4,435 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2018
    1. glacial epoch

      The cold, dry period of an ice age in which ice sheets and glaciers reach their maximum extent.

      Arrhenius uses this term interchangeably with "glacial period" and "glaciation".

    2. genial

      pleasant, warm, mild climate

    3. Tertiary

      The Tertiary Period is the geological period prior to the current Quaternary Period (Quaternary Ice Age).

    4. nebulosity

      cloudiness

    5. carbonic acid

      carbon dioxide (CO2) gas

      Throughout the paper, Arrhenius refers to gaseous carbon dioxide as "carbonic acid", the common name used at that time. Today we distinguish between these two different, though related, chemical species. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is produced when carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in and reacts with water, forming an equilibrium.

    6. Physical Society of Stockholm

      Founded in the early 1890's in Stockholm, Sweden, the society was a group of scientists who met regularly to discuss the current questions and latest findings in the physical sciences. Arrhenius was one of the founders and among those who were interested in "cosmic physics", which was similar to what we call "Earth science" today.

    1. circuit elements

      The brain is a highly interconnected network of neurons that project to distant regions. It is in this network that neurons can connect in very specific patterns to form a "circuit," or a specific path that has been mapped to a specific function.

    2. axons

      A long, threadlike projection from a neuron's cell body that conducts impulses from one cell to the next.

    3. glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 67 (GAD67) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

      GAD67 is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting glutamate to GABA. GABA is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the nervous system.

    1. phyletic

      Has evolved in some way.

    2. invasive species

      any kind of living organism that is not native to an ecosystem and causes harm. They can harm the environment, the economy, or even human health.

    3. parasites

      An organism that benefits from living from a host which is another organism.

    4. paraphyletic

      having a common ancestor.

    5. blastula

      early stage of development

    6. asexually

      Reproduction without a male and female.

    7. glycoproteins

      proteins that have carbohydrate groups.

    8. heterotrophic

      An organism that can make food.

    9. transcriptomes

      All the genes expressed by mRNA

    10. conservation

      means preserved.

    11. sequencing

      In this case, RNA and DNA are aligned to facilitate gene expression.

    12. genomes

      a complete set of genes that carry information in an organism.

    13. invertebrates

      an animal that does not have a backbone

    14. metazoan

      means a living organism that is multicellular.

    1. oxidative stress

      Reactive oxygen species inhabit the cell and can result in harm and lead to irregular protein and RNA transcription. By being unable to remove and detoxify the reactive oxygen species, then an imbalance between the cell and body is created as a source of stress which can lead to further detrimental effects.

    2. loci

      The fixed position of a chromosomal unit which can carry a specific gene or origin of a phenotype trait.The position is usually used in order to determine what other factors attribute to a characteristic change.

    3. concomitantly

      Associated.

    4. assays

      An analytical technique to precisely measure and observe the certain behaviors of an factor or subject. The results is typically an intensive property of the target of the assay in numerical terms.

    5. C-terminal domain

      The end of an amino acid chain signified by a carboxylic group.They are usually the end of protein synthesis , and has signals in the shape of sequences to retain and sort certain protein.

    6. western blot

      A method to detect and analyze specific amino acids sequences in certain proteins. The proteins are extracted which is then used with this analytical tool to determine the antibodies they bind to.The sample is then put under electrophoresis and transferred onto a membrane.

    7. hydrophobicity

      The state of being repelled from water due to the lack of attraction. This is normally caused by shifting polarities of cells and molecules.

    8. mortality

      Large scale death.

    9. sentinel organisms

      Sentinel organisms are defined as organisms used to detect risks for humans through advanced warnings. In this case, for the Eastern Oysters. Ex: Canaries in coal mines.

    10. brunt

      The worst of a specifed thing (HABs).

    11. aerosolized

      Suspended in air.

    12. Schematic

      Another way of saying a model or figure.

    13. biotoxins

      a substance produced by an organism. An example is when there is an accumulation in shellfish. If the shellfish is ingested by a human it can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which can cause damage to the nervous system and can paralyze muscles.

    14. aquaculture

      When aquatic animals and plants are raised and grown for food.

    15. phosphorylation

      When a phosphate group is added to a compound. Many times the addition of a phosphate results in a conformational change which can activate or deactivate the compound.

    16. histone

      Proteins found in chromatin.

