1,047 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2018
    1. "In this study, we show that two different types of physical exercise (dancing and endurance training) both increase the area of the brain that declines with age. In comparison, it was only dancing that lead to noticeable behavioral changes in terms of improved balance."

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      "In this study, we show that two different types of physical exercise (dancing and endurance training) both increase the area of the brain that declines with age. In comparison, it was only dancing that lead to noticeable behavioral changes in terms of improved balance."

    2. While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

    3. Dr Kathrin Rehfeld, lead author of the study, based at the German center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg, Germany.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Dr Kathrin Rehfeld, lead author of the study, based at the German center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg, Germany.

    4. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    5. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    6. A new study, published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, shows that older people who routinely partake in physical exercise can reverse the signs of aging in the brain, and dancing has the most profound effect.

      CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      A new study, published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, shows that older people who routinely partake in physical exercise can reverse the signs of aging in the brain, and dancing has the most profound effect.

    7. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    8. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    9. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. So, Anthony Mawson, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the School of Public Health, Jackson State University, along with colleagues Azad Bhuiyan and Binu Jacob, collaborated with Brian D. Ray, president of the National Home Education Research Institute in Salem, OR, to engage and enrol homeschooling families to participate in the study. In this way, homeschoolers were compared to homeschoolers (apples to apples), but with the added advantage that homeschoolers as a population match the profiles of American families at large. The families who responded to the anonymous online survey were recruited through homeschooling associations in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Oregon.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      So, Anthony Mawson, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the School of Public Health, Jackson State University, along with colleagues Azad Bhuiyan and Binu Jacob, collaborated with Brian D. Ray, president of the National Home Education Research Institute in Salem, OR, to engage and enrol homeschooling families to participate in the study. In this way, homeschoolers were compared to homeschoolers (apples to apples), but with the added advantage that homeschoolers as a population match the profiles of American families at large. The families who responded to the anonymous online survey were recruited through homeschooling associations in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Oregon.

    3. *Vaccinated children were over four-fold more likely to be diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum (OR 4.3) *Vaccinated children were 30-fold more likely to be diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) than non-vaccinated children * Vaccinated children were 22-fold more likely to require an allergy medication than unvaccinated children *Vaccinated children were over five-fold more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability than unvaccinated children (OR 5.2) *Vaccinated children were 340 percent more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder than unvaccinated children (OR 4.3) * Vaccinated children were 5.9-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia than unvaccinated children *Vaccinated children were 3.8-fold more likely to be diagnosed with middle ear infection (otitis media) than unvaccinated children (OR 3.8) *Vaccinated children were 700 percent more likely to have had surgery to insert ear drainage tubes than unvaccinated children (OR 8.1) * Vaccinated children were 2.4-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with any chronic illness than unvaccinated children

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      *Vaccinated children were over four-fold more likely to be diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum (OR 4.3)

      *Vaccinated children were 30-fold more likely to be diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) than non-vaccinated children

      • Vaccinated children were 22-fold more likely to require an allergy medication than unvaccinated children

      *Vaccinated children were over five-fold more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability than unvaccinated children (OR 5.2)

      *Vaccinated children were 340 percent more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder than unvaccinated children (OR 4.3)

      • Vaccinated children were 5.9-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia than unvaccinated children

      *Vaccinated children were 3.8-fold more likely to be diagnosed with middle ear infection (otitis media) than unvaccinated children (OR 3.8)

      *Vaccinated children were 700 percent more likely to have had surgery to insert ear drainage tubes than unvaccinated children (OR 8.1)

      • Vaccinated children were 2.4-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with any chronic illness than unvaccinated children
    4. In the homeschooler study, the risk of being diagnosed on the autism spectrum was over four-fold higher among vaccinated children than unvaccinated children (OR 4.2).

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      In the homeschooler study, the risk of being diagnosed on the autism spectrum was over four-fold higher among vaccinated children than unvaccinated children (OR 4.2).

