298 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2016
    1. By preserving and suitably integrating open spaces into the green infrastructure, universities can add value and quality to the campus environment by: forging a campus identity, creating a sense of community, curbing escalating campus density, serving social and recreational needs, providing environmental benefits, and facilitating fundraising and recruitment of both faculty and students

      I never really thought about it in this way. A sense of community is very important in todays society.

    2. Unlike the classic designs of America’s first institutions, the physical campus of the land grant university was designed to significantly contribute to student learning through its working farms, forests, arboretums, greenhouses, gardens

      This is was maybe produced for agriculture majors. They have different learning environments for different majors. Or they have different areas and classroom depending on your major.

    3. colleges and universities were self-sufficient and often built in rural locations with dormitories, dining halls and recreation facilities

      I think this was because it was a more space in order to have all of these things in one area close together. Nowadays on campuses today you have to walk about three blocks to get to the nearest dining hall, if you are coming from a far place.

    4. holistic landscape

      holistic landscape: is an approach to design that considers the thing being designed as an interconnected whole which is also part of something larger.

    5. One way to examine this potential is to consider the entire campus with its buildings, roads and natural open spaces as a well-networked landscape system that supports student learning experiences.

      This is very accurate. If only examining one place, you may night find what supports the student's overall learning experience.

    6. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014). Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue.

      The college experience, is supposed to be different than every other learning environment you have ever been in. It is fun, but your responsibility, and focus is highly tested.

    7. Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts, in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community

      Yes, a learning environment or learning community can have an impact on a student's life academically, and physically.

    8. encompasses

      encompasses: surround and have or hold within

    9. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located

      All college campuses have their own special design, it is not based on location or the academic lifestyle of a student.

    10. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      This is true. I think this applied to every university. The resource on campus are to accomodate the students.

    11. Questions of where, when, how, and with whom today’s college students learn, confront the traditional notions of how university spaces are designed and used for effectiveness

      This has been a question for centuries. In my opinion, traditional notions shouldn't determine the university spaces and how they are designed. Some may be effective, and others may not.

    12. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student.

      Higher education institutions, such as what? Harvard? Yale? or Princeton? The bigger competitive schools in the country

    13. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014). Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue.

      School I feel is stressful depending on how good your time management is, your financial situation, and your work ethic.

    14. As an influential landscape designer of early campuses, Fredrick Law Olmstead worked with the philosophy that the physical landscape features had a direct impact on shaping human behavior

      So what is the difference in behavior of students in the urban universities opposed to schools with a lot more nature?

    15. Campus construction was sparse during the Depression and World War II of the 1930s and 1940s. A dramatic post-war increase in student enrollment - 2.5 million to 7 million from 1955 to 1970 (Bowman, 2011)

      This is a perfect example of 'Guns and Butter". During the war not many people were involved in school, but after the war the government puts its focus into education.

    16. reconceptualize

      Meaning to re think the whole process over again.

    17. We also recognize that outdoor class instruction is not suited or appropriate for all academic domains.

      I would not be able to focus in an outdoor learning experience their would way to much going on around me.

    18. Direct attention is, therefore, an important cognitive skill required on a daily basis for students processing multiple sources of information, and working towards their academic goals at universities. After a period of prolonged cognitive demands and mental saturation, difficulties in concentrating, reduced performance on tasks, higher rates of irritability and tension, and more impulsive and hostile behavior may arise

      I feel this is one of the hardest things for me to do I get so side tracked when i start working on something.

    19. we expand the campus ‘learning environment’ to also include a university’s open space, we also include in our definition of nature, the concept of a “landscape.”

      why would nature change a student learning enviormenrt?

    20. “that open space must be treated as a scarce resource” (

      This reminds me of how GSU uses every inch in the city to make a new building.

    21. holistic landscape

      Meaning all of the buildings and landscape come together as one unit.

    22. Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts,

      For example on campus our library is so close to most of our classes that we are more influenced to go there to study.

