264 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
    1. Folks ain’t ready for

      Interestingly, though placed in quotation marks, it seems relatively clear from context that this story is not a direct quote from another book or someone's speech. It is Hurston's own writing, which, in order to make it more authentic, she has written in dialect, and which, to make it feel more like one of the stories told on the stoop just mentioned, she has situated like a direct quote from one of the storytellers.

      (Unless it is a direct quote and I'm completely wrong, but I'm willing to take that risk given the lack of the citation one would expect in a published work if it was a direct quote.)

    2. Brer Rabbit

      What she wrote about folk lore being affected by outsiders is quite interesting. After so much influence, how authentic are the stories we heard as kids? An obvious example of this, would be the Grimm Fairy Tales, which Walt Disney and others turned into children's stories. Also, the common folktale images of Casey Jones and John Henry have evolved (or maybe devolved) into something that is likely very different from their original form. I can't speak for everyone, but I too grew up to the stories of Brer Rabbit and Brer Bear. However, how dissimilar to the original (if there can be truthful/original "lies") were they?

    1. Villiam here conceived the notion of writing an ode upon the affecting subject of those relics of hun1an society found in that grand and solitary region.

      I cannot help but wonder if this was the inspiration for Michael, which begins with such a "reli[c] of human society" (the organized but unused stones of the sheep-fold) in the same "grand and solitary" landscape.

    2. Villiam here conceived the notion of writing an ode upon the affecting subject of those relics of hun1an society found in that grand and solitary region.

      It is good to see that William Wordsworth did indeed take inspiration from what was around him and, it can be assumed, how he felt about those things. This spontaneous idea feels more authentic than taking a line from another's recollections.

    3. Wordsworth's sister's manuscript (also quoted by the editor of our text of "The Solitary Reaper") of which we have a small selection, was written in 1803-5, revised from memory in 1822, and not published until 1874.

      Annotation instructions: please comment on this text or on the short text from Thomas Wilkinson. You have free rein; the question I'm most interested in is the ways in which these texts make you feel differently about Wordsworth's poem. Questions of authenticity, I suspect, will emerge....

    1. Passed a female who was reaping alone : she sung in Erse as she bended over her sickle ; the sweetest human voice I ever heard: her strains were tenderly melancholy, and felt delicious, long after they were heard no more

      It seems like the obvious thing to say, but I find this somewhat alarming. Or, at least to my twenty-first century ears, what Wordsworth wrote in his "Solitary Reaper" sounds like blatant plagiarism. And, as plagiarism tends to do, this makes me question how many of his works were similarly unauthentic in origin.

    2. Erse

      A name applied by Scottish Lowlanders to the Gaelic language and culture of their Highlander neighbors.

      Source: Oxford English Dictionary (http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/64135?redirectedFrom=erse#eid)

    3. This is the manuscript to which Wordsworth refers in the 1807 footnote (provided by the editor of our copy of "The Solitary Reaper").

      Annotation instructions: please comment on this text or on the short text from Dorothy Wordsworth. You have free rein; the question I'm most interested in is the ways in which these texts make you feel differently about Wordsworth's poem. Questions of authenticity, I suspect, will emerge....

  2. Aug 2017
    1. An old man, stout of heart, and strong

      Authenticity largely revolves around stripping an idea, identity, or some other concept to its core. In some ways, this is the same thing as removing the complexity from the idea, and making it as simple and unembellished as possible. Aside from keeping to his ideas of not using extravagant language, this also allows Wordsworth to portray equally simple, and non-extravagant characters. While I know this is a difficult question to answer, especially with its minor relevance to the actual text, but I was wondering whether or not others would consider this (the simple character) an intentional reference to the idea of authenticity?

    2. WhomI already loved;--not verilyFor their own sakes, but for the fields

      Through a short, pithy reflection on himself, I think Wordsworth here successfully sums up the driving force behind the recurring fascination with the rural, simple, and close to nature that has appeared every decade or so ever since Greek and Roman times. We become fascinated with people close to nature and the lives they lead not because they are, as a class, so superior or so markedly different from any other cross-section of humanity, but because they live in circumstances that often appeal to us, aesthetically, morally, or otherwise.