    5. What it found about increases in immune-mediated diseases like allergies and neurodevelopmental diseases including autism, should make all parents think twice before they ever vaccinate again:

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      What it found about increases in immune-mediated diseases like allergies and neurodevelopmental diseases including autism, should make all parents think twice before they ever vaccinate again:

    6. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. “There was no explanation for the differences in health outcomes observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups of children other than vaccination itself,” the study's authors concluded. Although the design of the study limits causal interpretation, they added, there is an apparent dose-response relationship between vaccination and chronic illness too, with the partially vaccinated showing intermediate odds of being diagnosed with chickenpox and whooping cough as well as ear infection, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis, ADHD, eczema, and learning disability (see Table 4).

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      “There was no explanation for the differences in health outcomes observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups of children other than vaccination itself,” the study's authors concluded. Although the design of the study limits causal interpretation, they added, there is an apparent dose-response relationship between vaccination and chronic illness too, with the partially vaccinated showing intermediate odds of being diagnosed with chickenpox and whooping cough as well as ear infection, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis, ADHD, eczema, and learning disability (see Table 4).

    14. “The extent to which these findings apply to the population of homeschooled children as well as the general population awaits further research on vaccinated and unvaccinated children,” Mawson and colleagues say. “Investigating and understanding the biological basis of these unexpected nonspecific outcomes of vaccination is essential for ensuring evidence-based vaccine policies and decisions.”

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      “The extent to which these findings apply to the population of homeschooled children as well as the general population awaits further research on vaccinated and unvaccinated children,” Mawson and colleagues say. “Investigating and understanding the biological basis of these unexpected nonspecific outcomes of vaccination is essential for ensuring evidence-based vaccine policies and decisions.”

    15. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    16. Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

    17. In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

    18. New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

    19. Another recent study found it isn't just pneumococcal bugs that are affected, but several unexpected types of infectious bugs rush in to colonize where vaccines have been.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      Another recent study found it isn't just pneumococcal bugs that are affected, but several unexpected types of infectious bugs rush in to colonize where vaccines have been.

    20. Studies like these (here and here) describe how aluminum hydroxide linked to egg white protein (another vaccine ingredient) is used to create animal models of asthma.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      Studies like these (here and here) describe how aluminum hydroxide linked to egg white protein (another vaccine ingredient) is used to create animal models of asthma.

    21. This 2014 study describes how researchers used aluminum hydroxide bound to a bordetella pertussis (that's whooping cough bacteria in every child's two, four, six and 18-month DTaP which also contains aluminum) and exposed the animal to an oral antigen (ie., food, like peanuts or soya) to produce rats with food allergies.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:4 or more

      Highlight:

      This 2014 study describes how researchers used aluminum hydroxide bound to a bordetella pertussis (that's whooping cough bacteria in every child's two, four, six and 18-month DTaP which also contains aluminum) and exposed the animal to an oral antigen (ie., food, like peanuts or soya) to produce rats with food allergies.

    22. In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      In a 2011 Lancet study, Danish researchers concluded the pneumococcal vaccine had a “much broader effect...on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines...”

    23. New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      New research links microbiome shifts to a growing list of diseases from irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and multiple sclerosis to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism.

    24. Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      Recent research has thrown everything scientists used to say about it (and the CDC still does) in the bin: aluminum is not excreted from the body within hours or days, but it persists for years and can migrate to organs including lymph, spleen and brain.

    25. A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    27. A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

      CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      A pilot study of 666 homeschooled six to 12-year-olds from four American states published on April 27th in the Journal of Translational Sciences, compared 261 unvaccinated children with 405 partially or fully vaccinated children, and assessed their overall health based on their mothers' reports of vaccinations and physician-diagnosed illnesses.

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. the professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California wrote to the then President, urging him to order a “full medical and neuropsychiatric evaluation” of the then President-elect.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      the professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California wrote to the then President, urging him to order a “full medical and neuropsychiatric evaluation” of the then President-elect.

    3. They published a manifesto warning of Trumpian ideology, citing the following as the signs to fear: “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      They published a manifesto warning of Trumpian ideology, citing the following as the signs to fear:

      “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

    4. “With Trump, he's a disturbed person who protects himself by building up his ego and tearing down others,” an anonymous psychologist explained to the NY Daily News.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      “With Trump, he's a disturbed person who protects himself by building up his ego and tearing down others,” an anonymous psychologist explained to the NY Daily News.