    23. holistic

      The meaning that all parts of something must interconnect.

    24. Student grass-root efforts of the 1970s and the college campus sustainability movement that began with the first Earth Day, increased public awareness that environmental protection is a critical issue.

      This doesn't apply to many urban campuses now, At gsu we rarely even see trees.

    25. The advent of land-grant institutions through the Morrill Act of 1862 required new buildings to be built with laboratories and observatory space for agricultural, technical education, and scientific research

      My previous college had to go through reconstruction because of this.

    26. Nature can be labeled as a non-human physical feature such as an individual plant or butterfly.

      Nature is plants, animals, and landscape all together. I see it as the original form of the world. Nothing man made or altered by anything unnaturally.

    27. one fifth of a student’s time is spent in the classroom, contributing about one quarter of the total learning variance

      I tend to learn better by experience or from other people which usually happens outside of class or even school as a whole. Also reading or doing problems on my own is better than sitting in class and having a teacher tell me what to do. Sometimes separating the classroom from education helps the information become more easier to understand. Maybe because there is less pressure or because there is more freedom to learn in your own way.

    28. raditional campus indoor spaces, by necessity and function, provide ample opportunities for structured learning experiences that draw upon students’ direct attention.

      This is true; however I dont believe its needed, people can also go to community colleges and thrive.

    29. Direct attention requires mental effort and cognitive control for an individual to sustain focus and prevent distracting stimuli from interfering with an intended activity

      This is explaining why lots of people have short attention spans and what not. This tells me one someone fines something more interesting then what they are currently doing they get distracted.

    30. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      I chose to attend georgia state university; just so I wouldnt have to deal with the traditional campus styled environment. I like the location of this school; and the style; however I do know most of my friends dislike its not a closed campus.

    31. Questions of where, when, how, and with whom today’s college students learn, confront the traditional notions of how university spaces are designed and used for effectiveness

      Majority of people in the 21st century don't believe they need a college education to live a healthy and successful life. To each his own.

    32. n 2009, 20.4 million students were enrolled in 2- or 4-year colleges and universities.

      This number I think, its completely irrelevant to the number of students that returned after first year and or later began to graduate.

    33. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student.

      This is the topic of discussion; which is quite interesting. However; I personally don't think adapting to the 21st century learning style will be quite easy.

    34. The word campus, (derived from a Latin word for “field” – “an expanse surrounded…by woods, higher ground, etc., Harper, n.d.) was first associated with college grounds to describe Princeton University in the 1770’s (Eckert, 2012; Turner, 1984) and now refers to the overall physical quality of higher education institutions (Bowman, 2011). Early American colleges and universities were self-sufficient and often built in rural locations with dormitories, dining halls and recreation facilities (Bowman, 2011; Eckert, 2012). Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry (Eckert, 2012; Gumprecht, 2007; Turner, 1984).

      Here, the author is implying that campuses as they were in the 1770's were more effective as a learning environment than most campuses are today. Does anyone know if this is backed up by factual evidence? I see a lot of articles about how school was more rigorous back then (mostly due to corporal punishment), but I haven't found any studies about whether or not students' grades were improved by the wooded fields surrounding the colleges.

    35. Interaction with nature, in particular, can help to maintain or restore cognitive function such as direct attention, problem solving, focus and concentration, impulse inhibition, and memory, which can become depleted from fatigue or with overuse

      While I do love GSU's huge campus and city setting, one of the really regrettable things about it is all the light pollution at night-time. I'm not sure if the writers of this article would really consider the night sky a part of "nature," but I have found that looking up into the vast expanse of space is a rather calming experience.

    36. emphasizes something deeper than what meets the eye.

      The authors finish by stating that the point of incorporating nature into the campus is not to create a pretty landscape that appeals to potential students but to create an environment solely focused on furthering academics. How does one differentiate between a landscape developed to aesthetically appeal and an landscape developed to aid students?

