4,698 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2021
    1. in vivo

      Within a living organism (as opposed to in vitro, or in cells grown in the lab).

    2. wild-type

      Unmodified: that is, wild-type, 51BLim10 cells do not have the extra genes which introduce B7 or the extra modifications which silence it.

    3. Fab fragments

      The antigen-binding fragment of antibody, i.e., the domain which binds specifically to the target of the antibody.

    4. In vitro

      Latin for "in the glass." That is, experiments done in test tubes, petri dishes, flasks, or beakers, not in organisms.

  2. Mar 2021
    1. triaxial accelerometer

      A sensor that provides simultaneous measurements in three (x, y, and z) orthogonal directions. It analyzes vibrations caused by movement to infer orientation and acceleration of the device.

    2. quasi-static tension

      Quasi-static indicates that the acceleration effect on load measuring devices is insignificant, because it is moving extremely slowly.

    3. elastomeric

      A term describing the viscoelastic quality of a polymer. Materials that are elastomeric have weak intermolecular forces, low Young's modulus, and high failure strain.

    4. self-healability

      Chemically engineered materials have been integrated into the electronics that allow the device to self-repair even after multiple breaks.

      This device utilizes a material called polyimine that repairs itself through bond exchange reactions.

    5. reconfigurability

      The ability to rearrange it's elements.

      In this case, the device can be reconfigured to serve different purposes.

    6. dynamic mechanical analyzer

      A device used to study and characterize materials. A sinusoidal stress is applied to the material and the strain is measured. It is most effectively used to measure the viscoelastic behavior of polymers.

    7. hyperelastic

      Describes an ideally elastic material which the stress-strain relationship is derived from a strain energy density function. The stress does not vary linearly with strain, so it's flexibility is very high.

    8. Poisson’s ratio

      A measurement of the deformation in a material in a perpendicular direction to the applied force.

    9. depolymerization

      The process of converting a polymer into a monomer or monomers.

      This process is triggered by an increase in thermal energy in the system that cannot be used (entropy).

    10. Young’s modulus

      In essence, this is a measurement of how stiff a material is.

      It can be equated as E = stress / strain.

    11. failure strain

      A measure of how much a material can be elongated (strained) before it fails (breaks).

      A measure of ~4% means it can be stretched to be about 4% longer before it breaks.

    12. FEA

      A method of numerically solving differential equations for mathematical modeling.

      The problem is broken into smaller, finite elements that can be expressed as algebraic equations. These equations can then be assembled into a larger system of equations that models the entire problem.

    1. autonomous systems

      This is a set of things working together but existing and functioning independently.

    2. reagent

      This is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

    3. thermal

      Something that relates to heat

    4. thermal conductivity

      This is the measurement of a material's ability to conduct heat.

    5. histograms

      This is an approximate representation of the distribution of numerical data

  3. Feb 2021
    1. chemiluminescence

      the emission of light during a chemical reaction which does not produce significant quantities of heat.

    2. Dynamic

      This is the characterization of something under constant change, activity, or progress.

    3. reflectance spectroscopy

      Investigation of the spectral make-up of surface-reflected radiation with respect to its angularly dependent intensity and the composition of the incident primary radiation.

    4. disjuncture

      This is a separation of disconnection between ideas, objects, etc.

    5. tether

      Tying with a rope or chain to restrict movement of that which is being connected to. This often refers to two things being connect to one another.

    6. locomotion

      An act or the power of moving from place to place.

    7. symmetrical

      made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis.

    8. robust

      This is something that carries characteristics of exhibiting vigorous strength and health.

    9. translucency

      Allowing light, but not detailed shapes, to pass through; semitransparent.

    10. Ecoflex

      This is a blend of recycled polymers and wood byproducts that exhibits the best characteristics of both the polymers and wood.

    11. Young’s modulus

      a measure of elasticity, equal to the ratio of the stress acting on a substance to the strain produced.

    12. spectral tailoring

      Essentially modifying and tweaking the colors and temperatures of the fluids based on the electromagnetic spectrum.