    5. The American Psychiatry Association has a nine-point checklist for narcissism - if someone displays just five of the traits, they have Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      The American Psychiatry Association has a nine-point checklist for narcissism - if someone displays just five of the traits, they have Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

    6. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    7. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    10. “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      “Scapegoating and banishing groups of people who are seen as threats, including immigrants and religious minorities; degrading, ridiculing, and demeaning rivals and critics; fostering a cult of the Strong Man who appeals to fear and anger; promises to solve our problems if we just trust in him; reinvents history and has little concern for truth (and) sees no need for rational persuasion.”

    11. And according to psychologists, this pathological disconnection from reality is dangerous.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      And according to psychologists, this pathological disconnection from reality is dangerous.

    12. He surrounds himself with people who admire and applaud him, and goes on angry tirades against journalists who enrage him by daring to suggest anything negative about him.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      He surrounds himself with people who admire and applaud him, and goes on angry tirades against journalists who enrage him by daring to suggest anything negative about him.

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. However some mental health experts believe we should be wary of psychologists diagnosing someone they've never met: The University of Glasgow's Professor of Psychiatry Daniel Smith told The Independent: “It's considered not very ethical or good practice to comment on things like this if you've never assessed the individual. It's also important to remember that there's a difference between personality disorder and mental illness.”

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      However some mental health experts believe we should be wary of psychologists diagnosing someone they've never met:

      The University of Glasgow's Professor of Psychiatry Daniel Smith told The Independent: “It's considered not very ethical or good practice to comment on things like this if you've never assessed the individual. It's also important to remember that there's a difference between personality disorder and mental illness.”

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. American Psychiatry Association

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      American Psychiatry Association

    19. Citizen Therapists Against Trumpism

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      Citizen Therapists Against Trumpism

    20. anonymous psychologist

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 4

      Highlight:

      anonymous psychologist

    21. professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 3

      Highlight:

      professors from Harvard Medical School and the University of California

    22. clinical psychologist Dr. Julie Futrell

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      clinical psychologist Dr. Julie Futrell

    23. John D. Gartner

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      John D. Gartner

    24. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    26. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    27. DONALD TRUMP DISPLAYS CLASSIC TRAITS OF MENTAL ILLNESS, CLAIM PSYCHOLOGISTS

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (“...Shocking Result”, “...Leave You in Tears”)

      Highlight:

      DONALD TRUMP DISPLAYS CLASSIC TRAITS OF MENTAL ILLNESS, CLAIM PSYCHOLOGISTS

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

    3. Houston has been stuck in a vicious circle. More people means more subdivisions, and more subdivisions means more runoff. That results in more flooding, which ends up affecting more people.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Houston has been stuck in a vicious circle. More people means more subdivisions, and more subdivisions means more runoff. That results in more flooding, which ends up affecting more people.

    4. Prairies, which also act as floodwater sponges, have been decimated too.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Prairies, which also act as floodwater sponges, have been decimated too.

    5. Much of the destroyed wetlands were covered with pavement to accommodate the region’s explosive population growth. So these days, even a run-of-the-mill storm causes water to gush down the streets and can lead to flooding.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Much of the destroyed wetlands were covered with pavement to accommodate the region’s explosive population growth. So these days, even a run-of-the-mill storm causes water to gush down the streets and can lead to flooding.

    6. Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows. Most of the losses were in Harris County, where almost 30% of wetlands disappeared. Altogether, the region lost the ability to handle nearly four billion gallons (15 billion liters) of storm water. That’s equivalent to $600 million worth of flood water detention capacity, according to the university researchers’ calculations.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows. Most of the losses were in Harris County, where almost 30% of wetlands disappeared. Altogether, the region lost the ability to handle nearly four billion gallons (15 billion liters) of storm water. That’s equivalent to $600 million worth of flood water detention capacity, according to the university researchers’ calculations.

    7. The Harvey-wrought devastation is just the latest example of the consequences of Houston’s gung-ho approach to development.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:Singular Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The Harvey-wrought devastation is just the latest example of the consequences of Houston’s gung-ho approach to development.

    8. The vanished wetlands wouldn’t have prevented flooding, but they would have made it less painful, experts say.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:Singular Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The vanished wetlands wouldn’t have prevented flooding, but they would have made it less painful, experts say.

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. warning about the dangerous effects of bulldozing natural flood barriers for years.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      warning about the dangerous effects of bulldozing natural flood barriers for years.