    3. Or for the summer shade. It was the firstOf those domestic tales that spake to meOf Shepherds, dwellers in the valleys, menWhomI already loved;--not verilyFor their own sakes, but for the fields

      Nature seems to be a very common theme in much of Wordsworth's writing. He definitely enjoys discussing natural settings and the emotional effects that they have on people. Coming from Michigan and being an avid sailor and backpacker, this is completely relatable for me, and I think that this is much more relatable for the common man that Wordsworth was trying to reach than for the traditional literary audience of his time.

    4. Than that a child, more than all other giftsThat earth can offer to declining man,Brings hope with it, and forward-looking thou

      This seems to encapsulate the value of continuing the family tradition and bloodline to the head of a family in a rural community. Desiring your children to continue on the work you did in your life feels like a common trope among stories of people in the country. Without the child to continue on your work everything you, your father, your father's father, and so on will all be for nought and this feeling that Michael has is one of the most essential for a regular everyday shepherd should have.

    5. Of Nature, by the gentle agencyOf natural objects, led me on t

      I think that this line so perfectly ties back to Wordsworth's desire to write in a simple way, in the words of ordinary people. Here he states explicitly that books held no emotion for him, and it was through nature that true feeling was attained. This line resonates with me simply because it is such a pure distillation of one of the central claims Wordsworth makes about his poetry in the Preface.

    6. unenriched with strange e

      This fits with Wordsworth's desire to keep his subject matter realistic while still entertaining. Wordsworth doesn't need some freak occurrence to make his stories appealing to audiences like the novels of his day apparently do. Through his own power of storytelling he can spin interest even out of less than spectacular events.

    7. He with his Father daily

      Phrases like this, while not exactly following the typical syntactical patterns of today, are still easily understood despite their oddness, and in this way I believe that Wordsworth is succeeding in the goal he set out to make in his Preface. He is making his work much easier to understand in the language of the common man (as opposed to the Phoebus passage we viewed in class, which was very unclear and confusing without close inspection) while maintaining the poetry of his piece. He consistently balances this common vernacular and phrasing with the poetic nature evenly throughout the poem.

    8. flockBethought

      This is a side note in a sense, but I was initially confused upon reading this passage that Wordsworth was using a lot of language that is rather unused today, words such as "bethought", "appertain" and "thither". While this confused me at first after a quick google search I found that all of these words were actually quite common in the 1800s, so Wordsworth was indeed maintaining his goal of 'authenticity' and removing himself from more pompous writers. It just didn't seem that way at first to me, a reader in the 21st century.

    9. To evil courses: ignominy and shameFell on him, so that he was driven at lastTo seek a hiding-place beyond the

      With all the time Wordsworth devoted to every other part of the tale, this seems rather sudden. I am not sure why, but the quickness of it bothers me somewhat.

    10. Therefore, although it be a historyHomely and rude, I will relate the sameFor the delight of a few natural hearts

      Wordsworth is making similar claims to those he made in the preface. He is explicitly stating that his tale is simple and everyday, but he hopes that it will still bring pleasure to his readers.

    11. A PASTOR

      In the literary sense of the word: " A literary work portraying rural life or the life of shepherds, esp. in an idealized or romantic form." See the OED definition ii, 3

      My annotation guidelines are in a "page note"!

    12. At the end of the file I've provided the notes furnished by the editor of this text (these include both WW's own explanatory notes, and some additional notes).

      I'm asking you again to annotate your reading, & I've kept things simple this time:

      --one annotation of your own, where you comment on the poem in terms of the ideas we've set up thus far in the class (connecting the poem to the "Preface" or to ideas of authenticity more generally)

      --& one comment on someone else's annotation, where you take up their idea and try to take it one step further!

    1. The only strict antithesis to Prose is Metre; nor is this, in truth, a strict antithesis, because lines and passages of metre so naturally occur in writing prose, that it would be scarcely possible to avoid them, even were it desirable.

      This is key for anyone who's confused by the terms throughout the essay: "meter"="verse"=for example, Shakespeare's iambic pentameter; but if you read enough prose, with an ear tuned to poetic rhythm, you'll find that rhythm creeps in all the time....