    13. Thermoelectrics

      This is a object that produces electricity by a difference of temperatures. This can also be described as an object that involves the relation between temperature and electrical condition

    14. aqueous

      This is something that is of or containing water, that is typically used as a solvent or medium. A substance could be dissolved in water, making it an aqueous solution.

    15. pigment

      is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water.

    16. syringe

      a tube with a nozzle and piston or bulb for sucking in and ejecting liquid in a thin stream, used for cleaning wounds or body cavities, or fitted with a hollow needle for injecting or withdrawing fluids.

    17. quadrupedal

      This refers to being four-footed, where all four feet are used for walking and running. This can be seen in animals such as a dog or cat.

    18. electrowetting

      This is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface, typically hydrophobic, with an applied electric field.

      Uses for electrowetting include applications on lenses, electronic displays, and separating oil-water mixtures.

    19. electrofluidics

      Is a versatile principle that can be used for high speed actuation of liquid interfaces.

    20. extensible

      This is the ability to be extended or stretched.

    21. microchannels

      Is a channel with a hydraulic (contains liquid) diameter below 1 mm.

    22. pneumatic

      This is something that is operated by or contains air or gas under pressure.

      An example of this would be container holding pressurized air or gas.

    23. actuation

      the action of causing a machine or device to operate.

    24. spectral

      This comes from the electromagnetic spectrum, the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends, of visible light, which ranges from approximately 400nm to 700nm.

    25. Semiconductor

      A solid substance that has a conductivity between that of an insulator and that of most metals, either due to the addition of an impurity or because of temperature effects. One common semiconductor are silicon chips used in electronics.

    26. arthropods

      Organisms that have a segmented body and jointed appendages, a usually chitinous exoskeleton molted at intervals, and a brain connected to a spinal cord.

    27. ultraviolet (UV)

      Is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight, and constitutes about 10% of the total electromagnetic radiation output from the Sun.

    28. plumage

      This is the layers of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, color, and arrangement of the feathers.

    29. iridophores

      These are iridescent chromatophores, and chromatophores are cells that produce color, of which many types are pigment-containing cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.

    30. elastomers

      This is a polymer, either natural or synthetic, that has elastic properties.

      An example of this would be rubbers.

    31. prosthetics

      This is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part. The reason for why this part my be missing may be a result of many different reasons, but these devices are utilized with the intention to restore the normal functions of the missing body part.

    32. silhouette

      Is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single colour, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject.

    33. obliterative

      To render invisible or unreadable, as by erasing or marking over

    34. infrared

      A form of light that is slightly above our visible light spectrum. Since it is not within our visible light spectrum, it is invisible to the naked eye, but it still provides useful applications in nature and everyday life such as remote controls for your television.

    35. camouflage

      This is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or disguising them as something else.

    36. microfluidic networks

      A group or system that deals with the behavior, manipulation, and precise control of fluids that are constrained to a small scale. This often deals with objects that are measured to be in the tens to hundreds of micrometers.

    37. Synthetic systems

      A set of things working together that uses two or more steps to create a product. This is also chemically created to imitate an existing and natural set.

    38. soft polymers

      Materials belonging to this category include things made up by smaller units called monomers. However, this category contains many monomers arranged in a way that keeps the overall object flexible and non rigid.

    39. luminescence

      This is the emission of light from an object that is not a result of heat, but a form of cold-body radiation.

    40. bioluminescence

      This is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

    1. biocompatibility

      The property of a material to be compatible with living tissue. Materials that trigger a toxic or immune response when exposed to the body are NOT biocompatible.

    2. FTIR

      One of the most common methods of spectroscopy. The sample is exposed to infrared light and data is collected to determine how much light is absorbed or released by the sample.

      To convert the raw data into an actual spectrum, a Fourier transform must be performed.

    3. thermoset polyimine matrix

      Thermoset: applying heat to harden or cure the material. This creates the matrix encapsulating the device.

      Thanks to the healing ability of the polyimine and the liquid nature of the eutectic LM circuitry, bonds can be reformed and reshaped throughout the device.