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. By 1996, much of it was gone, but another 10% had been lost by 2010, while the developed acreage grew by 40%, data from HARC shows.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      By 1996, much of it was gone, but another 10% had been lost by 2010, while the developed acreage grew by 40%, data from HARC shows.

    19. Texas A&M University.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      Texas A&M University.

    20. From 1992 to 2010, this area lost more than 70% of its wetlands, according to research (pdf) by Texas A&M University.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      From 1992 to 2010, this area lost more than 70% of its wetlands, according to research (pdf) by Texas A&M University.

    21. Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      Between 1992 and 2010 alone nearly 25,000 acres (about 10,000 hectares) of natural wetland infrastructure was wiped out, the Texas A&M research shows.

    22. Another study (pdf) by the same two groups looked at a dozen projects that had obtained permits, and found that only two of them had successfully offset wetland destruction, seven were partially successful, and three were complete failures.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      Another study (pdf) by the same two groups looked at a dozen projects that had obtained permits, and found that only two of them had successfully offset wetland destruction, seven were partially successful, and three were complete failures.

    23. In 2015, Texas A&M and non-profit research group HARC analyzed a sample of permits issued from 1990 to 2012 in the greater Houston area.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      In 2015, Texas A&M and non-profit research group HARC analyzed a sample of permits issued from 1990 to 2012 in the greater Houston area.

    24. Bill Bass, the HARC geospatial technology expert who put them together for Quartz,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Bill Bass, the HARC geospatial technology expert who put them together for Quartz,

    25. John Jacob, a wetlands expert who runs Texas A&M’s Coastal Watershed Program,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      John Jacob, a wetlands expert who runs Texas A&M’s Coastal Watershed Program,

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    27. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    28. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    29. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    30. Houston’s flooding shows what happens when you ignore science and let developers run rampant

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Cliffhanger to a story (“You Won’t Believe What Happens Next”, “Man Divorces His Wife After Overhearing This Conversation”)

      Highlight:

      Houston’s flooding shows what happens when you ignore science and let developers run rampant

    31. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    32. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    33. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Slightly Convincing

    2. Just like for indigestion, heartburn can be alleviated by sleeping on one’s left side according to WebMD.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Just like for indigestion, heartburn can be alleviated by sleeping on one’s left side according to WebMD.

    3. “For neck pain, it is helpful to use a small rolled-up hand towel right under the neck for added support,” according to PainPhysicians.com.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      “For neck pain, it is helpful to use a small rolled-up hand towel right under the neck for added support,” according to PainPhysicians.com.

    4. According to Skin Sheen, “Sleeping on the left side helps in better digestion.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      According to Skin Sheen, “Sleeping on the left side helps in better digestion.”

    5. However, WebMD recently released a report by Ehime University School of Medicine on how sleeping posture affects blood pressure. What they discovered was that sleeping face-down can actually lower blood pressure.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      However, WebMD recently released a report by Ehime University School of Medicine on how sleeping posture affects blood pressure. What they discovered was that sleeping face-down can actually lower blood pressure.

    6. Women’s Health Magazine suggested, “Get your best PMS shut-eye on your back. Place a pillow under your knees to keep your spine from arching too much.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Women’s Health Magazine suggested, “Get your best PMS shut-eye on your back. Place a pillow under your knees to keep your spine from arching too much.”

    7. Hub’s Health Expert said, “I used to suffer from daily headaches until I realized that I was twisting my neck when I slept.” They recommend surrounding the head with pillows to prevent it from turning.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Hub’s Health Expert said, “I used to suffer from daily headaches until I realized that I was twisting my neck when I slept.” They recommend surrounding the head with pillows to prevent it from turning.

    8. They recommend to, “Sleep with your head elevated… Mucus pools in your sinuses at night when your head is down, so have your head propped up during sleep.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      They recommend to, “Sleep with your head elevated… Mucus pools in your sinuses at night when your head is down, so have your head propped up during sleep.”

    9. Women’s Health Magazine recommends sleeping on your “pain-free side with your legs slightly bent”.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Women’s Health Magazine recommends sleeping on your “pain-free side with your legs slightly bent”.

