4,435 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2020
    1. biofabrication

      Production of complex living and non-living products from bio-compatible materials and cells to address medical challenges.

    2. extracellular matrix

      A network of biological materials surrounding cells throughout the body for protection and support.

    3. microphysiological devices

      Tiny devices that mimic the functions of human physiological systems such as organs and tissues.

    4. synchronous

      Occurring or existing at the same time.

    5. 3D Voronoi lattice

      A lattice structure is a structure made of crisscross patterns of stripping. A 3D Voronoi lattice is used to help make objects lighter, but stronger.

    6. microvascularization

      formation of small blood vessels

    7. arrhythmogenic disease

      Muscle tissue in the heart dies and is replaced with scar tissue. Leads to weakened blood flow and irregular heartbeats.

    8. electrophysiologic

      Electrical activity of the heart

    9. anisotropic

      Having a physical property that has different values when measured in different directions.

    10. α-actinin

      Needed for attachment of actin to Z-lines in skeletal muscle cells.

    11. hESC-CMs

      Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    12. angiogenesis

      The development of new blood vessels.

    13. perivascular

      Around a blood vessel.

    14. vessel lumens

      The inside space of the blood vessel.

    15. vasculature

      The arrangement of blood vessels in an organ or tissue.

    1. Hanna Basin

      Located in present-day Wyoming. Map of the Hanna Basin: https://www.wsgs.wyo.gov/docs/wsgs-web-hanna-basin-geologic-map.pdf

    2. Carsioptychus

      Image of Carsioptychus coarctatus provided by HHMI Tangled Bank Studios shows a rendering of this ancient herbivorous mammal. https://durangoherald.com/articles/300859

    3. periptychid mammals

      Known only to exist in North America, these placental mammals are readily identified by their unique teeth.

    4. baenid turtles

      This is an extinct clade of turtles that appeared during the Jurassic and disappeared in the Eocene.

    5. hydroxyapatite

      The calcium compound that is the main inorganic component of tooth enamel and bones. It gives bones and teeth rigidity.

    6. Lancian mammal

      The Cretaceous land mammal stage dating from 70 Ma to 66 Ma.

    7. ecosystem equilibrium

      Population sizes are stable and remain within a sustainable range. They are in balance.

    8. lithostratigraphic log

      This is a graphic way to represent the succession of layers over time.

    9. biotic

      These are the living components of an ecosystem and includes the autotrophs, heterotrophs, and detritivores.

    10. “Earth system succession”

      This occurs when biotic and/or abiotic change results in the biosphere or geosphere becoming unbalanced. It provides a way to explain the ecological and evolutionary changes observed in the fossil record.

    11. co-evolution

      This occurs when two or more species affect the evolution of each other.

    12. ungulate Eoconodon coryphaeus

      This is an extinct species of hoofed, placental mammals. They are the largest known species of the genus.

    13. paleotemperature proxies

      Fossils/imprints from the past, referred to as proxies, can be used to determine what the paleoclimate was like. Examples of proxies are coral, pollen, and tree rings. These are analyzed and correlated with current climate conditions.

    14. Leaf mass per area (LMA)

      This is a morphological trait used as an indicator of the rates of photosynthesis and respiration. It is a way to link light capture to growth and carbon gain.

    15. speciose

      Many examples of members of the same genus are present. The area is species-rich.

    16. distal

      This is the outer regions of the floodplain.

    17. Ectoconus ditrigonus

      These were herbivorous mammals.

    18. in situ

      The saplings are located in their original place.

    19. articulated

      A skeleton that is all in one piece with the bones arranged in the correct order.

    20. Leaf-estimated mean annual temperature

      The physical traits of leaves, their morphology, is used to estimate the temperature.

    21. morphospecies

      A taxonomic species based only on its physical (morphological) differences from related species.

    22. dicot

      Flowering plants that have two seed leaves, or cotyledons, in the seed embryo.

    23. juglandaceous

      Pollen produced by members of the walnut plant family.

