Proof

      also, "the obligation to prove an assertion or allegation that one makes"

    2. pctitio pri11cip
    3. tyro
    4. manifestly turning on the different senses in which "Art" may be un-derstood

      Again, to define rhetoric is to also have defined other related terms as well.

    5. magnanimity

      n. Def. the fact or condition of being magnanimous; generosity

      Magnanimous - adj. very generous or forgiving, especially toward a rival or someone less powerful than oneself.

    6. "prima facie"

      adj.& adv.

      Def. Based on the first impression; accepted as correct until proved otherwise.

    7. bailiff.

      Def: British usage, "the agent or steward of a landlord," who oversees farming.

    1. Potter's Field

      def. ˈpädərz ˌfēld/ noun historical "a burial place for paupers and strangers."

      I then thought that "Potter's Field" might be a corruption of "pauper's field," but it turns out the etymology is "from the mention in Matthew 27:7 of the purchase of a potter's field for use as a graveyard," according to Merriam-Webster.

    1. sagacity

      Definition: The quality of being sage, wise, or able to make good decisions

      Etymology: From French sagacité, from Latin sagācitās ‎(“sagaciousness”), from sagāx ‎(“of quick perception, acute, sagacious”), from sāgiō ‎(“I perceive by the senses”).

    2. amanuensis

      Definition: one employed to write from dictation or to copy manuscript <composed her="" autobiography="" with="" the="" help="" of="" an="" amanuensis="">

      Also, I find the etymology really interesting given her life as an indentured servant, then domestic servant:

      Etymology: Latin (in Suetonius) adj. used subst., < a manu a secretary, short for servus a manu + -ensis belonging to.

      In short, the choice of the word "amanuensis" seems...ironic?...given the etymological roots in servitude and ownership.

    3. black jeremiad"

      Jeremiad is a piece of writing that depicts whatever state the society is in, usually in a pessimistic way. The references to Jeremiah are most likely regarding his choice of speech to describe the falling of the kingdom of Judah. I think that Jeremiads usually tell the impending doom upon that is sure to destroy everything. Pretty heavy stuff. Veggie tales does it in a much kinder fashion.

    1. By most contemporary standards the document is an object (physical or electronic) on which information is recorded. It would thus have two dimensions, the medium and the content. But this dual presentation is insufficient: it obscures the social function that lends the documentary function to both medium and contents. A good illustration of this ambiguity can be found in the legal framework for information technology of Quebec.4 Quebec law is interesting in this respect because, it tries to define a document beyond the medium it uses by paying attention to information. We can read in Article 3 of the 2001 law this definition: Information inscribed on a medium constitutes a document. The information is delimited and structured, according to the medium used, by tangible or logical features and is intelligible in the form of words, sounds or images. On the face of it, this passage defines a document only in terms of its medium and of its contents. These contents, moreover, are viewed as independent of the medium. But the appearance is deceptive. On the one hand, it is precisely because the document has a function-that of transmission of evidence-that we need a law to define it. We must, indeed, be sure that the object we are talking about will perform this function in the new digital environment. On the other hand, it is indeed because the content can pass from one medium to another that Quebec has tried to define in law the link between one and the other to ensure that the documentary function is preserved.

      very interesting contemporary legal view of what is a document

    1. Laplander
    2. Hottentot
    3. Be/le,1· let1res
    4. re-lievo,

      Nice ¢25 word, here. Means "raised," as in embossed letters or bas relief. Pronounce "reh-LEE-vo," in case you, like me, need to pepper your conversation with unnecessary ornateness because you, like an Athenian, like to dazzle through "showy but false eloquence."

    5. it is "polite" to know the ancienls,

      This sounds like it could have been a sick burn, with the proper context and snooty tone. Like Byron (who offers an elaboration on "polite literature" below, I was surprised and amused by this usage of "polite." This OED definition helped a bit:

      "2.a.Of language, the arts, or other intellectual pursuits: refined, elegant, scholarly; exhibiting good or restrained taste."