    10. However, WebMD recommends to simply lay flat ‘on your back’. They explained: “When sleeping on your back, place a pillow under your knees. You also can put a small, rolled-up towel under the curve of your back.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      However, WebMD recommends to simply lay flat ‘on your back’. They explained: “When sleeping on your back, place a pillow under your knees. You also can put a small, rolled-up towel under the curve of your back.”

    11. These are just a few of the ways sleeping posture can benefit your health.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      These are just a few of the ways sleeping posture can benefit your health.

    12. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. And this seems to make sense, because our stomachs are positioned slightly on the left side of our bodies. Hence, laying on the left side allows gravity assist the digestive process.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      And this seems to make sense, because our stomachs are positioned slightly on the left side of our bodies. Hence, laying on the left side allows gravity assist the digestive process.

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    18. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    19. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    20. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Slightly justified

    21. Hub’s Health Expert

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 4

      Highlight:

      Hub’s Health Expert

    22. Harvard Medical School.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 3

      Highlight:

      Harvard Medical School.

    23. Women’s Health Magazine

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      Women’s Health Magazine

    24. WebMD

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      WebMD

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    26. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    27. 9 sleeping positions to improve your health and life

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Listicle (“6 Tips on …”)

      Highlight:

      9 sleeping positions to improve your health and life

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat low credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. The National Sleep Foundation also recommends a consistent bedtime routine.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      The National Sleep Foundation also recommends a consistent bedtime routine.

    3. Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

    4. This may seem like common sense, but science has confirmed its truth with the Growing Up in Australia study, during which researchers tracked thousands of families beginning in 2004. Every two years, these families took part in a series of interviews that allowed researchers to check in on the state of their physical and mental health.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      This may seem like common sense, but science has confirmed its truth with the Growing Up in Australia study, during which researchers tracked thousands of families beginning in 2004. Every two years, these families took part in a series of interviews that allowed researchers to check in on the state of their physical and mental health.

    5. A U.S. poll featured on the National Institutes of Health website suggests that children who go to bed earlier also sleep longer.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      A U.S. poll featured on the National Institutes of Health website suggests that children who go to bed earlier also sleep longer.

    6. Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

    7. Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Analyzing the sleep and lifestyle data they collected, researchers found that children with early bedtimes—those asleep by 8:30 p.m.—had “better health-related quality of life.” And their moms had improved mental health, too.

    8. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. Nobody seems to get enough, and the struggle is daily.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Nobody seems to get enough, and the struggle is daily.

    10. Yikes!

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Yikes!

    11. But whatever you choose to incorporate into your bedtime routine, know that a regular routine can set you and your child up for success.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      But whatever you choose to incorporate into your bedtime routine, know that a regular routine can set you and your child up for success.

    12. According to the National Sleep Foundation, the blue light emitted from screens can delay the release of sleep-inducing melatonin, increase alertness and reset the body’s internal clock to a later schedule.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      According to the National Sleep Foundation, the blue light emitted from screens can delay the release of sleep-inducing melatonin, increase alertness and reset the body’s internal clock to a later schedule.

    13. [Chart titled, “At what time should your child go to bed” with wake up times, ages 5-12, and sleeping times]

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      [Chart titled, “At what time should your child go to bed” with wake up times, ages 5-12, and sleeping times]

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    18. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    19. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    20. National Sleep Foundation,

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      National Sleep Foundation,

    21. A U.S. poll featured on the National Institutes of Health website suggests that children who go to bed earlier also sleep longer.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      A U.S. poll featured on the National Institutes of Health website suggests that children who go to bed earlier also sleep longer.

    22. Growing Up in Australia study, during which researchers tracked thousands of families beginning in 2004. Every two years, these families took part in a series of interviews that allowed researchers to check in on the state of their physical and mental health.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      Growing Up in Australia study, during which researchers tracked thousands of families beginning in 2004. Every two years, these families took part in a series of interviews that allowed researchers to check in on the state of their physical and mental health.

    23. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    24. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    25. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    26. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    27. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    28. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Fairly Convincing

    2. "Smoking doesn't seem to blunt the effects of coffee," Gunter said. "It didn't matter whether you smoked or not. There was still a potential beneficial affect of coffee on mortality."

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      "Smoking doesn't seem to blunt the effects of coffee," Gunter said. "It didn't matter whether you smoked or not. There was still a potential beneficial affect of coffee on mortality."

