283 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2017
    1. C. Fissore, J. Espeleta, E. A. Nater, S. E. Hobbie, P. B. Reich, Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset fossil-fuel emissions in the upper midwestern US. Front. Ecol. Environ. 8, 409–413 (2010).

      Fissore's review argues that carbon sequester by forests in the mid-west can not off set fossil fuel based carbon dioxide emissions. The study compares hypothetical scenarios necessary to offset significant proportions of the carbon dioxide emissions by converting landscapes into carbon sequestering species.

    2. R. F. Follett, Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil Tillage Res. 61, 77–92 (2001).

      Follett discusses the role organic soils play in the movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the soil. This review characterizes terrestrial soils as carbon sinks which is important for crop management.

    3. P. B. Reich, D. Tilman, S. Naeem, D. S. Ellsworth, J. Knops, J. Craine, D. Wedin, J. Trost, Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 10101–10106 (2004).

      Reich compares the role of CO2 and N on species richness and functional group diversity.

      This study compares the roles of functional group diversity and species richness has on biomass accumulation in an elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen environment.

    4. R. Sedjo, B. Sohngen, Carbon sequestration in forests and soils, in Annual Review of Resource Economics, G. C. Rausser, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 2012), vol. 4, pp. 126–143

      Sejo discusses the role species richness plays in effecting economic value.

      This review puts emphasis on the role of biodiversity on marginal economic value represented as carbon storage for conservation efforts.

    5. D. A. Fornara, D. Tilman, Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. J. Ecol. 96, 314–322 (2008).

      Fornara reviews the mechanisms that control carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils.

      The review covers the relationships between biodiversity and carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils, with an emphasis on the c3 and c4 grasses.

    6. T. L. Daniels, Integrating forest carbon sequestration into a cap-and-trade program to reduce net CO2 emissions. J. Am. Plann. Assoc. 76, 463–475 (2010).

      Daniels reviews the role forests play in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. His focus however is primarily advocating for including carbon sequester by forests into management plans or a cap-and-trade program.

    7. A. D. Barnosky, N. Matzke, S. Tomiya, G. O. U. Wogan, B. Swartz, T. B. Quental, C. Marshall, J. L. McGuire, E. L. Lindsey, K. C. Maguire, B. Mersey, E. A. Ferrer, Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471, 51–57 (2011).

      Barnosky discusses the events known as mass extinctions and compares the rates of extinction for these events to modern rates of extinction. PB

    8. Increasing species richness from 1 to 10 had twice the economic value of increasing species richness from 1 to 2.

      Each additional degree of species richness is worth less than the previous degree of richness in terms of economic value. Therefore, the economic value does not increase in direct proportion with the species richness, although they are correlated.


    9. B. J. Cardinale, K. L. Matulich, D. U. Hooper, J. E. Byrnes, E. Duffy, L. Gamfeldt, P. Balvanera, M. I. O'Connor, A. Gonzalez, The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. Am. J. Bot. 98, 572–592 (2011).

      Cardinale reviews the roles of primary producer biodiversity with respect to ecological processes critical to the functionality and health of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. PB

    1. predicted secondary structure

      Villordo and peers (2015) studied the cycle of how mosquito viruses could quickly adapt to different human host environments. The changes in RNA structures were examined in the dengue virus during host adaptation. The researchers discovered that the 3’UTR of RNA is modified during host adaptation, such as duplicating the structure to accommodate for beneficial mutations.

    2. Musashi-1

      Sakakibara and peers studied the Musashi-1 protein within a mouse and associated the protein with neural development. Musashi-1 was found to be highly enriched within the central nervous system of mammalian cells, regulate stem cell translation, and can differentiate into neurons through regulation.

    3. interferes specifically with fetal brain development

      Li and others (2016) hypothesized that ZIKV can infect not only developing neuronal stem cells, but also adult brain cells. The results seen were that adults can be affected by the ZIKV. The adult would need to be triply deficient in the regulatory factor for interferon to allow the virus to take hold of the stem cells in the brain.