    6. polite literature

      I found a blog post here from a British library that elaborates on "polite literature," and emphasizes it as a matter of a particular middle-to-upper class culture, that needed to be qualified due to increasing economic demand for more books.

    1. chicmw

      Literally "chicanery"

    2. prosopopa:ia
    3. harangues
    4. pathos

      This answers my earlier question about his use of pathetic, despite knowing that it has a context contrary to his desired meaning.

    5. pathe-tic,

      If he's aware that impassioned is the better word, why does he us pathetic in the first place? Is he wanting to build on the Greek pathos?

      Edit: the context of his later invocation of pathos seems to indicate that was, indeed, his thought.

    1. GLM

      General Linear Model (GLM)- is a statistical linear model that generalizes multiple linear regression models such that there are multiple dependent variables.

    2. consanguinity

      Consanguinity- is the property of being related to someone, in essence having the same ancestor as someone else.

    3. The specificset of alleles observed together on a single chromosome, or part of a chromosome, is called a haplotype.

      This is a good definition of a haplotype.

    1. narrow conception which we have of it; and therefore are wholly confined to the knowledge and use of words:

      From what I remember in History of English Language, language has been defined more broadly since Sheridan's day, if language was really strictly defined to words. I think language is now considered as a system of intentional, conventional signs. Unfortunately, animals and the "melancholy mournings of the turtle" (shoutout to kpolizzi and gilmanhernandez) are not considered language within this definition. This reading and the definition of language from the HOEL textbook by Algeo both heavily emphasized oral-aural communication, so I'm curious about the deaf community's perspective on language. Also I was definitely not expecting to bring up disability as much as I have been; I can try to limit my annotations on that subject.

    1. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves

      Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves- these curves compare the true positive rate against the false positive rate.

    2. orthonormal

      Orthonormal matrix- a square matrix where each row and column are orthogonal unit vectors.

      Orthogonal- when two vectors are perpendicular.

      Unit vector- a vector of length one.

    1. catholic

      Def.: Here catholic is defined as "including a wide variety of things; all-embracing." I'm not entirely sure how Hume means this word to indicate something different from "universal," but he is not a writer given to redundancies, so I imagine there is something subtle I'm missing here.

  5. Jan 2017
    1. A description has a “primary”occurrence when the proposition in which it occurs results from sub-stituting the description for “x” in some propositional functionx; adescription has a “secondary” occurrence when the result of substi-tuting the description forxinxgives onlypartof the propositionconcerned

      definition of primary and secondary occurences of descriptions

    2. Two propositions are “equivalent” when bothare true or both are false

      Technical definition of "equivalent"

    3. This completes the proof that “Scott is the authorofWaverley” is not the same proposition as results from substitutinga name for “the author ofWaverley,” no matter what name may besubstituted.

      This is because "Scott" in "Scott is the author of Waverly" is simply a vehicle to designate Scott the actual person whereas "Scott" in "Scott is Sir Walter" or "Scott is Scott" serves to mean "who we are referring to as Scott" and therefore the word itself actually enters into the content of the statement.

    4. We may, therefore, for the moment, treatnames as capable of being absolute; nothing that we shall have to saywill depend upon this assumption, but the wording may be a little

      He answers my last annotation here. The distinction between absolute and non-absolute individuals is not important to the task at hand.

    5. If, as may bethe case, whateverseemsto be an “individual” is really capable offurther analysis, we shall have to content ourselves with what may becalled “relative individuals,” which will be terms that, throughout thecontext in question, are never analysed and never occu

      Is Russell here saying that "relative individual" refers to "what can be considered an individual for our purposes"? unsure on this.

    6. A name is a simple symbol whose meaning is something that canonly occur as subject,i.e.something of the kind that, in ChapterXIII., we defined as an “individual” or a “particular.” And a “simple”symbol is one which has no parts that are symbols.

      "Simple symbol" seems like an important term to make note of.