    3. "The fact that we saw the same relationships in different countries is kind of the implication that its something about coffee rather than its something about the way that coffee is prepared or the way it's drunk," he said.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      "The fact that we saw the same relationships in different countries is kind of the implication that its something about coffee rather than its something about the way that coffee is prepared or the way it's drunk," he said.

    4. People who drank two to four cups a day had an 18% lower risk of death compared with people who did not drink coffee, according to the study. These findings are consistent with previous studies that had looked at majority white populations, said Veronica Wendy Setiawan, associate professor of preventative medicine at USC's Keck School of Medicine, who led the study on nonwhite populations.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      People who drank two to four cups a day had an 18% lower risk of death compared with people who did not drink coffee, according to the study. These findings are consistent with previous studies that had looked at majority white populations, said Veronica Wendy Setiawan, associate professor of preventative medicine at USC's Keck School of Medicine, who led the study on nonwhite populations.

    5. "Given these very diverse populations, all these people have different lifestyles. They have very different dietary habits and different susceptibilities -- and we still find similar patterns," Setiawan said.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      "Given these very diverse populations, all these people have different lifestyles. They have very different dietary habits and different susceptibilities -- and we still find similar patterns," Setiawan said.

    6. One study surveyed more than 520,000 people in 10 European countries, making it the largest study to date on coffee and mortality, and found that drinking more coffee could significantly lower a person's risk of mortality. The second study was more novel, as it focused on nonwhite populations. After surveying over 185,000 African-Americans, Native Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese-Americans, Latinos and whites, the researchers found that coffee increases longevity across various races.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      One study surveyed more than 520,000 people in 10 European countries, making it the largest study to date on coffee and mortality, and found that drinking more coffee could significantly lower a person's risk of mortality.

      The second study was more novel, as it focused on nonwhite populations. After surveying over 185,000 African-Americans, Native Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese-Americans, Latinos and whites, the researchers found that coffee increases longevity across various races.

    7. "Given these very diverse populations, all these people have different lifestyles. They have very different dietary habits and different susceptibilities -- and we still find similar patterns," Setiawan said.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts

      Highlight:

      "Given these very diverse populations, all these people have different lifestyles. They have very different dietary habits and different susceptibilities -- and we still find similar patterns," Setiawan said.

    8. "The fact that we saw the same relationships in different countries is kind of the implication that its something about coffee rather than its something about the way that coffee is prepared or the way it's drunk," he said.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts

      Highlight:

      "The fact that we saw the same relationships in different countries is kind of the implication that its something about coffee rather than its something about the way that coffee is prepared or the way it's drunk," he said.

    9. In the European study, people who were drinking coffee tended to have lower levels of inflammation, healthier lipid profiles and better glucose control compared with those who weren't.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      In the European study, people who were drinking coffee tended to have lower levels of inflammation, healthier lipid profiles and better glucose control compared with those who weren't.

    10. The study on European countries revealed an inverse association between coffee and liver disease, suicide in men, cancer in women, digestive diseases and circulatory diseases. Those who drank three or more cups a day had a lower risk for all-cause death than people who did not drink coffee.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      The study on European countries revealed an inverse association between coffee and liver disease, suicide in men, cancer in women, digestive diseases and circulatory diseases. Those who drank three or more cups a day had a lower risk for all-cause death than people who did not drink coffee.

    11. The new study shows that there is a stronger biological possibility for the relationship between coffee and longevity and found that mortality was inversely related to coffee consumption for heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      The new study shows that there is a stronger biological possibility for the relationship between coffee and longevity and found that mortality was inversely related to coffee consumption for heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease.

    12. The new study shows that there is a stronger biological possibility for the relationship between coffee and longevity and found that mortality was inversely related to coffee consumption for heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The new study shows that there is a stronger biological possibility for the relationship between coffee and longevity and found that mortality was inversely related to coffee consumption for heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease.

    13. The study on European countries revealed an inverse association between coffee and liver disease, suicide in men, cancer in women, digestive diseases and circulatory diseases. Those who drank three or more cups a day had a lower risk for all-cause death than people who did not drink coffee.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The study on European countries revealed an inverse association between coffee and liver disease, suicide in men, cancer in women, digestive diseases and circulatory diseases. Those who drank three or more cups a day had a lower risk for all-cause death than people who did not drink coffee.