    4. dynamic covalent

      Upon thermosetting, dynamic covalent bonds are formed between the atoms that can readily assemble and disassemble. This gives the polyimines their unique healing ability.

    5. ECG sensor

      An electrocardiogram sensor records the pathway of electrical impulses throughout the heart. This data can be used to monitor the heart's condition and response to physical exertion.

    6. transimination

      A reaction that converts an -imine compound into smaller monomers/oligomers. The researchers discovered this reaction to be useful for separating the chip components and LM from the matrix by solubilizing the these monomers/oligomers in methanol.

    7. eutectic LM

      Eutectic: a mixture of substances that melts and solidifies totally at the same temperature, which is lower than the melting points of the individual constituents.

      Eutectic LM: A mixture of liquid metals.

    1. in vitro

      in a test tube, culture dish, or elsewhere outside a living organism

    2. weeble-wobble toy
    3. hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

      Non-fermentable semi-synthetic dietary fibre, based on cellulose.

    4. conical structure

      Cone shaped structure.

    5. poly(ethylene) oxide

      Biomaterial with a high molecular weight.

    6. molecular weight

      The ratio of the average mass of one molecule of an element to one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon.

    7. overtube

      A protective tube used during endoscopy.

    8. endoscopy

      A procedure used to look inside the body and examine the interior of a hollow organ or body cavity.

    9. ex vivo

      Experimentation done on tissue from an organism in an external environment with minimal alteration of natural conditions.

    10. mucosal

      The inner lining of organs and body cavities such as the stomach.

    11. gastric juice

      A thin, clear, acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands.

    12. viscosities

      The state of being thick and semifluid in consistency.

    13. excursions

      A deviation from a regular pattern, path, or level of operation.

    14. torque

      A twisting force that causes rotation.

    15. subchronic

      Oral subchronic toxicity refers to adverse effects occurring after repeated administration of a test sample.

    16. peristaltic motion

      Involuntary movements of the longitudinal and circular muscles, primarily in the digestive tract but occasionally in other hollow tubes of the body, that occur in progressive wavelike contractions

    17. acute

      Acute oral toxicity refers to adverse effects following oral administration of a single dose of a substance.

    18. mono-monostatic body

      An object which has only one unstable point of balance.

    19. active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)

      Any substance or mixture of substances intended to be used in the manufacture of a drug product and that, when used in the production of a drug, becomes a functional ingredient in the drug product

    20. lumen

      The open space within a tube-shaped body part

    21. prototyping

      An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process.

    22. actuation

      The action of causing a machine or device to operate.

    23. 316L stainless steel

      Second most common marine grade stainless steel.

    24. cellular tight junctions

      Connections between cells that prevent the passage of molecules and ions through the space between membranes of touching cells

    25. protease

      An enzyme (a biological catalyst) which breaks down proteins and peptides

    26. polycaprolactone

      Biodegradable polyester with a low melting point of around 60°C.

    27. bioavailability

      The ability of a drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body

    28. milliposts

      millimeter scale pillars

    29. subcutaneous

      Situated or applied under the skin

    30. plasma

      Plasma is a yellowish liquid component of blood that holds the blood cells of whole blood in suspension. It is the liquid part of the blood that carries cells and proteins throughout the body.

    31. insulin

      A hormone produced in the pancreas which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes.

    32. COMSOL

      A simulation software to create accurate models

    33. in vivo

      In a living organism

    34. perforation

      A hole made by puncturing or piercing

    35. GI fluid

      Fluid that aids digestion

    36. sucrose

      A common sugar

    37. isomalt

      A sugar substitute

    38. micro–computed tomography (micro-CT)

      3D imaging technique using x-rays to see the inside of an object by viewing it slice by slice

    39. Histology

      The study of the microscopic structures of tissues

    40. autonomously

      Acting independently; the ability to act without instruction

    41. permeation

      becoming widely spread

    42. parenteral

      Occuring or administered elsewhere in the body other than the mouth

    43. gastrointestinal (GI) tract

      The GI tract is a series of hollow organs that form a long tube from the mouth to the anus. The organs within the tract include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

    44. Biomacromolecules

      Biomacromolecules are the building blocks of life. The different macromolecules are: Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids. Each of these macromolecules are responsible for different biological functions within the body and the cells

    1. Cross-contamination

      the process by which bacteria or other microorganisms are unintentionally transferred from one substance or object to another, with harmful effect.