    37. Height of buildings Complexity and ornamentation of façade Sense of enclosure (no blocked views)

      The GSU courtyard is a good example of a enclosed space surrounded by tall buildings. The courtyard is a space where many students hangout and travel from one part of campus to another.

    38. Physical access to trails

      These types of affordances are not available to many universities such as Georgia State which are located in the heart of cities. Does the lack of access to nature affect the GSU student body in terms of academics? How would we quantitatively prove that more access to nature equals better results? How is nature quantified?

    39. Involuntary attention occurs when individuals are presented with stimuli that are “inherently intriguing” (p.124). Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and

      The author seems to be implying here that the only things that can be considered "inherently intriguing" must be objects from nature, but I think that ignores plenty of man-made things that I find to be "inherently intriguing." For example, you could look at a pocketwatch and be facsinated by the internal mechanics, or look at graffiti and wonder who created it. What I'm saying is: basically anything can be "intruiging" if you look at it from a perspective of wonder, not just "green" things.

    40. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish.

      The authors have spent the last four paragraphs using academic jargon to say "plant green stuff". I'm sure there is more nuance to their position but most of their conclusions are not proven through data. They are inferring a relationship through a small sample size of data.

    41. Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi

      I searched Gulwadi's background through this link: http://www.uni.edu/csbs/sahs/interior-design/faculty-directory/gowri-betrabet-gulwadi

      She is credible in regards to the topic of this article because she has a Doctorate degree in Environment-Behavior studies.

    42. Kathleen G Scholl

      I searched Scholl's background: on the following link:

      http://www.uni.edu/coe/departments/school-health-physical-education-leisure-services/faculty-staff/kathleen-g-scholl

      " teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in Outdoor Recreation Management, Outdoor Education, Research and Evaluation, Philosophical Foundations, and Social Psychology of Leisure. Dr. Scholl integrates practical experiences for her students to apply current best practices to outdoor recreation planning and programming. "

      She appears to be credible since she teaches graduate courses on the subject of "Outdoor Recreation Management" and "Outdoor Education".

    43. closely clustered buildings previously designed to protect students from the lures of the outside world

      Isn't Georgia State a set of "closely clustered buildings"? I think the author meant to say closed compound. Although Georgia State fits the description, its location in the middle of downtown Atlanta actually thrusts the students right into the face of the real world. Rather it could be argued that spread out campuses like UGA seclude the student from the outside world.

    44. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      I'm sure most of us can agree that the available technology hinders our ability to pay attention. One minute I might be typing notes and the next minute I might drift off into Reddit. At this point we have to ask ourselves; is the good derived from the available technology outweighing the negative effects?

    45. must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      Holistic is define as:"characterized by comprehension of the parts of something as intimately interconnected and explicable only by reference to the whole."

      So holistic learning spaces refer to the cohesiveness of the learning experience provided by all areas of the campus (in my understanding).

    46. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      The idea that college campuses should be "attentional learning" resources, appears to be the main idea of the article. What does the author mean by "attentional learning"?

    47. multi-dimensional

      By which they mean not only visual but also spatial interactions which distract form directed learning.

    48. miniature cities

      Or cities themselves. I'm looking at you GSU!

    49. Spaces between campus buildings Outdoor water features Green roofs Rain gardens

      Perfect description of the Langdale quad.

    50. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish

      I would like to see the sources for this claim as it proposes an interesting idea.They are saying our minds literally switch gears subconsciously, and allow "gears" (by which I assume the authors mean either neural pathways or regions of the brain associated with studying) to cool off. Research does show that different area of the brain react differently to certain stimuli, and I would have liked to know which portion nature effects.

    51. . After a period of prolonged cognitive demands and mental saturation, difficulties in concentrating, reduced performance on tasks, higher rates of irritability and tension, and more impulsive and hostile behavior may arise

      AKA Stress. In this regard its not only students, but most humans who need to interact with "nature" once in a while to cool off.

    52. ring road” type of plan, in which vehicles were mostly kept outside the pedestrian oriented campus core

      Some times I wish GSU had this plan, it would sure make going from Sparks to Aderhold a lot easier!

