4,435 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2015
    1. zinc-finger

      Zinc finger is any small, functional, independently folded protein domain that requires coordination of one or more zinc ions to stabilize its structure and is essential for DNA- or RNA-binding protein-protein interactions and membrane association. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11179890

    2. viral titers

      Viral titer is a way to express concentration. It refers to the concentration of viruses in a sample.

    3. intratracheally

      IAV was introduced into the trachea of mice.

    4. RNA interference (RNAi)

      RNAi is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific mRNA molecules. The final result is the depletion of specific target proteins.

    5. aggresome

      Aggresomes are dynamic structures, formed of improperly folded proteins.

    6. ubiquitin

      Ubiquitin is a small regulatory protein that has been found in almost all eukaryotic cells. Ubiquitin binds to proteins and labels them for destruction.

    7. tubulin

      Tubulin is the protein that polymerizes into long chains or filaments that form microtubules, hollow fibers which serve as a skeletal system for living cells.

    8. hemagglutinin

      Hemagglutinin is a glycoprotein found on the surface of the influenza viruses. It is responsible for binding the virus to cells.

    9. conformational change

      A conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.

    10. endosomes

      Endosomes are membrane-bound vesicles, formed via a complex family of processes collectively known as endocytosis, and found in the cytoplasm of virtually every animal cell.

    11. host cell

      A host cell is a living cell invaded by or capable of being invaded by an infectious agent (as a bacterium or a virus).

    12. helical viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs)

      The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA that are encapsidated as individual rod-shaped ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Each RNP contains a viral RNA, a viral polymerase and multiple copies of the viral nucleoprotein (NP).

    13. supramacromolecular

      A supramolecular complex is a well-defined assembly of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. While a supramolecular assembly can be simply composed of two molecules (e.g., a DNA double helix), it is more often used to denote larger complexes of molecules that form sphere-, rod-, or sheetlike species.

    14. capsid

      A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the genetic material of the virus.

    15. single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome

      Viral RNA with a base sequence complementary to that of mRNA; during replication it serves as a template for the transcription of viral complementary RNA. Negative-sense (3' to 5') viral RNA cannot be translated into protein directly. Instead, it must first be transcribed into a positive-sense RNA (5' to 3') which acts as an mRNA. Some viruses (influenza, for example) have negative-sense genomes and so must carry an RNA polymerase inside the virion.

    1. coalescence

      Coalescence is a merging of two units. For example, here the authors consider that Middle East or China are unlikely centers of dog origin because such a scenario would require that ancient wolves and dogs from these areas are united by a common ancestor.

    2. two-phase bottleneck

      A population bottleneck is the reduction of the population size, followed by an expansion, e.g. a small group leaves the first population and immigrates elsewhere.

      This reduction often leads to the loss of genetic diversity in the population; it is called the founder effect.

    3. tochastic effects

      Stochasticity is randomness; in this context, the fact that several lineages mixed resulted in different offspring but each did not recapitulate all the characteristics of its ancestors.

    4. phylogenetically

      A phylogeny is the method to resolve the evolutionary history of a group of species. The relationship between these species can be inferred from various statistical analyses that estimate the genetic relatedness of each species to one another, depending on their differences either in DNA or protein material.

    5. mitochondrialgenomes

      DNA located in the mitochondria. All animal mitochondrial genomes, with a few exceptions, contain the same 37 genes, making them useful as a model for genome evolution.

      Specifically, the comparison of mitochondrial gene arrangements in animals has been critical to inferring ancient evolutionary relationships.

    6. phenotypic variation

      Phenotypic variation is the variability of all observable or measurable characteristics of the individual animals.

    1. phenotypic variation

      Phenotypic variation is the variability of all observable or measurable characteristics of the individual animals.

    2. putative

      Commonly accepted.

    3. tochastic effects

      Stochasticity is randomness; in this context, the fact that several lineages mixed resulted in different offspring but each did not recapitulate all the characteristics of its ancestors.

    4. phenotypic variation

      Phenotypic variation is the variability of all observable or measurable characteristics of the individual animals.

    5. Molecular dating

      Molecular dating is a technique that allows biologists to determine the divergence time for two genes or for two species. It is based on the theory of the molecular clock stating that mutations accumulate in organisms at a stable speed.

      Thus, if you compare genes or protein sequences in different species, you can, assuming you know the speed of variation for these sequences, estimate the age of the last common ancestor.

    6. phylogenetically

      A phylogeny is the method to resolve the evolutionary history of a group of species. The relationship between these species can be inferred from various statistical analyses that estimate the genetic relatedness of each species to one another, depending on their differences either in DNA or protein material.

    7. mitochondrial genomes

      DNA located in the mitochondria. All animal mitochondrial genomes, with a few exceptions, contain the same 37 genes, making them useful as a model for genome evolution.

      Specifically, the comparison of mitochondrial gene arrangements in animals has been critical to inferring ancient evolutionary relationships.

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  2. Feb 2014
    1. Citators- A set of books and online sources that provide the subsequent judicial history and interpretation of reported cases or lists of cases and legislative enactments construing, applying, or affecting statutes. In America, the most widely used citators are Shepard's citations and Keycite.

      Definition of citators.