    2. concurring testimony of ages

      Wordsworth's sudden willingness to use tradition and past consensus as an argument for the value of meter is striking in the context of the eleven proceeding pages of constructive arguments and opposition to settled poetic norms. Though he goes on to elaborate somewhat on the value and role of meter in poetry, despite saying himself that many critics "greatly underrate the power of metre in itself," he gives it little credit and a strangely limited role.

      It seems to me that meter is one of the two columns of poetry, language being the other, and that its role, though simple, is absolutely crucial: it provides a shortcut directly to the deep, emotional parts of our minds, to the passions, as it was said in Wordsworth's time.

      I realize that the focus of the piece is not on meter since Wordsworth is not disputing its use in poetry, but in the context of arguments otherwise so thoroughly made which lay such a strong claim to being a general theory of poetry, I find it strange that such a central part of the art is relegated to the metaphorical corner throughout the next few paragraphs.

      I would be interested to hear what anyone else thinks of this.

    3. anguage really used by men, and, at the same time, to throw over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual aspect

      This may be a little brash of me, but perhaps Wordsworth did impact portions of the written word in the form of the Imagists. Per their ideals, Imagists write incredibly short poems that have "a certain colouring of imagination." Often times, their poems also revolve around everyday happenings that are represented in a strange manner. So, despite my lack of any concrete evidence, I would say that his dreams were at least accomplished, no matter if it was because of his role in writing.

    4. because in that condition the passions of men are incorporated with the beautiful and permanent forms of nature.

      For me, this is highly reminiscent of Emerson's Nature, in which he described the power of, and the empowerment of man through, nature. Admittedly, Emerson focused rather extensively on religion in the context of nature, but he nonetheless wrote over the goodness of rural life and being close to the land. Also, somewhat begrudgingly, I admit that Emerson's style of writing isn't quite the simple form that Wordsworth wrote about.

    5. advised me to prefix a systematic defence of the theory upon which the Poems were written.

      This is often what scholars usually refer to as the author's "apologetic preface." In other words, that type of a preface is intended to "apologize" to the reader for the author's mistakes or for when they bend the rules of their genre/style.I believe Emily Dickinson and some other early Transcendentalists did this as well, but I could be mistaken. Arguably, Galileo had a preface added to his book, too, so that it would be accepted by the church.

    6. It may be safely affirmed, that there neither is, nor can be, any essential difference between the language of prose and metrical composition

      I see where Wordsworth is coming from. At what point does a poem become prose, or an essay, or something besides poetry? Having read some exceptionally long poems myself, I think this is a reasonable question to ask. Poetry in contrast to prose is typically much shorter, but I think the characteristic that distinguishes poetry is its rhythmic structure. If a poem is not written in verse, with some sort of rhythmic pattern or rhyme scheme, I think that it can hardly be called poetry. This is a very valid question Wordsworth brings up about how we distinguish prose from poetry, but I think that there are ways to make that distinction, and it doesn't all fall in the same pot.

    7. My purpose was to imitate, and, as far as possible, to adopt the very language of men;

      This pursuit truly is admirable. In Wordsworth's time, poetry and literature were not meant for the common man, so his pursuit of writing in such a way to connect with the common man is really ahead of his time. I don't think that many poets of this time would make the steps that Wordsworth is making, not only for fear of judgement from other writers, but because there is a clear social bridge that Wordsworth is trying to cross.

    8. it is this, that the feeling therein developed gives importance to the action and situation, and not the action and situation to the feeling.

      This is really the foundation of Wordsworth's argument. The belief that feelings should inspire action and situation, and that poetry should focus first on delivering a feeling, an experience, rather than focus on events. His claim is that other poets focus on content too much, and they lack the power of emotion in their works. In large part I agree with him, mostly because poetry CAN convey emotion, it can artistically draw a picture of an emotion, portray feelings that other literary forms would struggle with. I agree with Wordsworth that this kind of poetry provides more literary value than an action/content based poem.

    9. way in which we have been accustomed to be pleased.

      This statement, particularly this portion, illustrates that humans tend to prefer that which is familiar. All people do sometimes desire change, but such desires are typically balanced by the love of the familiar.