    24. fluvial facies

      Units of sediments deposited by rivers that have similar characteristics based on bedding and texture.

    25. intercalated

      The interbedding of two distinctly different depositional environments.

    26. palynostratigraphic biozones

      The analysis of spores, pollen, and other particulate organic matter in sedimentary rock.

    27. Ma

      The Ma label is the abbreviation for mega annum and signifies time in millions of years.

    28. Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale

      Earth's north and south magnetic poles have reversed multiple times. Normal polarity occurs when the magnetic north points toward the geographic north pole. The reverse is the opposite. A record of the onset and duration of these reversals has been measured back to the Upper Jurassic.

    29. San Juan Basin
    30. outcrops

      This is an area where the underlying rocks are exposed.

    31. angiosperms

      These are plants that flower and fruit. They produce seeds enclosed within a female reproductive structure. It includes many non-woody plants, shrubs, and trees.

    32. crown birds

      This is a clade that includes all living bird species and their ancestors, back to the common ancestor and all of the ancestor's descendants that did not evolve to form modern species.

    33. clades

      This is a grouping of organisms that includes a single common ancestor and all the species descending from that ancestor, both living and extinct.

    34. radiation

      The proliferation of species from a single ancestor and their diversification into ecologically different forms.

    35. terrestrial

      This refers to things related to the land as opposed to aquatic or marine.

    36. non-avian dinosaurs

      These are cold-blooded dinosaurs, not related to birds.

    37. Leguminosae

      This refers to a family of plants that have nodules on their roots that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The bacteria transform atmospheric nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds plants are able to use.

    38. megafloral

      This term refers to large plant species.

    39. niche

      This is how an organism fits into the ecosystem—the role it plays. It is how it interacts with other species in a biological community.

    40. taxonomic richness

      The number of different species represented in an ecological community. It is not a count of the number of members of each species, but of the diversity of species present.

    41. drivers

      Factors that cause an event or phenomenon to occur.

    42. elucidates

      A term used when something that was confusing is made clear.

    1. lithophile elements

      The term lithophile was coined by Goldschmidt to describe elements with affinity for silicates. The Greek word lithophile means rock-loving. These elements are primarily found in regions with higher concentrations of silicate, e.g., the mantle and crust. A few examples of lithophile elements are Li, Na, Mg, Al and Si.

    2. δ13C-δ18O

      The term ‘δ<sup>13</sup>C-δ<sup>18</sup>O’ denotes the isotopic signatures of carbon and oxygen elements. An isotopic signature is calculated from the ratio of stable isotopes (13-C/12-C or 18-O/16-O) and expressed in parts per thousand.

    3. trace-element

      A chemical element which constitutes less than 0.1% of a rock's composition.There is unique geochemical information stored in the variation of concentration of each trace element. Zn, Cd and Sr are a few examples of trace-elements.

    4. sublithospheric diamonds

      Identified by mineral inclusions consistent with being exposed to high pressures found at depths of more than 400 kilometers.

    5. Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb

      Strontium-Neodymium-Hafnium-Lead

    6. transition zone

      The area that separates the Earth's upper mantle from its lower mantle. The depth of this zone is usually between 410 to 660 kilometers beneath the Earth's surface.

    7. fluid inclusions

      Small quantities of gases or liquids that remain trapped inside minerals. These inclusions provide critical insights on the geological processes in the Earth's interior.

    8. superdeep

      At depths of more than 410 kilometers underneath the Earth's surface.

    9. He-Sr-Pb

      Helium-Strontium-Lead

    10. reservoirs

      Refers to a mass of material that experiences a common set of chemical interactions. Reservoirs, in most cases, have distinct boundaries (e.g., an ocean).

    11. Isotope

      Chemical elements that have the same number of electrons and protons but a different number of neutrons are called isotopes. For example, both carbon-12 and carbon-14 have six electrons and six protons, but they have 12 and 14 neutrons, respectively. These isotopic differences change the atom's atomic mass and other chemical properties.

