218 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
    1. Parameterization of ankle torque. Each control law determined applied torque as a function of time, normalized to stride period, as a cubic spline defined by peak time, rise time, fall time, and peak torque.

      The amount of torque (a type of force) as a function of time. The figure measures four parameters (peak time, rise time, fall time, and peak torque) that the authors believe to be important to determine the optimal stride posture, thus improving the amount of energy spent walking.

    2. A method for minimizing the energy cost of human walking, in which various control laws are applied, metabolic (met.) rate is quickly estimated (est.) for each, costs are compared, and an evolution strategy is used to generate a new set of control laws to be tested, all during walking.

      The goal of the optimizer is to reduce the amount of energy spent walking. This is accomplished by measuring respiratory data (metabolic data) and posture from the test subject (human) and updating the device to improve posture when walking.

    3. Measurements of human performance are used to update device control so as to improve performance in the human portion of the system.

      A human test is measured for metabolic rate, the minimal energy expenditure that mammals burn at rest, and the results are fed into the optimizing coder (exoskeleton). The optimizer chooses the best measurements and updates the device, which then feeds back into the human.

    1. However, our results also suggest that when the spawning aggregation subsidies become scarcer during summer and metabolic rate increases due to warmer waters, sharks shift to investing in foraging excursions to escape low energy availability in the pass.

      Warmer water and lack of fish spawning sites cause reef sharks to invest more time in searching for higher energy food.-SES

    2. The consequence is sharks being forced to undertake energetically costly wider-range foraging as the only option to meet energy requirements

      Reef sharks spend more energy searching for food due to overexploitation of fish spawning sites.-SES

  2. Aug 2017
    1. Western assay of induced SX4 cells showed the presence of Venus only in the membrane fraction and not in the cytoplasmic fraction, suggesting efficient membrane localization of Tsr-Venus.

      The e coli strain engineered by the authors is behaving as they predicted.

  3. Mar 2017
    1. There are a number of possible explanations for this unanticipated result. First, union members may have a higher level of dissatisfaction with the organisation and management processes (Freeman and Medoff, 1984: 21; Bryson et al., 2004), including communications and participative arrangements, and therefore perceive less favourably their degree of influence within the organisation (Kleinman, 2000: 403–404) or the degree of managerial responsiveness (Bryson et al., 2006). Bryson (2004) found that union members had a higher level of job dissatisfaction than non-union workers but that after an extensive array of control variables were included, no significant negative relationship was found. This finding, they suggested, may well be due to a selection bias on the part of employees. Employees who had higher aspirations for their working life may be more likely to join a union. This proposition resonates well in the case of PSR, where some 63.8 per cent of unionised employees indicated that a major reason for joining the union was because they wanted to have a say in matters affecting their working life. Unions themselves may also contribute to this dissatisfaction by raising employee expectations that they are unable to meet (see also discussion on ‘consciousness raising’ in Guest and Conway, 2004: 115–116) and by providing their members with considerable information about problems within the organisation and the problems they are encountering with management. This is likely to be part of the explanation for the findings of this research as at the time of the survey, PSR management were keen to introduce a performance-related pay scheme which had led to an active campaign of opposition by the union.A second explanation is that union members may have higher expectations of voice. Employees join unions for a variety of reasons (Peetz, 1998), but overall, they expect unions to make a difference to their working lives. As Bryson and Freeman (2007: 84) found, ‘unionised workers reported more problems with management’ than non-union workers. In the case of PSR, the major reasons for employees joining the union were a belief in unions, wanting to have a say in things that affect their working life and a belief that unions generate better wages and conditions. Clearly, these union members had high expectations concerning voice. Yet, it was also the case that these expectations were not being met. Improved wages and working conditions were becoming harder to achieve as the enterprise bargaining system, with its emphasis on productivity improvements, had led to trade-offs involving redundancies, a decline in wage relativities with the private sector, and the possibility of a new performance-based pay scheme being introduced.A third explanation is that the overall focus within PSR at the time of the research had shifted from curiosity-led to commercially-driven research with an emphasis on productivity and efficiency. For employees of PSR, most of who were accustomed to the more protected working environment of the public sector, this meant that external factors were now driving research, and the scientific arguments used in the past for justifying research projects were becoming less important. In this environment, the value of union membership was becoming more marginal as union members had less protection than that of the past in the case of redundancies and adverse performance appraisals. In addition, other benefits of union membership such as access to grievance procedures were available to all employees regardless of their union status. It may also have been the case that management's approach to reform, for example the introduction of a performance-based pay scheme that ran counter to the wishes of union members and past practices, may have led many unionists to believe they were being targeted. In this context, the tense state of the relationship between management and the union may have created a negative perception of collective union voice (Freeman and Medoff, 1984).
  4. Aug 2016
    1. However, the specific benefit drongos gain from producing such a large array of mimetic alarm calls is unclear.