    10. Catullus, Terence, and Lucretius

      Wordsworth uses these examples to reference ancient Roman works, each of these men living between 200 BC and 50 BC

    11. more permanent, and a far more philosophical

      I think that this is such an interesting point, and one that I agree with. By claiming that the plain language he uses is more permanent and has greater meaning than the flowery language used by other poets, he clearly explains his choices regarding the language used in his poems. I believe that this point can be supported by examining our modern modes of disseminating information. Platforms like Twitter limit the number of characters one can use, forcing people to be concise in their thought, and in spite of that these types of platforms remain wildly popular.

    12. introduction,

      I feel that this expresses that his intent was to preface his poetry, providing some sort of warning or explanation for the reader, allowing them to shift their expectations before reading the works this writing introduces.

    13. we not only wish to be pleased, but to be pleased in that particular way in which we have been accustomed to be pleased.

      This point being made is an extension of the idea that, according to Wordsworth, his time period was shifting toward an era of instant gratification. He means to say that his era is beginning to becoming used to being pleased quickly but also they are growing accustomed to being pleased and satisfied in a similar way repetitively. So Wordsworth believes that this old poetry style is a style that has people entrapped in their traditions, a pattern that can be seen in all forms of art across all time (film, paintings, sculptures...) as well as in every aspect of culture and tradition. Today in 2017 a major cultural change is the shift to using technology for information and reading. While books of old still exist and are used and retained primarily by the older generation, the new era of having technology fill this need is becoming more and more prevalent. Thus the theme that Wordsworth introduces here is not only relevant in his time but topical today as well.

    14. Dr. Johnson’

      Dr. Samuel Johnson was a critic and poet who dominated poetry in the time that Wordsworth wrote and while he did subscribe to a need for a break from traditional poetry in terms of diction and style (he believed it should be less 'lofty') he also still maintained that all poetry should still be somewhat more decorated and fancy than prose writing.

    15. his defect, where it exists, is more dishonourable to the Writer’s own character than false refinement or arbitrary innovation, though I should contend at the same time, that it is far less pernicious in the sum of its consequences.

      Wordsworth means to challenge other writers and their authenticity in their writing of a pompous and more "sophisticated" manner; he intends to propose that to be authentic to one's self in their writing is to be honorable and is in itself indicative of a true poet.

    16. ’such as Angels weep,

      A quotation from Milton's Paradise Lost, from Book I, line 619/620.

      Source: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_1/text.shtml

    17. that each of them has a worthy purpose

      Wordsworth believed his poems were special and superior in a way because he believed they had "purpose". How could his ideas of himself and the quality of his own writing have colored his opinions of the value of his poems and the inferiority of the poems of others?

    18. yet I am sensible, that there would be something like impropriety in abruptly obtruding upon the Public, without a few words of introduction, Poems so materially different from those upon which general approbation is at present bestowed.

      This is a fairly clear, straightforward statement of motive: Wordsworth writes to convince the general public (his audience) of the acceptability and value of his works as poetry (his motive).

    19. Donne

      Donne wrote sonnets about complex ideas, often religious.

    20. choose incidents and situations from common life,

      Wordsworth's motive was to defend his choice of language. He knew his style was different from that of those to which the public was accustomed, but he believed the style was necessary to accurately portray the everyday situations.

    21. Here are my annotation instructions again from the "how things work" / syllabus page:

      1) informational/contextual notations: These sorts of notations are “footnotes”: providing a chunk of information that furnishes helpful context for readers. Different printed editions of texts have different styles of footnotes; I expect that you will make annotations of this sort primarily for your own purposes, or to fill in gaps in the context I’ve provided for you (and I’ll be making these annotations on texts myself!)

      2) rhetorically focused notations: Here we’ll be focusing on what the author is doing and why they are doing it: annotating to enhance our understanding and build a foundation for engaging with the author's argument.

      3) interpretive/analytical notations: Here we get to the kind of thing that might happen in an online “discussion forum.” You will be making claims; offering contexts to show why those claims matter; analyzing texts, events, and ideas to generate evidence to support those claims...