    4. interferes specifically with fetal brain development

      Li and others (2016) hypothesized that ZIKV can infect not only developing neuronal stem cells, but also adult brain cells. The results seen were that adults can be affected by the ZIKV. The adult would need to be triply deficient in the regulatory factor for interferon to allow the virus to take hold of the stem cells in the brain.

    5. effect on fetal neurodevelopment

      Cugola et al., (2016) found that ZIKV infects fetuses, causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and causes signs of microcephaly in mice. Data demonstrated that the infection of ZIKV into human brain organoids reduced proliferation and disrupted cortical layers. This indicates that ZIKV is able to cross the placenta and cause microcephaly by inducing apoptosis in cortical progenitor cells.

  2. Nov 2017
    1. Gibson J, McField M, Heyman W, Wells S, Carter J, et al. (2004) Belize's Evolving System of Marine Reserves. In: Sobel J, Dahlgren C, editors. Marine Reserves: A Guide to Science, Design and Use. Island Press, Washington, U.S.A.. pp. 287–316.

      This article is used to explain how creating a marine reserve, even though there has not been enough research conducted to prove beneficial, could possibly have the population of carcharhinid shark begin to increase again. - Alejandro

    1. it in-creases hyperexcitability in Abprecursor protein(APP) transgenic mice

      Side effects of phosphorylation

    2. n-hibition of p38aand p38bimproves Ab-induced

      inhibition may have a short term positive effect

    3. Accordingly, the depletion of tau prevents Abtoxicity in AD models (7–9). Ab-induced neuronalnetwork and synaptic dysfunction is associatedwith aberrant glutamatergic synaptic transmis-sion (10).N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–typeglutamatergic receptors (NRs) drive glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity (11)andmediateAbtoxicity by downstream responses that pro-mote neuronal dysfunction (12

      The steps that tau tangles interfere with in the transmittance of signals in the brain.

    4. Aberrant tau phosphorylation is the firststep in a cascade leading to its deposition and tocognitive dysfunction (4,5). Abis thought to trig-ger toxic events, including tau phosphorylation

      steps and relevance to Alzheimer's disea

    1. article « filiation littéraire », Dominique Viart

      Dominique Viart, «Filiations littéraires », Ecritures contemporaines n°2, Paris, Minard, 1999, pp. 115-139.

  3. Oct 2017
    1. McCauley, D.J., Young, H.S., Dunbar, R.B., Estes, J.A., Semmens, B.X., and Micheli, F. (2012). Assessing the effects of large mobile predators on ecosystem connectivity. Ecol. Appl. 22, 1711–1717.

      This study states that sharks in the Palmyra Atoll find food in other habitats.


    2. Heithaus, M.R., Frid, A., Wirsing, A.J., and Worm, B. (2008). Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23, 202–210.

      The study explains how the effects of a high cost/ low reward way of life may affect an ecosystem -M.A.S

  4. Sep 2017
    1. Brown, J.H., Gillooly, J.F., Allen, A.P., Savage, V.M., and West, G.B. (2004). Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85, 1771–1789.

      Explains the metabolic equation used in the study -M.A.S.

    1. A support for the second model (Fig. 6C) comes from theobservation that the abnormal ovules of the inner-no-outer(ino)mutants are defective in the final stages of pollen tube guidance(Baker et al., 1997).
  5. Jun 2017
  6. May 2017
    1. Let the full-blown garden flowers of the ancients in their own morning glory stand; to breathe life into late blossoms that have yet to bud will be his sole endeavor.
    2. Now one feels blithe as a swimmer calmly borne by celestial waters, and then, as a diver into a secret world, lost in subterranean currents. Arduously sought expressions, hitherto evasive, hidden, will be like stray fishes out of the ocean bottom to emerge on the angler’s hook;
    3. Now one feels blithe as a swimmer calmly borne by celestial waters, and then, as a diver into a secret world, lost in subterranean currents. Arduously sought expressions, hitherto evasive, hidden, will be like stray fishes out of the ocean bottom to emerge on the angler’s hook;