    1. hydrolysis

      The chemical breakdown of of a compound due to its reaction in the presence of water.

    2. Bonferroni

      A statistical analysis test used to counteract false positive results within multiple comparisons. It is used when several independent or dependent tests are being performed simultaneously.

    3. levonorgestrel

      A synthetic steroid hormone that has similar effects on the body to progesterone and is often used in contraceptive pills.

    4. elastomeric

      An elastic substance occurring naturally or synthetically.

    5. poly(caprolactone)

      A polymer often used to improve a products processing characteristics, and its compatibility with other materials. It can be used to increase biodegradability, or used with a polymeric to plasticize a product.

    6. poly(lactide-co-glycolide)

      A copolymer which is widely accepted for biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradation rate, approval for clinical use, potential modification properties, and export opportunities to cultures with unpopular use of animal- derived products.

  2. Jan 2020
    1. nattention blindness or change blindness.

      people can often miss large changes in their visual fields if they are focused or distracted on something else.

    2. affordances.

      cues of what one should do with the objects.

    3. canonical perspective.

      a perspective slightly above looking down

    4. the fusiform face area (FFA) allows faces to bypass the brain’s usual interpretive channels and helps us identify them more quickly than objects. The FFA is also near the amygdala, the brain’s emotional center.

      i reaaalllly think i should be doing a glossary list.

  3. Nov 2019
    1. BALB/c

      A laboratory strain of mice useful for studying cancer and immunology.

    2. ibid.

      The latin word ibidem means in the same place. To save space, some authors use ibid. to refer to a reference from the same journal as the previous one.

    3. antigen transfer

      The process by which antigen-presenting cells uptake antigenic molecules from their surroundings, so that they may display them on their surface.

    4. antigen presentation

      The process of exposing T cells to molecular signatures of disease through displaying them on the surface of antigen-presenting cells.

    5. ex vivo

      Outside of the living organism. In ex vivo experiments, cells originate in an organism, are extracted and modified, and then can be reintroduced.

    6. APCs

      Antigen presenting cells. Specialized immune cells which allow T cells to be exposed to the antigens present in the body. This allows T cells to become activated so they can target those pathogens or diseased cells.

    7. in vivo

      Within a living organism (as opposed to in vitro, or in cells grown in the lab)

  4. Oct 2019
    1. Commingled and single-stream recycling

      Refers to the collection of recyclables including glass, paper, and plastic, all in the same recycling bin.

    2. solid waste management systems

      Refers to the range of garbage materials that are discarded as unwanted and useless. Landfills are often used as solid waste management systems.

    3. metric tons (MT)

      One metric ton is equal to 1,000 kilograms or 2,204.6 pounds. One black rhinoceros weights approximately one metric ton. Source: Wikimedia

    1. A/JCr mice

      Another laboratory strain of mice useful for studying cancer and immunology.

    2. wild-type

      Unmodified; that is, wild-type 51BLim10 cells do not have the extra genes which introduce B7 or the extra modifications which silence it.

    3. murine

      Relating to or originating from mice.

    4. bivalent antibody

      An antibody able to bind two of its targets at once.

    5. proliferation and interleukin-2 production

      Two indicators of T cell activation. Once activated, T cells divide rapidly and produce a molecule called interleukin-2.

    6. homolog

      A related protein, usually with very similar sequence and structure.

    7. transfected

      A technique by which the genes in a cell are modified.

    8. B7 family of costimulatory molecules

      A family of binders to CD28. The two most important members are B7-1 and B7-2, mentioned below.

    9. antigenic peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

      The target for T cell receptors is always a short peptide displayed on the surface of the cells. The protein responsible for displaying the peptides is called the major histocompatibility complex.

    10. T cell receptor

      The receptor used by T cells to recognize specific antigens.

    11. antigens

      Molecules recognized by the immune system; signatures of disease.

    12. CTLA-4

      Another receptor on the surface of T cells, with an opposite effect compared to CD28. Binding to CTLA-4 causes damping of T cell activation.