    17. phenotypic

      The physical outward expression of a gene due to an organism's genotype.

      Genotype is based off of the coded alleles of an organism.

    18. epigenetic

      DNA is not changed. Instead its the genes that are expressed or inactivated change in an organism.

    19. brevetoxins

      Brevetoxins are neurotoxins produced by Karenia brevis.

      These neurotoxins accumulate in shellfish and is the cause of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP).

      NSP will cause disruption of neurological processes in humans.

    20. algal proliferations

      Proliferation is the rapid increase in cell growth or organism reproduction.

      Algal proliferation, in this paper, is the rapid growth of a the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    21. DNAmethylation

      In DNA Methylation, a methyl group is added to the DNA in order to change the activity of the DNA segment. (For example: turning an "off" gene "on").

    22. Florida Red Tides

      Discolored red patches of coastal waters caused by harmful algal bloom.

    1. hyperspatial

      Using three or more dimensional spaces in imaging techniques.

    2. hyperspectral

      Imaging used to collect and process information across different wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. The goal of hyperspectral imaging is to locate objects, identify materials, or detect processes. For example, this type of imaging has been used to detect early warning signs of disease in agricultural settings. This aids phenology in how individual species are identified and analyzed.

    3. cambial activity

      In plants, the layer of actively dividing cells that is responsible for secondary growth of stems and roots.

    4. keystone

      A keystone species is one that plays a particularly important role in an ecosystem; a species in which other species in a shared ecosystem depend on for survival.

    5. desiccation-tolerant

      The ability of an organism to withstand extreme weather conditions (such as drought).

    6. desiccation-sensitive

      The inability of an organism to withstand extreme weather conditions (such as drought).

    7. coexisting conspecifics

      Conspecific: individuals belonging to the same species.

      Coexisting conspecifics: two species living together in the same habitat.

      Extreme changes in climate decreases organisms' (of the same species) abilities to live together in the same habitat. This could be due to competition for resources.

    8. reproductive isolation

      Barriers that prevent different species from interbreeding. These could include isolation between habitats (physical barriers), behavioral isolation (differences in mating rituals), or mechanical isolation (incompatible reproductive structures).

    9. Intraspecific variation

      Variation within a species group or between individuals of the same species.

    10. biomes

      A large naturally occurring community of plants and animals in a specific climate. Some examples of biomes include the tundra, forests, grasslands, and deserts.

    11. clades

      A group of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor.

    12. biomass

      The complete mass of a living organism or the collective mass of entire community of living organisms. Biomass can be measured in total weight (with water) or dry weight.

    13. hybridize

      The interbreeding between two individuals of a different species or variety of species.

    14. physiognomy

      The assessment of an organism's functions based on the outer appearance of the organism.

    15. taxonomic

      Relating to the classification of organisms based on their shared characteristics.

    16. animal symbionts

      Two organisms of different species depend on each other for survival.

    17. defaunation

      The loss of organisms from ecological communities.

    18. temperate

      A forested ecosystem that receives heavy rainfall and contains primarily deciduous and some trees.

    19. folivorous

      A folivore is an herbivore that primarily consumes leaves (foliage).

    20. biocontrol measures

      Biocontrol measures or biological control is a method of controlling pests using natural enemy organisms. For example, mites, insects, and pathogens have all been used to eliminate invasive species.

    21. phytophagous insects

      Insects that feed on green plants.

    22. photosynthesis

      The process by which autotrophic organisms use the suns energy to make its own food. An autotroph is an organism that does not rely on anything but itself for ways of gathering essential nutrients. Phenology can change the rates at which photosynthesis in tropical plants.

    23. carbon sequestration

      The process by which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in a physical structure (e.g. oceans, terrestrial ecosystems, geologic formations). This process can occur naturally or artificially.

    24. primary productivity

      The rate at which organic matter is produced in an ecosystem through photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. For example the amount of carbon that is stored within a tree as a result of photosynthesis. Phenology can determine this rate.

    25. senescence

      The deterioration or aging of the functional characteristics of an organism. Leaf senescence is the last stage in leaf development. During leaf senescence, nutrients are eventually reused by the plant in other areas. For example, nitrogen from lost leaves is later used for the creation of stem proteins. This is key for understanding how plants grow and how plants cycle energy and matter.