      Why do you think drongos can produce so many different alarm calls? What advantage may this give them?

  5. Jul 2016
    1. No significant effects were observed for the striatal volumes, with only a marginal effect observed for putamen (P = 0.062) when congruent reaction time was included as covariate.

      ID: 020
      Variable: Flanker performance, striatal vol
      Interpretation: no relationship found

      ID: 021 Variable: Flanker performance, putamen vol Model: ? (includes congruent RT) P: 0.062 Interpretation: slight cognitive control effect observed for putamen volume

  6. Mar 2016
    1. But there’s, I think there is a question of how you interpret the data, even ... ifthe experiments are very well designed. And, in terms of advice—not that I’mgoing to say that it’s shocking—but one of my mentors, whom I very muchrespect as a scientist—I think he’s extraordinarily good—advised me to alwaysput the most positive spin you can on your data. And if you try to present, like,present your data objectively, like in a job seminar, you’re guaranteed tonotgetthe job

      Importance of "spinning" data

  7. Aug 2015
    1. Quality (DRG) 1.2675 0.61

      It seems there is no statistically significant differences in the Quality measured between the two aggregation levels.

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  8. May 2015
    1. “Unfortunately, I couldn’t find the effect,” he said. “But the worst part was that when I submitted these null results I had difficulty getting them published.

      Important point to make again in the proposal as to why negative results are difficult to publish

  9. Apr 2015
    1. Why sully a CV with papers from the ‘Journal of Failed Experiments’? Don’t we want our colleagues (and especially our competitors) to believe that we succeed at every undertaking?

      Same reason pharma hates the term: Failed drugs

    2. Thus, although the arguments in favor of small-unit publishing all seem to revolve around benefits to the community, the costs of generating these small units would fall on individual authors. If the community is to reap the benefits, then the costs to the individual authors must be driven to zero – or associated with some reward.

      Will they do it?

    3. Time spent publishing small papers is time not spent developing big ones
    4. but because journal editors are obsessively vigilant about rejecting papers that fall below a threshold of ‘novelty’, these papers become unpublishable in practical terms

      The Inglefinger rule.

  10. Jan 2014
    1. Reasons for not making data electronically available. Regarding their attitudes towards data sharing, most of the respondents (85%) are interested in using other researchers' datasets, if those datasets are easily accessible. Of course, since only half of the respondents report that they make some of their data available to others and only about a third of them (36%) report their data is easily accessible, there is a major gap evident between desire and current possibility. Seventy-eight percent of the respondents said they are willing to place at least some their data into a central data repository with no restrictions. Data repositories need to make accommodations for varying levels of security or access restrictions. When asked whether they were willing to place all of their data into a central data repository with no restrictions, 41% of the respondents were not willing to place all of their data. Nearly two thirds of the respondents (65%) reported that they would be more likely to make their data available if they could place conditions on access. Less than half (45%) of the respondents are satisfied with their ability to integrate data from disparate sources to address research questions, yet 81% of them are willing to share data across a broad group of researchers who use data in different ways. Along with the ability to place some restrictions on sharing for some of their data, the most important condition for sharing their data is to receive proper citation credit when others use their data. For 92% of the respondents, it is important that their data are cited when used by other researchers. Eighty-six percent of survey respondents also noted that it is appropriate to create new datasets from shared data. Most likely, this response relates directly to the overwhelming response for citing other researchers' data. The breakdown of this section is presented in Table 13.

      Categories of data sharing considered:

      • I would use other researchers' datasets if their datasets were easily accessible.
      • I would be willing to place at least some of my data into a central data repository with no restrictions.
      • I would be willing to place all of my data into a central data repository with no restrictions.
      • I would be more likely to make my data available if I could place conditions on access.
      • I am satisfied with my ability to integrate data from disparate sources to address research questions.
      • I would be willing to share data across a broad group of researchers who use data in different ways.
      • It is important that my data are cited when used by other researchers.
      • It is appropriate to create new datasets from shared data.
    1. HR people can’t believe that a company the size of Netflix doesn’t hold annual reviews. “Are you making this up just to upset us?” they ask. I’m not. If you talk simply and honestly about performance on a regular basis, you can get good results—probably better ones than a company that grades everyone on a five-point scale.