    13. CD28-mediated costimulation

      To become fully activated, T cells need to receive a signal through the CD28 receptor on their surface.

    14. immunogenicity

      The ability of the immune system to recognize diseased or foreign cells.

    1. seismic tomography

      This is an imaging technique that uses seismic waves generated by earthquakes and explosions to create computer-generated, three-dimensional images of Earth's interior. More information on how this technique works can be found here : https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/downloads/optional/269

    2. pelagic sediments

      These are very fine-grained particles which gradually accumulate on the ocean floor over time. These deposits comprise of both inorganic (by products of volcanic activities) and organic (marine plants and animals) matters.

    3. ocean island basalts

      Basalt is a type of igneous rocks which comprises 90% of all volcanic rocks. When these basalts are formed as a result of volcanic activities inside the ocean and away from the tectonic plate junctions, they are known as ocean island basalts.

    4. radiogenic 4He

      A radiogenic isotope is formed by the process of radioactive decay. For instance, in this case, the stable isotope helium-4 is generated from the decay of a radioactive helium-4 nucleus.

    5. primordial undegassed reservoir

      Ancient reservoir in Earth's interior, composed of trapped gases that have not been removed.

  5. Sep 2019
    1. Electron energy-loss spectra (EELS)

      A characterization technique used to study the structural and chemical properties of a material.

    2. sp3/sp2 bonded carbon

      Hybridization is the combining or mixing up of atomic orbitals (an expected region of electron density around an atom) to form new hybrid orbitals that have geometries suitable to form bonds. Electrons can be found in s, p, d, and f orbitals. When an s orbital combines with three p orbitals, it results in four sp<sup>3</sup> hybridized orbitals. Similarly, the combination of an s orbital with two p orbitals gives rise to three sp<sup>2</sup> hybrid orbitals.

      Learn more about hybrid orbitals with these videos from Khan Academy.

    3. graphene

      The building block of graphite, which is used in pencil tips. Graphene is a one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice (with atoms arranged at the corners of a hexagon). The thickness of graphene is a million times less than that of a single human hair. Graphene is the world's first 2D material and the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for its discovery.

       Source: Wikimedia

    4. crystalline materials

      A crystal is a 3D periodic array of atoms. Materials with regularly ordered arrays of components are termed crystalline materials.

    5. multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

      Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are rolled up cylinders of graphene sheets with diameters in the nanoscale. Based on geometry, they are termed as either single-walled (formed by rolling a single sheet of graphene) or multiwalled (multiple sheets of graphene) carbon nanotubes.

    6. lattice planes

      In a crystal, the atoms are arranged in a regular repeated pattern in a 3D lattice. A lattice is defined as the set of points representing these atomic positions.

    7. fullerenelike

      Fullerene is the zero-dimensional form of graphitic carbon. The carbon atoms in fullerenes are arranged in closed shells.

    8. optical images

      Optical microscopes are instruments which use visible light and a system of lenses to produce magnified images of small objects.

    9. covalent intralayer bonding

      A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms. In the case of graphene, each carbon atom forms covalent bonds with three neighboring atoms of hexagons in a plane, with atoms placed in corners of the hexagon. This type of in-plane bonding is called intralayer covalent bonding.

    10. quasi-2D ordered

      Quasicrystals are materials with perfect long-range order, but with no 3D translational periodicity of crystals.

    11. highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

      A high-purity graphite material with a high degree of preferred crystallographic orientation.

    12. defects

      A perfect crystal is an idealization and in real materials, atom arrangements do not follow perfect crystalline patterns. Crystal defects can be due to missing atoms, introduction of an impurity, broken crystal patterns along fault lines, or the joining of distinct crystal planes.

    13. wear debris

      Wear is the progressive loss of materials from contacting surfaces relative in motion. The wear process results in the generation of debris—or particles—of various size, shape, color distributions, and chemical composition.

    14. transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

      An imaging technique capable of generating high-resolution (nanometer-scale) images of a sample.