    26. Leaf flushing

      The appearance of a large number of new leaves in a relatively short period of time. New leaves are produced simultaneously on all branches of a bare plant.

    27. conservation practices

      The process of managing an ecosystem to achieve maximum diversity in plant species in order to have a healthy fitness level within the ecosystem. Understanding changes in plant phenology will be necessary in order to develop the most effective conservation practices.

    28. citizen science

      The collection and analysis of ecological data by the public alongside scientists.

    29. dendrochronology

      A scientific method of dating historical events using the growth pattern of tree rings. These rings can be used to analyze the atmospheric conditions that would've existed during a specific time period.

    30. herbaria

      A collection of dried plants.

    31. edge effects

      Changes in community structures that occur at the outermost boundaries of a habitat. The edges of a habitat are its first defense against extreme weather conditions and other harmful disturbances. Phenology can help determine how edges in an ecosystem change over time.

    32. habitat fragmentation

      Habitat loss due to the division of large, continuous habitats, into smaller isolated patches of habitats.

    33. bottom-up trophic organization

      Hierarchal levels within a food chain. Bottom-up trophic organization is ordered as 1.) producer, 2.) primary consumer, 3.) secondary consumer, and 4.) tertiary consumer.

    34. species niche concept

      The role that an individual organism has in its respective ecosystem. An individual's niche includes its methods of survival (acquiring food, shelter, etc), how it reproduces, and all other interactions it has with the abiotic and biotic factors in its environment. Changes in plant phenology can affect the ability of organisms in a community to live and survive amongst each other.

    35. community-level coexistence theory

      The coexistence between two competing species in a community results from stabilizing (different niches) and equalizing forces (similar fitness). Equalizing forces reduce differences in fitness between two or more species, which makes competition relatively equal between them. Stabilizing forces promote greater competition between individuals of the same species as opposed to competition between two or more separate species.

    36. ecosystem services

      Contributions from the natural environment that benefit human populations. In this case, the medicinal value that may be present in the plants within the tropical environment.

    37. herbivores

      An organism that feeds on plant material.

    38. detritivores

      Organisms that break down organic matter, primarily detritus. Detritus includes dead organisms and fecal materials.

    39. decomposers

      Organisms that break down organic material, primarily the remains of other dead organisms. An example is the denitrification done by bacteria in order for plants to obtain natural nitrogen.

    40. synchrony of plant reproduction

      Whether or not plant reproductive processes (e.g. flowering) occur at the same time in a particular population. Synchrony of reproduction can either be advantageous or disadvantageous for a plant. For example, plants that reproduce within the same time period increase the number of potential plants with which an individual can exchange genes. However, if a large proportion of plants in a population are reproducing at the same time, seedling death could increase as a result of density-dependent processes.

    41. photoperiod

      The amount of time within a 24-hour period in which an organism is exposed to light; generally the length of a day.

    42. biogeochemical processes

      Biological, geological, and chemical processes in which elements and other substances are moved through living systems and the surrounding environment.

    43. global warming

      The gradual increase in the overall temperature of Earth's atmosphere as a result of the greenhouse effect (trapping of the sun's warmth in the atmosphere), increased atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gasses, and pollution.

    44. phenological events

      Living and non-living factors control what physical attributes are expressed in a plant species, due to changing environmental stresses.

    45. temporal

      Relating to time. Temporal ecology focuses on the timing of ecological processes; for example, the timing of flowering events.

    46. spatial

      Relating to space. Spatial ecology focuses on the distribution of species. By understanding how the distribution of species changes overtime, scientists can better understand the ecological influences of climate change.

    47. exotic and invasive species

      Invasive and exotic species are organisms that are either native or non-native to a particular ecosystem and could potentially cause harm to systems within that ecosystem.

    48. anthropogenic disturbances

      Disturbances (in this case, ecological) as a result of human activities (e.g., agricultural practices, technology, and urbanizations).

    49. mutualistic interactions

      A relationship between two organisms of different species in which each benefit from the other. For examples, yucca moths lays their eggs in the flowers they pollinate; the eventual yucca larvae consume the flowers' seeds.

    50. species diversity

      The number and abundance of the various species living in an ecological community. Species abundance is the number of a specific species relative to surrounding species within that community.