    4. Now one feels blithe as a swimmer calmly borne by celestial waters, and then, as a diver into a secret world, lost in subterranean currents. Arduously sought expressions, hitherto evasive, hidden, will be like stray fishes out of the ocean bottom to emerge on the angler’s hook;

      This section of the text has a similarity to Horace Ars Poetica, AP:408- 437, Nature plus training: but see through flattery, Horace says, “Whether a praiseworthy poem is due to nature or art is the question: I’ve never seen the benefit of study lacking a wealth of talent, or of untrained ability: each needs the other’s friendly assistance.” Horace mentions that nature and the hard work of study talent go hand in hand as reflected in his words of “nature,” “study,” “talent” and “untrained.” The same way as Lu chi suggests that inspiration (nature) only comes after the hard work of taming the mind (talent), with his use of words of “celestial” to mean “nature,” “arduously” to mean “study, “anger’s hook” reflects “talent,” and “stray fish” to mean “untrained.” The both realized that you need both nature and talent to be able to release the inner creativity of the writer.

  7. Apr 2017
    1. Ethnic identity is twin skin to linguistic identity

      One could see this with how she writes in this very text. Alternating between English and Spanish phrases and sentences, mixing and matching the words a la Spanglish - her twin identity emerges within in the very text.

    1. There is sure another flood toward, and these FTLN 2669 couples are coming to the ark. Here comes a pair of 193 As You Like It ACT 5. SC. 4 FTLN 2670 very strange beasts, which in all tongues are called FTLN 2671 fools.

      religious reference

  8. Mar 2017
    1. Ce que le texte liquide vient ainsi disrupter, c’est la référence et tout le système bibliographique qui s’est mis en place pour l’institutionnaliser. Or cette référence et son institutionnalisation sont les conditions du partage d’un socle commun de connaissances au sein d’une communauté de savoir. La possibilité de s’y référer procure au texte stabilisé une autorité et une authenticité nécessaires à une réflexion commune.
    1. « plier le temps, l’espace et les agentivités »

      Jussi Parikka : «Media Ecologies and Imaginary Media: Transversal Expansions, Contractions, and Foldings», The Fibreculture Journal, n° 17 (2011), p. 35 disponible sur fibreculturejournal.org.

    1. In addition, Neylon suggested that some low-level TDM goes on below the radar. ‘Text and data miners at universities often have to hide their location to avoid auto cut-offs of traditional publishers. This makes them harder to track. It’s difficult to draw the line between what’s text mining and what’s for researchers’ own use, for example, putting large volumes of papers into Mendeley or Zotero,’ he explained.

      Without a clear understanding of what a reference managers can do and what text and data mining is, it seems that some publishers will block the download of fulltexts on their platforms.

    1. They are, in summation, that man is not nor ever can be nor ever should be a de-personalized thinking machine.

      There is more to humanity than being "moist robots", as modern day rhetorical critic and philosopher (and cartoonist) Scott Adams might purport.

      To Weaver, all humans have, in the least, a "soul", it is important that that soul is recognized and catered to.

    2. Definition is an attempt to capture essence.

      I've never thought of it quite like that, but that's exactly what it is.

      Reminds me of how Nathaniel explained to us how at first dictionaries were just lists of words, but evolved to become the mighty canons of language that they are today. Nowadays, they contain the bulk of rhetorical essence that our modern tradition utilizes.

    3. T. H. Huxley

      1800's biologist, supporter of Darwin and avid fighter of extremist Christian interpretation. Weaver uses him as an example of how scientific rhetoric utilized logic and reason to dominate debate, especially with the religiously inclined as their opposition.

      Also, was it a requirement for writers of the 1800's and early 1900's to have bad ass hairstyles? I mean, my God. Mustaches, beards and sideburns everywhere.

    1. Engels

      Engels was a German philosopher, and one of the two folks who founded Marxism and wrote The Communist Manifesto... with that other guy, what was his name again?

      Interesting how Burke weaves him in to his work and uses him as a portrait of expressing a secular (albeit impressively negative) account of history.