    15. tribopair

      Refers to the components in a friction system. Here, the DLC-coated ball and the graphene-plus-nanodiamonds constitute the tribopair.

    16. nanoscrolls

      A nanomaterial structure with a spiral-wrapped geometry. Think of a scroll, or a roll of paper, on the nanoscale.

    1. Intraperitoneal CNO

      The CNO was injected into the peritoneum, the thin membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity. It travels through the circulation system, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and affects its target cells.

    2. paraventricular thalamus (PVT)

      A subregion of a part of the brain called the thalamus.

      The PVT has been shown to have a broad range of function, including involvement in fear, learning, arousal, and feeding behaviors.

    3. axonal projections

      The axon is a long, thin part of the neuron that facilitates communication between neurons. Axons extend from the cell body of a neuron to other parts of the brain, allowing communication between different brain regions.

    1. polymer

      Materials made of long, repeating chains of molecules. The term polymer is often used to describe plastics, which are synthetically made, but natural polymers also exist.

    2. single-use plastic food packaging (polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephthalate)

      As the most common plastic, polyethylene is used for everything from plastic bags to bulletproof vests. Polypropylene is commonly used in chip bags, microwave dishes, and bottle caps. Some fabric textiles and many water bottles are made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

      Plastics are notoriously persistent pollutants. It is estimated that a PET plastic water bottle will take anywhere from 100-500 years to degrade.

    3. circular economy

      An economic system where waste and pollution are designed out, keeping products and services in closed loops or cycles. The circular economy is an alternative to a traditional linear economy in which products and materials are made, used, and disposed of.

    1. disk Use disk only in the context of Azure cloud storage and virtual machines.Use hard drive, not disk, fixed disk, hard disk, or disk drive to refer to the drive on a PC where programs are typically stored.
    1. intranasal administration

      The process of inserting drug molecules through the nose.

    2. Brownian-like

      Following a path similar to the Brownian motion of small particles in fluid, which is random movement due to continuous collisions with the surrounding molecules in the fluid.

    3. expectorated

      Coughed out from the throat or lungs.

    4. encapsulation

      Trapping something inside another object, or a capsule.

      Here, encapsulation refers to trapping drug molecules inside the nanoparticle.

    5. complexation

      The process of combining different atoms, ions, or molecules to form one large molecule or ion due to electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions.

    6. corticosteroids

      Steroid hormones that are produced in the kidneys or synthetically in the laboratory and can be used to treat inflammations.

    7. colloidal stability

      Refers to the particles' ability to stay dispersed in a fluid without separating from the solution (precipitation) or forming big clusters (aggregation) within a period of time.

    8. Hydrodynamic diameter

      The diameter of a sphere that has the same hydrodynamic friction with that of the nanoparticle.

    9. noncovalent

      A form of bonding that does not involve the bonding between pairs of atoms.

    10. hydrophobic

      Repelled by water molecules.

    11. diblock copolymer

      A polymer of two different polymer chains chemically bonded together in a specific order. For example, a linear diblock copolymer of the type A-B with 5 A monomers connected to 4 B monomers is a single chain A-A-A-A-A-B-B-B-B.

    12. triblock

      A polymer of three different polymer chains, which are chemically bonded together in a specific order. For example, a linear triblock copolymer of the type A-B-C with 5 A monomers connected to 4 B monomers connected to 5 C monomers is a single chain A-A-A-A-A-B-B-B-B-C-C-C-C-C.

    13. well-PEGylated

      Coated or surrounded in great extend by polymeric chains of poly(ethylene glycol).

    14. CF sputum

      CF stands for cystic fibrosis, a disease in the lungs.

      Sputum is a mixture of saliva and mucus that is produced because of a disease, such as cystic fibrosis, and comes out of the the human body through the passage formed from the mouth, nose, throat, and lungs.

    15. conjugating

      The joining of two or more chemical compounds.

    16. in vitro

      Experiments taking place in test tubes, culture dishes, or other controlled environments outside of living organisms.

    17. ex vivo

      Experiments that take place in controlled external environments on tissues extracted from living organisms.