    51. evolutionary biology

      A subfield of biology that focuses on the evolutionary processes (mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection) that eventually resulted in the diversity of life on Earth, originating from a common ancestor.

    52. ecology

      The study of the relationships between all of the organisms within an ecosystem and their surrounding environment. Like in this paper looks at how plants interact with their environment and the changing climate.

    53. biometeorology

      The study of the interactions between living organisms and their surrounding atmospheric conditions. Some examples include, the relationship between agricultural yields and weather, plant tolerance to extreme weather conditions, and the impacts of pollution on plant species.

    54. global change

      Changes in system processes within Earth's biosphere. The system includes land, oceans, the atmosphere, biodiversity, and the impact of human activities on key processes. An example is the effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on sea levels and permafrost melting.

    55. Phenology

      The study of life cycle events in living things; more specifically, the timing of these life cycle events. For example, a phenologist might study migratory patterns, hibernation cycles, seed dispersal, and dormancy. In this study, phenology is used to help scientists understand the effects of a changing climate.

    1. covariate

      A variable similar to the independent variable, that is observed and can help increase the results of the experiment.

    2. reciprocal transplant experiment

      The reciprocal transplant experiment is an experiment where organisms from two or more environments are introduced to each other.

      The experiment is commonly used to test how well the organisms adapt, and sources of growth variation (genetic or environmental).

    3. two-dimensional NMDS ordination

      It stands for Two-dimensional non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination and is used to visualize how similar individual cases of a dataset are on a small axes.

      Example:

    4. chlorophyll

      Chlorophyll is a green pigment that is found in the chloroplasts of algae and plant cells. It works well to absorb sunlight which is then used to make carbohydrates, through a process called photosynthesis.

    5. morphological

      Relating to the form or structure of things, having to do with somethings physical appearance/structure.

    6. qualitative

      Referring to something's qualities, not numerical but categorical. Can be described with words, not numbers.

    7. chromatography

      A process of separation where components are distributed; in this case the chemical components of the gas.

    8. pubescence

      Pubescence in this context means small hairs or short down on the leaves and stems of various plants.

    9. phenotypic plasticity

      A genotypes ability to change as an adaptation to the environment. This refers to the plant's distribution of resources.

    10. regression

      Regression analysis is a statistical model made up up of a series of processes used to understand how the dependent variable changes when any of the independent variables are modified.

    11. Protium subserratum Engl.

      http://www.discoverlife.org/nh/tx/Plantae/Dicotyledoneae/Burseraceae/Protium/subserratum/images/Protium_subserratum,_baby_leaf_bottom.JP80262_88.320.jpg

      The Protium subserratum Engl. is the name of a species that has distinct defense mechanisms and is in the genus Protium, which are flowering plants in the family Burseraceae.

    12. parapatric distribution

      Parapatric distribution refers to a distributional pattern where pairs of taxa are partially overlapping or have separate but adjacent distributions, typically along common boundaries.

    13. incipient speciation

      incipient meaning the beginning of a process and speciation is the diverging of similar species into two or more differing species due to evolution

    14. reciprocal

      Having to do something to both side, the bearing or binding of 2 parties equally.

    15. gradients

      Describes different sides in comparison to each-other, a gradient can be in reference to water pressure as well as many other things.

    16. herbivore to circumvent or detoxify defenses

      An example of this defense is how a monarch butterfly caterpillar holds on to a milkweed's toxins to then use it for their own protection and survival.

    17. beta-diversity

      The over all number of differing variations in the region.

    18. Environmental gradients

      A progressive change over time of the nonliving factors that make up an environment examples of nonliving factors in an environment would be altitude, temperature, depth, humidity etc.

    19. habitat-mediated speciation

      Habitat-mediated speciation is the emergence of different species throughout evolution, brought about by the natural environment and its effects.

    20. chlorophyll

      Chlorophyll is a green pigment that is found in the chloroplasts of algae and plant cells. It works well to absorb sunlight which is then used to make carbohydrates, through a process called photosynthesis.

    21. hemipterans

      Hemipterans are an order of insects that share the common characteristic of a sucking mouthpart. Beatles are different because they have chewing mouthparts.

    22. chrysomelid beetles

      Chrysomelid beetles are commonly known as leaf bugs. Their food course are leaves .

    23. ecotypes

      The word ecotypes refers to different species of a plant or animal living in a specific habitat.