    1. What is rhetoric

      I wonder to some extent if it might be good to start out super basic and not to delve into deep, philosophical questions but to just begin with a basic definition of rhetoric as understanding how communication works and how language is used to persuade and appeal to an audience and just go from there. The main reason I say this is because it seems to some extent everyone is working from this basic definition. Everything we're reading this week seems to operate from this definition anyway. All of the different definitions in the first sentence of the introduction to The Rhetorical Tradition are basically more specific variations of this general definition. This agreement on a basic definition is not to deny the really fascinating difficulties within rhetoric and some of the questions about language (or even about what language is), thought and action but to give an answer to your friend at the bar or your parent about what the hell you are doing with your life in this rhetoric class: you're learning about communication, language and persuasion, which is basically everywhere and a huge part of our daily lives and of history and of multiple disciplines.

    1. « la littératie numérique n’est pas une catégorie technique qui décrit un niveau fonctionnel minimal de compétences technologiques, mais plutôt une vaste capacité de participer à une société qui utilise la technologie des communications numériques dans les milieux de travail, au gouvernement, en éducation, dans les domaines culturels, dans les espaces civiques, dans les foyers et dans les loisirs »
    1. orthologous groups

      Orthologous groups are groups of genes that developed from a common ancestor, source. Orthologous genes have the same (or similar) function, but may vary in sequence.

  6. Dec 2016
    1. Lay theories are the common-sense explanations people use to understand the world around them, whether they are true or not.

      Lay theory.

    1. perpetuates

      Make (something, typically an undesirable situation or an unfounded belief) continue indefinitely.

      • ‘The book contains unsubstantiated statements perpetuating old myths and creating confusion.’
      • ‘Indeed inheritance under the current system only serves to perpetuate inequality.’
    2. altered

      Change in character or composition, typically in a comparatively small but significant way:

      • [with object] ‘Eliot was persuaded to alter the passage’
      • [no object] ‘our outward appearance alters as we get older’
  7. Nov 2016
    1. Preregistration of studies involves registering the study design, variables, and treatment conditions prior to conducting the research.
  8. Oct 2016
    1. free & open-source note-taking service. A space where you can store notes, tutorials, code snippets

      What is Gruik?

    1. calcified

      Calcify: harden by deposition of or conversion into calcium carbonate or some other insoluble calcium compounds. ---College has become very "hard" or difficult

    1. Television genres scholar Jason Mittell defines the situa-tion comedy as featuring “an established setting and small group of ongoing char-acters who each week encounter low-stakes comedic mishaps that are happily resolved by the end of the half-hour epi-sode” (248).

      Scholarly definition of "situation comedy."

  9. Sep 2016
    1. tories about how the Universe began and how humans came into being

      Definition of origin story

    1. 84 deputies

      a person whose immediate superior is a senior figure within an organization and who is empowered to act as a substitute for this superior.

    2. guerilla

      a member of a small independent group taking part in irregular fighting, typically against larger regular forces.

    1. tend to identify themselves more by their ethnicity, meaning a shared set of cultural traits, like language or customs

      refer to background of their culture as a everyday thing

    2. race, which typically refers to a set of common physical traits.

      Definition of race

    3. Census Bureau

      "is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy."

      definition found from : https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=define%20census%20bureau

    1. morphisms,

      From wikipedia:

      morphism: *structure preserving map from one mathematical structure to another

      structure is an aggregate thing -- about the domain not about any one object in the domain.

      In set theory, morphisms are functions; in linear algebra, linear transformations; in group theory, group homomorphisms; in topology, continuous functions

      So, in set-theory functions are structure preserving maps from a set to another.

      In linear algebra, linear transformations are structure preserving maps from ...

      In group theory, group homomorphisms are structure preserving maps from elements of the group (?) to ...

      In Topology, continuous functions are structure preserving maps from one /region/ (?) to another.

      In category theory, morphism is a broadly similar idea, but somewhat more abstract: the mathematical objects involved need not be sets, and the relationship between them may be something more general than a map.

    2. ategory consists of objects and arrows that go between them

      Based on the arrow being a morphism/function (see below), it seems that the domain and the co-domain should be able to be disjoint.

      Also, here A->B and A->C; the dual map means that an arrow is not a function.

    1. Ethnography

      Ethnography is the work of describing a culture. The work that cultural anthropologists do.