    18. in vivo

      Experiments taking place inside living organisms.

    19. retention

      To absorb and continue holding or keeping on a surface.

    20. Mucoadhesive

      Have the ability to stick to mucus.

      Mucus is a slimy substance that is produced in the human body (e.g. nose, throat, cervix) to protect and lubricate specific areas.

    21. pulmonary drug delivery

      A pulmonary process is related to lung tissue.

      Pulmonary drug delivery is the insertion of drug molecules to the human body through mouth to reach the lungs and treat lung-related diseases.

  6. Aug 2019
    1. product inhibition

      This is a mechanism to control production in biological settings. This means when something is being made (ex. protein) and reaches a certain concentration then the production is stopped. This can also be called a negative-feedback loop.

    2. passive transporter (GLUT5)

      Fructose is only absorbed through diffusion into a cell, this means it relies on there being a lower concentration of fructose in a cell compared to the intestine. Passive absorption often leads to a saturation of the channels and so not as much fructose can be absorbed.

    3. sodium-coupled glucose transporters (SGLTs)

      Sodium-coupled glucose transporters are found in the intestine. They use energy gathered from sodium ion transport into the bloodstream to generate energy to import glucose into a cell. Using energy to import a molecule up a concentration gradient (there is more glucose inside the cell than outside so it costs energy to import more) is termed active transport.

    4. Wnt signaling

      Wnt signaling is group of a pathways that regulate gene transcription and growth. Normally APC controls and limits growth that Wnt stimulates but when APC is deleted or mutated Wnt signaling is uncontrolled and leads to cancer formation.

    5. APC,

      Adenomatous Polyposis Coli is a tumor suppresor gene meaning that when it is functional, APC controls cell growth and prevents tumor formation. When it becomes mutated or deleted (as in the mouse models), uncontrolled cell growth leads to tumor formation.

    6. endocrine systems

      A system of glands in the body that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, mood, sleep, development etc.

    7. metabolic syndrome

      A cluster of factors such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat and abnormal cholesterol which contribute to diseases such as diabetes, heart-disease and strokes.

    8. confounders

      Multiple factors at play which can affect an outcome or result. In this case it is impossible to separate the variables of obesity, which causes a host of complications such as high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol, from the direct effects of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    9. serum

      The fluid component of blood left after cells and clotting factors are removed.

    10. intestinal lumen

      Lumen; The inside space of a tubular structure. The intestine is a long digestive organ that contains a tube of cells which absorb nutrients of food that is passing through the inside of the tube, which is called the intestinal lumen.

    11. tumor grade i

      A scale on which tumors are judged by abnormality and the cells' likelihood to spread.

    12. high-fructose corn syrup

      A sweetener made from corn starch. It contains a mixture of glucose and fructose molecules which taste the same and have the same calories, though they are processed differently in the body.

    13. tumorigenesis

      formation of cancerous clusters of cells (tumors), where cell growth is uncontrolled

    14. AMP deaminase (AMPD2)

      define

    15. tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

      Tandem means having two in a row. and mass spectrometry is a method used to analyze samples to look at chemical makeup by looking at charge-to-mass signatures of individual atoms in a sample. Putting two mass spectrometers in a row increases the sensitivity of this method so that ions that are close in mass can be told apart. A great analogy and explanation can be found in this Youtube video.

    16. distal

      adjective; far from the center. The end-most part of the intestines.

    17. radiolabeled

      define

    18. ad libitum

      adverb; as much as desired. The authors put high-fructose corn syrup in water for the mice to drink as much as they wanted.

    19. myriad

      Noun; large and diverse amount of

    20. Define APC

    1. postmitotic neurons

      Mature cells that are not capable of cell division.

      Question that is being addressed here is: Compared to immature/developing neurons, does mature cells have a different machinery (or set of mechanisms) to synthesize RNA and different neurotransmittters?

    2. inhibitory

      A neurotransmitter that has reduced effects on the neurons.