    24. plant defense allocation

      Allocation refers to the distribution of something for a specific purpose.

      Plant defense allocation is one of the ways a plant can protect itself, its resources and reduce the impact of herbivores.

    25. posits

      Posits are statements or arguments that are assumed to be true.

    26. Herbivores

      Herbivores are animals who get their energy by eating plants.

    27. flora

      Flora refers to the diverse plant life that is within a specific region, or time period.

      In this case, it's the plant life in the tropics; tropical flora.

    1. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods

      MCMC methods are a class of algorithms for sampling from a probability distribution. By constructing a Markov chain, a sample of the desired distribution by observing the chain after a number of steps.

    2. thaw degree days (TDDs)

      TDDs are negative when over zero degrees celcius (thawing) and positive when under zero degrees celcius (freezing). Best for comparing arctic temperatures across specific time periods.

      http://psc.apl.washington.edu/nonwp_projects/landfast_ice/freezing.php

    3. graminoid

      Herbaceous (having no stem above ground) plant with grass-like features.

    4. Remote sensing

      It may take a lot of work to study plants at extreme environments like the tundra. Remote sensing facilitates the studying of plants without having to come in contact with them.

      Watch this video by MonkeySee https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sBI3MIbzIBA

    1. osmeteria

      A defensive organ found in all papilionid (from the family of Swallowtail butterflies) larvae, in all stages.

    2. pupate

      To become a pupa.

    3. overdispersion

      The presence of greater variability (statistical dispersion) in a data set than would be expected based on a given statistical model.

    4. logistical constraints

      The planning, implementation, and coordination of the details of a business or other operation.

    1. spatial abundance pattern.

      Spatial and temporal abundance patterns relate to the study. Temporal abundance pattern has to do with quantity over a period of time and spatial abundance patterns have to do with quantity over a particular area of space.

    2. temporal monitoring studies

      Temporal monitoring is monitoring that is conducted over time.

    3. focal species

      Focal species are species that are extremely sensitive to the changes in an environment.

    4. site-fidelity

      Side-fidelity, also known as philanthropy, is the likelihood of a particular organism to stay in a set habitat, or to return to it. There are many reasons to this, such as breeding and food abundance.

    1. phenology

      the study of cyclic and seasonal natural phenomena, especially in relation to climate and plant and animal life.

    2. metabolic scope

      is a suitable gauge for assessing the environmental influence on fish biological performance (Fry 1971)

    3. ILD

      Isothermal Layer Depth

    4. SST

      Sea Surface Temperature

    5. spatiotemporal information

      Information relative to the space and time of the tagged fish.

    6. heterogeneity

      The quality or state of being diverse in character or content.

    7. interpolated

      insert (something of a different nature) into something else

    8. CCLME

      California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), along the Mexico and California coasts

    9. HIF

      Stands for Heat Increment of Feeding.

    10. peritoneally

      Located in the abdominal cavity.

    11. hitherto

      Until now or until the point in time under discussion

    12. viscerally

      Internal organs within the main cavities of the body.

    13. sinuous

      means having many curves or turns.

    14. a proxy for feeding

      authorization of feeding.

    15. Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis)

      The Pacific bluefin tuna are smaller than the Atlantic bluefin tuna. It reaches the maximum length of 3m and a maximum weight of 540kg.

    16. quantified

      express or measure of quantity.

    17. garnered

      means gathering or collecting.

    18. niche

      conditions under which an animal lives

    1. teleomorphic

      The sexual life stage of the fungi where cells become polarized, or have two obvious ends, and through cell division form long structures called hyphae. In some fungi, the individual cells are multinucleate. Only some fungi are capable of this form of reproduction; for example, baker’s yeasts used in beer fermentation are not able to grow this way.

    2. radiations

      Genetic or molecular diversification. As genetic changes occur over time (evolution), diversity will increase within a group, illustrated by branching on a phylogenetic tree.

    3. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

      A variation in a single base pair (A, T, C, G) in a DNA sequence. Some sites in a gene are more likely to mutate than others. Phylogenetic information is based on genetic differences between organisms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provide the most information.

    4. transcriptomics

      A way to study what genes are being expressed and at what level. All messenger RNA (mRNA) is collected from a sample and each mRNA is counted to measure gene expression. The more copies of mRNA associated with a specific gene, the more highly expressed that gene is.