  4. Dec 2020
  5. Oct 2020
  6. Sep 2020
  7. Jul 2020
    1. Introgressive hybridization

      Movement of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by the repeated crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents.

    2. missense mutation

      Where a single nucleotide base is changed, which results in a different amino acid.

    1. Body copy, body text, or sometimes just plain body or text refers to themain block of text that you read, as opposed to headlines, subheads, titles,etc. Body text is usually set between 9- and 12-point type with 20 percentadded space between the lines.

      body copy, body text



    1. mantle

      A part of Earth’s interior that lies between the dense, extremely hot core and the thin outer layer, known as the crust. It is made up of a thick, rocky shell that constitutes 84% of Earth’s volume. In geologic time, it behaves as a viscous fluid.

    2. continental plume–related basalts

      Both ocean island basalts and continental plume-related basalts come from deep within the mantle. OIBs intruded into oceanic (basaltic) crust, whereas continental plumes intrude into continental crust (for example, Deccan traps in India).

    3. coesite

      This is a high-pressure and high-temperature polymorph (version) of quartz.

    1. anterior

      This is an anatomical term which refers to the front of the body, or near the head.

      In the case of planaria, it refers to the head.

    2. posterior

      This is anatomical term which refers to the back of the body, or near the hind end of the body.

      In the case of planaria, it refers to the the hind end.

    3. “Janus heads”

      Janus was a Roman god and doorkeeper to the heavens. Relevant here, Janus was usually depicted with two heads, one facing the past and the other towards the future.

    4. protrusions

      Here, protrusions refer to bulges of cells.

    5. periphery

      Refers to the outer edge.

    6. signaling pathways

      A series of linked chemical pathways in which one chemical in the series activates another chemical in the pathway, which ultimately leads to a specific cell function.

    7. β-catenin antagonist adenomatous polyposis coli

      Adenomatous polyposis coli, or APC, is gene that plays many roles, including acting as a tumor suppressor. APC has also been found to play a role in cell division and directing cells where to go once division takes place. In order to do its job, APC directs β-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway.

      Read more in the Journal of Cell Science. The PDF is also available in the "Related content" tab.

    8. RNA interference (RNAi)

      A mechanism used by both plant and animal cells to silence a gene using a double-stranded DNA molecule. DNA is converted into the smaller RNAi molecules used to turn genes off. Scientists are now able to use this natural process to turn off genes they are studying so they can learn more about their function.

    9. Schmidtea mediterranea

      This is an image depicting this common planarian.

    1. secondary challenge

      A second exposure to the same threat. The immune system is, under certain conditions, able to remember threats it has encountered before and react to them more quickly and effectively upon each subsequent exposure.

    2. T cells

      White blood cells central to adaptive immunity. T cells are able to recognize when cells are diseased and can kill them so they don't spread throughout the body.

    1. channelrhodopsins

      This family of proteins is employed to activate neurons by driving cations (including sodium, calcium, hydrogen, and potassium) into the cell and causing the membrane potential to become more positive, leading to depolarization.

    2. halorhodopsins

      Halorhodopsins and bacteriorhodopsins typically inactivate neurons by driving chloride ions into the cell or hydrogen ions out of the cell and causing the membrane potential to become more negative, leading to hyperpolarization.

    3. cation

      A positive ion like hydrogen (H+), sodium (Na+), or potassium (K+).

    4. Cannula

      A tube inserted into the body to facilitate the delivery of fluids or materials to a specific region.

    5. basal ganglia (BG)

      A group of nuclei located at the base of the forebrain that is responsible for motor control and cognition.

    6. globus pallidus pars interna (GPi)

      Major component of the basal ganglia that targets the substantia nigra.