    14. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    18. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    19. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    20. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    21. However, Dr. Alberto Ascherio, professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said people should be wary of this finding. "Even if it was in some way true, it doesn't make sense to me, because by smoking, you increase your mortality several-fold. Then, if you reduce it by 10% drinking coffee, give me a break," said Ascherio, who was not involved in the study.

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      However, Dr. Alberto Ascherio, professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said people should be wary of this finding.

      "Even if it was in some way true, it doesn't make sense to me, because by smoking, you increase your mortality several-fold. Then, if you reduce it by 10% drinking coffee, give me a break," said Ascherio, who was not involved in the study.

    22. People who avoid coffee, particularly in places like the US and Europe where drinking the beverage is very common, may do so because they have health problems. Their higher mortality rate could be a result of them being less healthy to begin with.

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      People who avoid coffee, particularly in places like the US and Europe where drinking the beverage is very common, may do so because they have health problems. Their higher mortality rate could be a result of them being less healthy to begin with.

    23. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    24. Studies have shown that certain compounds have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce risk for illnesses like Parkinson's disease.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      Studies have shown that certain compounds have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce risk for illnesses like Parkinson's disease.

    25. The second study was more novel, as it focused on nonwhite populations. After surveying over 185,000 African-Americans, Native Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese-Americans, Latinos and whites, the researchers found that coffee increases longevity across various races.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      The second study was more novel, as it focused on nonwhite populations. After surveying over 185,000 African-Americans, Native Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese-Americans, Latinos and whites, the researchers found that coffee increases longevity across various races.

    26. One study surveyed more than 520,000 people in 10 European countries, making it the largest study to date on coffee and mortality, and found that drinking more coffee could significantly lower a person's risk of mortality.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      One study surveyed more than 520,000 people in 10 European countries, making it the largest study to date on coffee and mortality, and found that drinking more coffee could significantly lower a person's risk of mortality.

    27. Dr. Alberto Ascherio, professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 3

      Highlight:

      Dr. Alberto Ascherio, professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health,

    28. Marc Gunter, reader in cancer epidemiology and prevention at Imperial College's School of Public Health in the UK, who co-authored the European study.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Marc Gunter, reader in cancer epidemiology and prevention at Imperial College's School of Public Health in the UK, who co-authored the European study.

    29. Veronica Wendy Setiawan, associate professor of preventative medicine at USC's Keck School of Medicine, who led the study on nonwhite populations.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Veronica Wendy Setiawan, associate professor of preventative medicine at USC's Keck School of Medicine, who led the study on nonwhite populations.

    30. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    31. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    32. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    33. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    34. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    35. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Not at All Convincing

    2. A couple of years ago, one of the lead HPV vaccine developers for Merck’s Gardasil, Dr. Diane Harper, came clean and warned that Gardasil was not only ineffective and unnecessary, it was dangerous.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      A couple of years ago, one of the lead HPV vaccine developers for Merck’s Gardasil, Dr. Diane Harper, came clean and warned that Gardasil was not only ineffective and unnecessary, it was dangerous.

    3. Based on their study, Rail and study co-author Abby Lippman, a McGill University professor emeritus, published an op-ed article in Montreal’s Le Devoir newspaper questioning the safety and benefits of human papillomavirus vaccines.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Based on their study, Rail and study co-author Abby Lippman, a McGill University professor emeritus, published an op-ed article in Montreal’s Le Devoir newspaper questioning the safety and benefits of human papillomavirus vaccines.

    4. Somehow these “prestigious” medical officials have ignored the adverse reaction cases reported internationally among teenage girls, ranging from chronic fatigue to chronic seizures to partial and complete paralysis.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts

      Highlight:

      Somehow these “prestigious” medical officials have ignored the adverse reaction cases reported internationally among teenage girls, ranging from chronic fatigue to chronic seizures to partial and complete paralysis.

    5. The Rail-Lippman four-year study involved 170 parents of teenage girls who were given the HPV shots, which usually are administered sequentially in a series of three.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      The Rail-Lippman four-year study involved 170 parents of teenage girls who were given the HPV shots, which usually are administered sequentially in a series of three.