      To learn more about gene expression through transcription, see https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/dna-transcription-basic-detail

    5. lichen thalli

      Generally, lichen thallus (singular form of thalli) types fall into four basic growth forms: crustose, squamulose, foliose, and fruticose.

      Lichen thalli can develop into a diverse range of structures: multiple-branched tufts; flat, leaf-like structures; filamentous structures; and aggregates of tiny plates.

    6. parasites

      Organisms that live on or inside another organism and get their food from or at the expense of their host.

    7. nomenclatural synonyms

      The naming of all living species is governed by rule books called codes of nomenclature. According to these rules, if it is discovered that the same organism has been named twice, for instance by different people who didn’t know each other at different times, then the older name is given priority and the second name becomes a “synonym."

      In this case, studies of the main fungal partner in Bryoria fremontii and B. tortuosa showed that they are genetically identical, and thus the two names technically should become nomenclatural synonyms. If this rule would be followed through here, the older name (Bryoria fremontii) must be used because it is older. However, the authors chose not to follow the rule so that they would still have names to use to discuss the two different lichen phenotypes

    8. molecular clock

      The molecular clock theory posits that changes (mutations) occur at a constant rate, and that we can use the number of changes between any two sequences to find out approximately when the sequences diverged from one another. To apply a molecular clock to a phylogeny one must use a rooted tree (see Figure 2A).

    9. phylogenomic

      Data used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships, such as in a phylogenetic tree, except extracted at the scale of the whole genome.

    10. contigs

      From the word contiguous, meaning a continuous set of DNA sequences.

    11. photobiont

      The photosynthesizing partner in the symbiotic relationship; in this case, a type of alga.

    12. lichen symbiosis

      Watch a video from the Havard Museum of Natural History about what defines a lichen. This video describes lichens, symbiosis, and the lichen life cycle. Notice that the video makes no reference to basidiomycete yeasts.

    1. cohort

      Group.

    2. cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA)

      Since flies do not have verbal language, they communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemicals known as chemosensory cues. Different cues can have different meanings. For instance, some cues released by the female can signal to the male that she is ready to mate. Other cues, like the one described here (cVA), can signal that the female is no longer looking to mate, thus driving away any unwanted males.

    3. odorants

      Chemicals with distinct smells.

    4. conditioning assays

      An experimental method used to determine if and how much an animal enjoys one thing over another. The concept behind this is similar to a two-choice preference assay (described earlier). In this particular experiment, the researchers used a Y maze.

      As shown in the diagram, the animal starts in one prong of the maze (the picture here depicts a rat, but the researchers in the current study used flies). The other two prongs of the maze are each loaded with one of the two options being presented to the animal. This could be a food reward, a physical object, an odor, etc. Whichever of the two prongs the animal opts to spend the most time in is considered its preferred choice.

    5. surfeit

      Excess.

    6. deficit

      Shortage.

    7. down-regulation

      A genetic manipulation wherein the expression of a gene is reduced. In this case, the authors want to experimentally reduce the amount of NPF or NPF receptors (NPFR) that the flies are producing in order to inhibit the function of the NPF molecule. This is accomplished by down-regulating the genes that cause NPF or NPFR to be made.

      Think of a gene as a radio with a volume knob. The cell is always making the molecules that the gene dictates (aka playing music on the radio), but a scientist can turn the knob to reduce the amount of the molecule that is produced (turn down the volume).

    8. immunohistochemistry

      A technique for detecting the presence of particular substance in cells. Typically, this is done by taking the cells of interest and pouring a specialized, colored dye over them. This dye is selectively attracted to the substance that you are interested in—wherever the substance is present, the dye will stick. If the molecule you are searching for is not present, the dye will simply wash off. This technique can therefore be used to detect where in a group of cells a molecule might be present, as well as how much of that molecule is present in that location. In this experiment, the researchers poured a dye that sticks to NPF over sections of the flies' brains in order to detect how much NPF was present.

    9. restraint stress

      An experimental method for causing rodents to experience stress. Specifically, restraint stress involves placing a mouse in a small plastic tube. This tube is tight enough to prevent the mouse from moving too much. This inability to move causes the mice to experience intense discomfort and stress.