    3. membrane depolarization

      Refers to a process during which a cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution. At rest, the membrane of a neuron has a potential of -60 to -70 millivolts (mV). This means the inside of the cell is negatively charged relative to the outside. Depolarization is when the potential becomes less negative than the resting potential.

    4. neosynaptogenesis

      "Neo" meaning new, "synaptogenesis" referring to the formation of connections between neurons.

    5. pontine

      Refers to the group of neurons present in the pons of the brain.

      The pons is a brain region that links the medulla and the mid-brain. It serves as a message station between several areas of the brain.

    6. Depolarizing concentrations of K+

      Learn more about action potentials and membrane depolarization with Khan Academy. See also their video here.

    7. S.E.

      Stands for standard error, a measure to test how far the mean of the sample is from the estimated mean of the population.

    8. neural crest

      A structure that gives rise to the peripheral nervous system and non-neuronal cells.

    9. carotid body

      These bodies, consisting of receptors and cells, are located near the carotid arteries. There are two carotid arteries that run on either side of the neck, carrying blood to the neck, face, and brain.

    10. epibranchial placode

      A structure that gives rise to neurons and other structures in the nervous system.

      Learn more about placodes with another annotated paper: https://www.scienceintheclassroom.org/research-papers/hair-feathers-and-scales-evolutionary-tale

    11. transcriptional level

      A regulation that controls the conversion of DNA to RNA in organisms. Learn more with this HHMI BioInteractive video.

    12. regulation

      A set of codes that helps the organism adapt and maintain life.

      In this instance, regulation occurs at the gene level to adapt to environmental conditions.

    13. adrenal

      A gland situated above the kidneys. Adrenal glands produce a variety of hormones.

    14. neurohumoral products

      Neuroendocrine cells are the cells that receive input from neurons and release a hormone into blood for output. Any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells are referred to as neurohumoral products.

    15. autonomic-adrenal axis

      Connections between the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal system.

    16. VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)

      A neurotransmitter that can be released from exocrine glands; for instance, sweat glands.

      Functions include relaxation of smooth muscles in the stomach and gall bladder, and contraction of heart muscles.

      It has been shown that in sweat glands, both VIP and acetylcholine (or cholinergic) are released from the same population of neurons.

    17. dopamine-β-hydroxylase

      An enzyme that converts dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine.

    18. neurotransmitter plasticity.

      Plasticity can be defined as the ability of the brain to mold and shape in response to experience. The change can be due to change in the receptors present in the brain, the chemicals itself, or the mechanism by which receptors respond to chemicals. 

      Neurotransmitter plasticity refers to changes in neurotransmitters in response to plasticity.

    19. in vivo

      Experiments that are performed on animals or humans.

    20. vegetative functions

      Functions of the body that are essential for life; e.g., sleeping, eating, breathing, bladder activity.

    21. sympathetic neurons

      The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the nervous system that controls the essential functions of life; for example, blood pressure and heart rate. The neurons present in this system are called sympathetic neurons.

    22. nervous system

      You can think of the nervous system as electrical wiring, transmitting signals to and from different parts of the body. The system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Neurons are cells found in the brain.

    23. peripheral nervous system

      The human nervous system is made up of two components, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS consists of nerves and fibers outside of the brain and spinal cord (which make up the CNS).

    24. peptide transmitters

      These are a class of neurotransmitters. Peptides are made of amino acids or a chain of amino acids.

      Read more about the different neurotransmitters here.

    25. cholinergic

      Refers to the cells that release neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

      Learn more in this video about neurotransmitter release: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/nervous-system-and-sensory-infor/neural-cells-and-neurotransmitters/v/neurotransmitter-release

    26. noradrenergic

      Refers to cells that release the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. An alternative name for norepinephrine is noradrenalin.

    1. Langley

      Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an American astronomer, physicist and inventor. His research on solar and lunar radiation greatly influenced Arrhenius.

      Arrhenius used data from Langley's 1890 publication "The Temperature of the Moon" as the basis for his model.