  9. Feb 2017
    1. Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Vic-toria, the reigning sovereign of the most mighty, intelligent people of this or any other age

      I would personally wager that she was one of the greatest female rulers of all time (maybe only ousted by Russia's Catherine the Great), and monitored an extraordinary era of Britain's history that many, even today, reminisce and romanticize over.

      If you're going to chose any one woman to demonstrate how good of leaders they can be, you're not going to get much better than the Britain's beloved matriarch. So good example, Palmer.

      It does beg the question, though: Is she really such a good example if Palmer is advocating for greater female involvement in the church? Are an imperiastic queen and a hypothetical female priestess inherently compatible?

  10. Jan 2017
    1. Osmond and Chow 1988

      Osmond and Chow 1988.

      Each box represents a "black box" that spans about three orders of magnitude. Each box represents a different aspect of photosynthesis. What would this diagram look like for other physiological processes?

    2. Accountability, philosophy and plant physiology
    1. 'll write comments along the way about new ideas I got or questions I need to explore further. Then, in the future, I’ll only need to read this document instead of re-reading all the individual papers. 
  11. Oct 2016
    1. After the torchlight red on sweaty faces After the frosty silence in the gardens After the agony in stony places

      People are left to wander in spiritual darkness. Not sure what's supposed to come next.

  12. Aug 2016
    1. The space we are in when we are on Amazon can actually be described

      ici, on a l'air de décrire un dispositif (voir 4 dimensions du dispositif chez Sauret&Mayer)

    2. Following Paul Mathias12, the web should be considered fundamentally as writing

      P. Mathias, “De La Dychtologie.” In Regards Croisés Sur L’Internet, edited by Eric Guichard, ENSSIB, 2011, p. 55–67.

  13. Jun 2016
    1. If the RRID is well-formed, and if the lookup found the right record, a human validator tags it a valid RRID — one that can now be associated mechanically with occurrences of the same resource in other contexts. If the RRID is not well-formed, or if the lookup fails to find the right record, a human validator tags the annotation as an exception and can discuss with others how to handle it. If an RRID is just missing, the validator notes that with another kind of exception tag.

      Sounds a lot like the way reference managers work. In many cases, people keep the invalid or badly-formed results.

  14. Apr 2016
    1. Most studies

      I think there should be a link to a peer reviewed study or review article

    2. studies by researchers who have compared genetically modified salmon to their wild counterparts have shown that the fish behave differently

      Good place for a reference

  15. Feb 2016
  16. Jan 2016
    1. 180,000 public domain items from the New York Public Library Digital Collections. Photographs, stereoscopic photos, illustrations, maps, ancient texts, manuscripts, historical correspondence, sheet music, and more!

      http://api.repo.nypl.org/<br> https://github.com/NYPL-publicdomain/data-and-utilities<br> API and metadata

      http://nypl.org/publicdomain<br> More info, and some projects that use the API.

  17. Dec 2015
    1. though there are a few that hint at potential harm to organs like the kidneys, liver and heart, as well as increased risk of cancers and early death in these animals.

      Is this based on the Seralini study? Where are the references to these studies?

  18. Oct 2015
    1. lantejas los viernes

      This phrase interestingly shows up in the earlier text by XYZ author who is señor Stavans' friend.

  19. Sep 2015
    1. Cholinergic system research may provide the key to treating and reversing this devastating disease.

      Unsupported statement. There are many good reviews of cholinergic therapies for Alzheimer's disease. But it is also a very long standing theory and so I wouldn't characterize the opportunities as "exciting" as therapies have had modest effects to date.

  20. Aug 2015
  21. Jun 2015
    1. "LibGuides,"

      I love that this is in quotes, as if it's a foreign word. Which, sadly, is pretty much the case due to lots of library user studies.

  22. Apr 2015
  23. Feb 2015
    1. much of the data are actually encouraging

      This is a strong claim; a strong reference would be needed to back it up. In this article, the author provides 5 facts about the changing climate to back this assertion. This is far from sufficient to give credit to the author's claim, especially since several of these facts are only one aspect of the story, as shown by the scientists' comments below.

  24. Jan 2015