      My instructions for your annotations on this text are as follows. I've provided annotations in category #1; I want you each to make three annotations, one for each category. For #2, I'd like you to comment on some aspect of WW's thesis/motive, since those are the first "Elements of the Essay" I've introduced in our class. For #1 and #3, you have free rein. (An often misused idiom: the metaphor involves horses, monarchs...) Please set your annotations to private until the start of class Tuesday!

      Link your annotation to the specific word/phase/sentence you're commenting on. This is a "page note": don't reply to it, unless you have a question about these instructions.

    22. 1800-180

      Lyrical Ballads first appeared in 1798, without a preface. The volume was a co-production of William Wordsworth and his friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Our text of WW’s “Preface” combines the 1800, 1802, and 1805 versions. The “Preface” was added in 1800 and revised significantly in 1802: I indicate the major 1802 edition with a black underline. (If you simply skip the addition, the sentence picks up in paragraph 22 where it leaves off in paragraph 13—this is how the text looked in 1800, and this is what I want us to focus on!.

      Neither of the two WW poems we have read were included in Lyrical Ballads, but they were part of the same period in WW's career. (They were composed slightly later, in 1804/5; both first appeared in book form in 1807.)

    23. Preface

      WW’s “Preface” is important because in many senses he is “ahead of his time”: he anticipates a perspective that has become our modern perspective. By 1800, a mass, literate public existed and was growing rapidly. What relationship should the ancient traditions of art, particularly literature, have to this rapidly growing audience? How would this public come to understand its own life in and through reading imaginative writing? Discussions of literature around this time (and ever since!) tend to focus on language because literature is made out of language, and language is something used by everybody for many non-artistic reasons all the time. (This makes literature different from classical music, or painting.) And different kinds of language, historically, are associated with different groups of people. Thus, arguments about literary language (“what language should be used?” are always associated with arguments about society (“whose language should be used?”).

      Moreover, Wordsworth’s “Preface” is important because the terms it which defines poetry are terms that would prove hugely influential in the developing understanding of what poetry should do–an understanding we now capture with the term “lyric” poetry.

    24. Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1800-1805

      WW’s prose style is fairly complex–these sentences are longer than modern sentences! The reading will be slow for that reason. I will mention two other possible difficulties: First, the problem of context. WW makes reference to various writers of his own time and of previous eras. It’s not necessary that you know these writers (you’ll all know Shakespeare!), but the best place to start if you want to know a little more is the Wikipedia. (Generally speaking, the more controversial a subject, the less reliable the Wiki entry; I’ll be saying more about this when we start to discuss research methods.) Second, the problem of old-fashioned or complex vocabulary. Here, the Oxford English Dictionary will be your best friend (see our writing “links”).

    1. and that you have a system for annotation

      Do you expect us to maintain our personal annotations and notes in Hypothes.is or simply in any reasonably organized form? In a similar vein, will you be asking to see our annotations/notes on the readings?

    1. Separate prompts for each essay will appear we’ll discuss each essay topic in advance, and write short preparatory assignments (“prelims”) as initial steps towards their completion.

      Will our essay prompts all be focused around authenticity and keeping it real? Will there be a single prompt or are there usually multiple options?

    1. additional absences count as unexcused

      Will you make exceptions for extenuating circumstances such as prolonged illness? I know that is an unlikely situation, but I was just wondering.

    1. counterarguments

      Will you make sure that all arguments are treated equally, even if (or especially if), they are less popular?

    2. makes makes

      I think I may be misreading this. Why are there two "makes"? Also, I'm sorry, but I couldn't find anything else within the syllabus to ask about.

    3. Responding constructively to criticism from one’s peers and incorporating suggestions for improvement in successive revisions

      Will we have assignments where we will revise our classmate's essays?

    1. I fake it so real I am beyond fake.

      When discussing this in class, I took the stance that "beyond fake" referred to the point where what we do becomes who we are. Essentially, we fake something for so long that we become that thing, making it real. I still feel this is true; however, the thought that one can "break free of the real/fake binary", as Turner put it, is a fascinating idea. There could definitely be a state completely separate from either realness or falseness. I do not know what that state might be.