    7. contralateral

      Opposite the lesion.

    8. substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)

      A subregion of the midbrain responsible for motor control.

    9. neurodegenerative

      Progressive loss of function of neurons, usually a result of neuron death.

    1. Error bars

      A graphical representation (usually lines through a point on the graph that run parallel to one of the axes) showing the amount of uncertainty there is in the location of that point. All scientific data collection includes uncertainty; error bars allow researchers to show how confident they are in their results. Large error bars mean there is a lot of uncertainty (lower confidence), whereas smaller error bars mean there is less uncertainty.

    2. β

      A statistical term, the Greek letter beta, refers to the probability that you can accept the null hypothesis (which states that values affirmation has no effect) when in fact the null hypothesis is wrong.

    3. racial achievement gap

      The difference in performance (for example, on standardized tests) between minority students and white students.

    4. standardized test

      Any form of an exam that requires all people taking the test to answer the same questions and is scored the same way in all cases, so that comparisons can be made between all people who take the test. These are typically multiple choice tests taken by large populations of students (for example: all 8th grade students in the United States).

    5. psychological threat

      Any outside force (real or perceived) that challenges a person's values, beliefs, or sense of self.

      Stereotype (or identity) threat is a subset of psychological threat in which a person feels they will be judged according to common prejudices about some aspect of their identity (for example: race, ethnicity, or gender).

    6. double-blind study

      An experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know which group each participant is assigned to until after the data are analyzed.

    7. values affirmation

      An intervention in which people reflect on and write about the beliefs and values (e.g., family, integrity) that are important in their lives.

  8. Jun 2020
    1. silencing

      Turning a gene off so that it does not go through transcription and translation (gene expression) which prevents the production of its protein product (β-catenin) being made by the cell.

    2. constitutive degradation

      The regulated breakdown of a cell or cellular product, which is used to control gene expression and ultimately cellular function. In this case, the breakdown of APC leads to an increase in β-catenin.

    3. transcriptional output

      The copying of DNA into mRNA, which is the first step in the process known as gene expression.

      Watch this video to learn more about the role of transcription and transcription factors: https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/signal-molecules-trigger-transcription-factors

    4. regenerate

      Regeneration in this case, refers to the replacement of lost or damaged tissue.

      This video will help you understand the process of tissue regeneration: https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/tissue-regeneration-animals

    5. A/P misspecification

      The cells that were supposed to be in the posterior end migrated to the anterior end of the animal, or vice versa.

    6. upstream components

      The chemicals at the beginning of the signaling pathway.

    7. protein perdurance

      How long the protein lasts as part of the signaling pathway.

    8. penetrance

      The percentage or proportion of individuals with the genotype that present the phenotype. In other words, organisms may have the genes by may not show the trait. You can find more information about these terms in this article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22090/

    9. homeostasis

      The ability or tendency of an organism to maintain internal stability. This includes maintaining certain ranges of physiological processes such as temperature, pH, or ions such as calcium.

    10. anteroposterior

      Genes are used to create both a front and a back for an organism during early embryonic development.

    11. molecular switch

      A molecule, such as a protein, than controls gene expression by either turning it on or off.

    12. cell adhesion

      Specialized protein complexes that allow cells to stick to each other.

    13. freshwater planarians

      Freely swimming flatworms from the taxonomic class Turbellaria that inhabit freshwater.

    14. amputation

      For most organisms it involves removal of a limb. Planaria do not have limbs, so in this case refers to removing either the front or hind end of the body.

    1. concomitant

      Refers to events that occurred at the same time and are associated with each other.

    2. placental mammals

      Members of this group of mammals (which includes humans) carry the developing fetus in the uterus, where the placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the mother and the fetus.

    3. chelydroid turtles

      These turtles are related to modern snapping turtles and have a similar morphology. They had large heads and long tails.

    4. crevasse splay

      These are floodplain deposits made when the river broke through its natural flood banks. Heavier sediments are deposited closer to the river channel, while lighter sediments, such as sand and silt, are deposited farther away from the channel.