    10. Caenorhabditis elegans

      A species of worm that is often used to study the effects of various genes. C. elegans are used because all of their genes are known, they are relatively easy to genetically manipulate, and they have a number of genetic similarities to human beings and other mammals.

    11. homolog

      Researchers have found a number of genes in Drosophila flies that are remarkably similar in composition to genes that are found in people. Often, these highly similar genes between the two species serve overlapping functions as well. Such similar (but not completely identical) genes that exist across species are referred to as homologs of one another. As an analogy, if you think of an iPhone as a gene, then an iPhone 6 and an iPhone 8 might be considered homologs of one another in that they are extremely similar in a number of ways, but not quite identical.

    12. cuticle

      The outermost layer of the Drosophila's body. Often, chemical cues used for communication between flies are found on the cuticle layer.

    13. aversive

      Unpleasant, often used to describe stimuli in experiments.

    14. copulation

      Another word for sex.

    15. receptive virgin females

      Female flies, who have never mated before, that accept the sexual advances of males, and will often mate with them. For this reason, they are considered "receptive" to the act of mating.

    16. courtship conditioning

      Refers to a type of commonly employed behavioral model in Drosophila research. In this model, a male is exposed to a female who has already mated with a different fly. The male Drosophila will attempt to court the female by carrying out a series of behaviors such as tapping her with his forelegs, or singing her a song. However, since the female has already mated, she will not be receptive to these attempts, and the male fly will experience sexual rejection. This leads to an overall reduction in the male's courtship attempts.

    17. a cue

      In behavioral neuroscience, cues refer to elements in one's environment that predict an upcoming event. For example, the ringing of the school bell at noon might be considered a cue for lunch. Cues are important because they often take on the ability to motivate organisms to do things, even though cues themselves have no inherent value.

    18. genetically tractable

      Something that is tractable is easy to control or influence. The genetics of the Drosophila fruit fly are considered tractable because we are aware of every single gene in this species, and it is easy to engineer flies that possess or lack specific genes. This ability to insert or remove specific genes from a fly's DNA allows scientists to understand the roles that these genes play.

    19. addictive behavior

      In neuropsychology, addictive behaviors are a specific class of behaviors that one might exhibit while suffering from addiction. An example of an addictive behavior would be compulsive pursuit of a specific substance/activity, in spite of negative consequences associated with doing so.

    20. reward systems

      Refers to a set of interconnected brain areas that are involved in the appraisal and pursuit of reward. Examples of such areas include the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens. These brain regions rely heavily on the use of a chemical called dopamine to communicate with one another. Source of image: http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_03/d_03_cr/d_03_cr_que/d_03_cr_que.html

    21. ethanol

      The common chemical name for alcohol. In a beverage such as wine, for instance, the sugar in the grapes gets converted into ethanol during the fermentation process. This is what makes wine alcoholic.

    22. neural pathways

      Refers to a set of neurons in the brain that work together towards some common goal. This goal can be very tangible, such as regulating a certain behavior. Often, these cells are connected to one another in a way that allows them to communicate, somewhat similar to a circuit of wires that one may expect to find in an electronic appliance.

    23. Drosophila melanogaster

      The scientific name for the common fruit fly. These flies are often used in neuroscience research because their nervous systems are relatively simple, and they share a number of genes in common with humans.A picture of a *Drosophila* fly

    24. Drugs of abuse

      A term for drugs that can become addictive and lead people to use them improperly due to their rewarding properties. This includes illegal drugs such as cocaine, but also legal ones such as Oxycontin.

    1. basal breeds

      A group of 16 dogs breeds, which are distinct from modern dogs because their DNA is less mixed. Basal breeds include: Afghan hound, Akita, Alaskan Malamute, American Eskimo, Basenji, Canaan, Chow Chow, Dingo, Eurasier, Finnish Spitz, New Guinea singing dog, Saluki, Samoyed, Shar-Pei, Shiba Inu, and the Siberian Husky.

    2. Neolithic

      Marks the final stage of the time period known as the Stone Age.

  2. Nov 2018
    1. secondary gene flow

      Genetic variation is transferred from one population to another, two times over. That is, after the first transfer, there is a period of separation between the two populations and then genetic variation is transferred again.

    2. divergence times

      The date in evolutionary history when different populations of dogs split from each other.

    3. genotyped

      A type of technology that detects small genetic differences that occur in the DNA of a population.