    2. Symbolic interactionism has its roots in the work of sociologists like Cooley, Mead, and Thomas. Blumer has identified three premises on which this theory rests.
      • Symbolic interactionism – a theory that seeks to explain human behavior in terms of meanings (3 premises on which this theory rests)
    3. a large portion of our cultural knowledge remains tacit, out-side our awarenes
      • definition of tacit culture
      • what we don't know
    4. Explicit culture makes up part of what we know, a level of knowledge people can communicate about with relative ease.
      • definition of explicit culture
    5. Our culture has a large body of shared knowledge that people learn and use to engage in this behavior called reading and make proper use of the artifacts connected with it

      Cultural knowledge – what people know (ex. Grammatical rules for a language, meaning of space, lines and columns, how to feel when reading jokes, etc.)

    6. This common activity depended on a great many cultural artifacts, the things people shape or make from natural resources

      Cultural artifacts - the things people shape or make from natural resources (ex. The bark of trees are made into paper, glue used to hold pages together, etc.)

    7. All of us were engaged in the same kind of cultural behavior: reading

      Cultural behavior – what people do (ex. Everyone on the train was engaged in reading)

    8. Ethnography is the work of describing a culture

      Ethnography – work of describing a culture The goal of an ethnographer is “to grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world.”

    9. the almost universal belief that all people define the real world of objects, events, and living creatures in pretty much the same way.

      definition of naive realism

    10. Ethnographic fieldwork is the hallmark of cultural anthropology
      • Ethnographic fieldwork is the greeting card to cultural anthropology
      • Cultural anthropology is when someone goes to another community and studying the culture
      • ethnographic fieldwork is the work of describing a culture and the fieldwork is what they learn from the people rather than just studying them
    11. ulture is the learned, shared knowledge that people use to generate be-havior and interpret experience.

      Meaning of culture

    12. Ethnography is the study of both explicit and tacit cultural knowledge

      Meaning of Ethnography

    13. The concept of culture as acquired knowledge has much in common with sym-bolic interactionism, a theory that seeks to explain human behavior in terms of mean-ings.

      human behavior theory aspect

    14. Explicit culture makes up part of what we know, a level of knowledge people can communicate about with relative ease.

      easy communication

    15. culture as the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior

      culture isn't an observance. Culture is found by putting yourself in others shoes to understand their life

    16. cultural anthropologists

      The study of humankind. Can be social, political, archaeology, physical etc..

    17. Ethnographic fieldwork is the hallmark of cultural anthropology.

      Ethnography is the "The process of discovering and describing a particular culture"

      A person who writes down culture and lives with people and experiences there way of life.

    18. The concept of culture as acquired knowledge has much in common with sym-bolic interactionism, a theory that seeks to explain human behavior in terms of mean-ings.

      A theory that social communication is made up of words and symbols that are agreements and known things in society.

    19. Ethnography is the work of describing a culture

      Ethnography definition

    1. In the U.S. News and World Report Andrew Zimbalist provides a definition of amateur as “someone who engages in the activity for fun, not remuneration.

      definition of amateur

    1. Reified ideas are not real in any material sense. Rather, they are ideas and ·abstractions about human attributes and behaviors-what social scientists call constructs.

      Reified idea/social construct: abstract ideas become common knowledge and are used as if they are true without any proof

    2. Psychometrics-the mea-surement of mental traits, abilities, and processes-was applied quickly and widely throughout the country.

      Psychometrics: nineteenth century theory of systematizing intelligence, abilities, and processes to justify social class differences

    3. Merit, which provides moral legitimacy to what might otherwise appear as unfair or undemocratic, explains why some citizens and their children are so well off generation after generation.

      prosperity gospel

    4. Development refers to the relatively orderly changes everyone experiences throughout their lives.

      Development as a universal experience.

    5. Intelligence refers to mental power. The key to intelligence theories and measurements is that they try to determine "differences" among people; that is, no one is simply intelligent, he or she must be more or less intelligent than some comparison individual or group.

      Intelligence theory tries to quantify intelligence as comparative instead of intrinsic.