    5. benthic foraminifera

      These are single-celled, bottom-dwelling organisms that live on or within the carbonate-rich sediment surface. https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/foraminiferaearths-microscopic-recordkeepers


    6. dicotyledonous (dicot)

      This is one of the two groups angiosperms are traditionally divided into. A number of traits distinguish dicots from the other group, the monocotyledons (monocots). The seeds of dicots contain two embryonic seed leaves; monocot seeds contain one.

    7. Deccan Traps

      This is one of the largest volcanic areas on Earth. Its lava flows cover an area of about 500,000 square kilometers.

    8. Puercan (Pu3) index

      This stage of the geologic timescale refers to the North American faunal stage, spanning from 66,000,000 to 63,300,000 years BP (Before Present).

    9. Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction (KPgE)

      The extinction event that wiped out nearly three-quarters of all plant and animal species on Earth 66 million years ago.

    10. ka

      The abbreviation for "kilo annum." It signifies time in thousands of years.

    11. stratigraphic

      Refers to the study of rock layers that can be understood over a large area.

      Learn more about stratigraphic principles with HHMI BioInteractive: https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/stratigraphic-principles

  9. Apr 2020
    1. reproductive isolation

      Means that the species cannot breed to produce fertile offspring because of some barrier. That barrier could be geographic, behavioral, or some other type. A well-known animal that is reproductively isolated is the mule.

    2. allelic series

      The alleles for a certain locus listed according to their dominance, that is, their effect on the phenotype they affect.

    3. linkage disequilibrium

      This term means that the association of certain alleles at different loci is not random. Essentially, certain alleles of certain genes are often linked together and found in these combinations in the Big Birds.

    4. genetic drift

      Occurs when the frequency of alleles in an organism changes due to chance. Genetic drift (sometimes referred to as drift) is strongest in small populations such as the one studied here, because chance (random sampling) strongly affects the alleles present in the population.

    5. bill

      As in a bird's beak.

    6. transgressive segregation

      When hybrid offspring show traits that are more extreme than those of the parents. For example, when a hybrid plant offspring is much taller than, or much shorter than, either of the parent plants.

    7. lineage

      Here, a genetic group of individuals that are all descended from one initial ancestor.

    8. hybrid speciation

      Referring to the formation of a new species when two different species mate to produce a new species.

    1. dextran perfusion

      Definition: A polysaccharide glucan that is medically used to reduce blood viscosity.

      For the paper: Dextran perfusion is based on flowing a dextran solution through the tube/pipe to determine whether it is hollow (allows fluid flow), and transports fluids as expected.

    2. pulsatile perfusion

      A specific type of perfusion (previously defined) that moves through channels based on motion similar to that of heart pumping blood to the body.

    3. porcine

      Lab testing relating to pigs

    4. CD31-positive

      A protein that is involved in angiogenesis activation.

    5. cell-laden hydrogels

      Hydrogels loaded with live cells.

      For the paper, this is an appealing option that helps engineering potential tissue constructs with biomimetic structure and function. Cell-laden hydrogel is a promising scaffolding system for engineering artificial bone, cartilage, cardiac and neural tissues.

    6. LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed high viability

      Staining that is a fluorescence assay (as shown in image on Panel E) which shows cell viability, that is whether the cells are dead or live. The live cells emit green light where the dead cells emit red light.

    7. thermoreversible

      Whose properties can be changed back and forth by increasing or decreasing temperature.

      For the article, specific thermoreversible hydrogels form a gel when cooled and return to a viscous fluid state when exposed to heat.

    8. perfusion

      The passage of blood or fluids through blood vessels or other channels in an organ or tissue.

      In this paper, perfusion is needed to sustain healthy tissues and organs.

    9. micro–computed tomography (μCT)

      Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) is a 3D imaging technique utilizing X-rays to see inside an object, slice by slice. It is similar to a CT scan, but on a micro-scale. Micro-CT provides high resolution 3D imaging of the interior structure of materials and biological samples without having to cut the samples.