      I found Turner's thoughts about questioning your authenticity to be very interesting. If you think about what you are (real or fake), you would have to have some definition of what is real and what is fake as they pertain to you. In that case, you could in fact cause yourself to be more real by thinking about it, especially if you know that something you are doing is fake. However, I can certainly imagine instances where Turner's concerns are realized. Worrying about how authentic you are will change your attitudes and behaviors, causing you to change.

    2. ‘Know thyself' was written over the portal of the antique world. Over the portal of the new world, 'Be thyself' shall be written.

      Ultimately, I would like to focus on the ideas of movement and exclusion in this quote. On the one hand, my initial reaction to this quote was to view it as a transition in thought and focus as one ages and matures, showing a shift from trying to truly know thyself to attempting to apply that knowledge by being thyself.

      However, as we discussed in class, this quote also implies an entire separation of the two ideas, and was intended to convey a true shift in the thought of an entire time period. While I can understand this point, I think it is only one way of thinking about this concept. I feel that even in the "new age" it is necessary to know oneself before it is possible to BE oneself.

    3. not born, but becomes

      When I analyzed this quote in class, I said that I thought it was referring more to the process of growing up and learning what a woman should be in order to fit into society's mold of a woman. Upon reflecting further, I think that this quote is not only discussing the process of a woman herself adjusting her life to fit the stereotypes but also the world around her beginning to treat her as a woman. One "becomes a woman" not only in her own actions, but in the actions of others and how others perceive her.

      In this way, one is not born a woman because the pressures of the outside world have not yet reached her, and she has not yet learned what she is supposed to be. As time goes on, both personal and societal actions cause her to become a woman.

    1. assigned texts

      Are these the aforementioned readings I highlighted above?

    2. each unit

      How many units will there be in total?

    3. bibliography I provide

      Will the topic of the paper also be provided or will have some to chose from?

    4. Tuesday morning

      Will you be able to go over our essays with us one on one at anytime? Like office hours or such?

    5. Tuesdays and Thursdays

      even Thanksgiving???

    1. how comes it to pass that we die Copies?

      After our in-class discussion, I remembered that some philosophers believe that humanity does not have free will. (Summarized) The argument is that once we are born, we are being constantly shaped by both our internal and external surroundings, so much so that we are completely at the mercy of said environment. Now, I am neither a philosopher nor do I want to debate the idea at the moment, but what if this is true? That suggests that we are molded by what's around us. In other words: We are molded into copies. So, if this idea regarding free will is correct, then the answer to this question is that we are shaped into copies simply by existing.

    2. 2. “I know my heart, and have studied mankind. I am not made like anyone else I have been acquainted with, perhaps like no one in existence; if not better, I at least claim originality, and whether Nature did wisely in breaking the mold with which she formed me, can only be determined after having read this work.”

      Through all of these quotes I am reminded of the word fake. It seems like the word fake is echoed in this quote as well. When I think of the word fake I remember the book Catcher in the Rye. The other of this quote is asserting that he is different and original. In fact the author infers that he or she is of a higher quality because of his or her quirkiness. I think these speaks numbers to the fact that every other quote was mentioning fakiness being associated with similar to others. People play a part to fit in and be a part of society. The author contends that since he or she is unique they are better than other people thus exhibited in his work.

    3. “Born Originals, how comes it to pass that we die Copies?”

      While my partner took the side of nature in the age-old question of nature vs nurture, I chose nurture as I believe we are born Originals or blanks slates in that people are influenced by their environment. I don't think a child can be born racist, but is raised in such ways by racist guardians or parents. To die as Copies, one must emulate the thoughts and actions of another which can happen through teachings and interactions of peers and elders. It can be nearly impossible for someone to be wholly original in today's world due to the fact that we intake information from people and formulate it into an identity. I am who I am because of teachings from school, relationships with friends, and morals from my family, so I can't necessarily say I'm my own self. What does it mean to be original in this modern world? It's hard to claim ideas which have never existed before or aren't similar to any others.

    1. conferences will be scheduled the week prior to a Conference Draft due date.

      Would it be possible for you to provide more detail regarding how this process will work? Will there be three conferences per paper? Thank you!