    53. scarce resource

      Now i'm confused on what context he is stating that "scarce resource", which to me means that he doesn't want people to use too much of it and that he desires others to not use it excessively. On the contrary, open space should be the main focus with consistent use and rapid production of such. Open space is not a scarce resource, but should be used by any and all who desire to. What do y'all think? Am I taking this out of context or...?

    54. Campus construction was sparse during the Depression and World War II of the 1930s and 1940s.

      During post- World War 2, the G.I Bill was created in order to aid in veterans to return to colleges, universities, and trade schools. The education and training provisions only lasted until around 1956 where it was then ended. It is just something to think about to place people into the context of the time. It was not just a sudden rapid increase of students, but was from veterans returning home and attend school.

      S:http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/gi-bill

    55. Open space and “zones” for disciplines became far more common than closely clustered buildings previously designed to protect students from the lures of the outside world

      Could the sheltering of the students within these close-knit buildings be a form of restriction that we have been learning about? I mean they say that colleges desired to promote freedom among students, but in contrast decide to keep them enclosed from the "lures" of the outside world. Are we at Georgia State restricted by the space in which we live in and could we not even be aware of it. Think of the courtyard and compare it to the description given.

    56. Public areas and outdoor learning environments, including nature trails and ecological study areas, lend more opportunities for community interaction and social encounters that foster a sense of belonging, whereas quiet areas provide a place for students to refresh themselves, have a temporary escape, or quiet reflection, affording an enriched and enjoyable campus life

      Honestly I think that at this point he is stating the obvious. He is saying that quiet places are where students have the ability to refresh themselves and that public areas can give the opportunity to create a community. These are things that one can learn just on the playground in building ties with others. We all know it subconciously, even when we don't realize it. Also, does this really need to be done near park trails and high ecological areas? Could it be done on a campus like Georgia State without these resources? Does this mean that students at Georgia State are not living up to their full potential because of the city atmosphere?

    57. Flexibility in seating and spatial configuration can begin to help diffuse this emphasis and begin to accommodate other auditory and kinesthetic learning modalities.

      There is a set way of learning and it is only now that we are starting to improve our methods. There are new tactics of learning, new website that can help, and visual aids that can make learning more fun. I believe that society is straying away from the traditional form of lecturing, even though it is still common, to something a bit better and easily obtainable to students.What do y'all think, are there new teaching methods being set into place and do you all think that it is working?

    58. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      This might be true for student attention. What the author is trying to say is that students can get side tracked very easily. Speaking from personal experience, I believe this may be somewhat true, I am doing three other things right now other than this. Procrastination is not a new thing though, its just more apparent in our generation.

    59. Spaces between campus buildings Outdoor water features Green roofs Rain gardens

      Georgia state encompasses this and more into the campus. There is a water feature found in the courtyard, there are trees down avenues and in common spaces, there are spaces between buildings that add to a more open appeal. The cool thing is that unlike some cities, Georgia State has several parks and green spaces everywhere so that students can find some escape from the hustle and bustle. Our campus, for being an urban school in downtown Atlanta, has got this base covered.

    60. Attention Restoration Theory (ART)

      To flesh this theory out, ART is the idea that one can repair mental fatigue by looking at or being in nature. This can be done by going to the park or just seeing some grass and flowers. Nature requires less brain function, thereby allowing the brain to rest and repair itself. It kind of hard to do this in Atlanta but I did Centennial Olympic Park for my site for unit one and that place has all of these elements so if you need a break, its literally like a 10min walk away.

      S:http://www.ecehh.org/research-projects/attention-restoration-theory-a-systematic-review/

    61. forging a campus identity, creating a sense of community, curbing escalating campus density, serving social and recreational needs, providing environmental benefits, and facilitating fundraising and recruitment of both faculty and students

      These ingredients are what make happiness. I have learned from reading Eckhart Tolle that someone can be given all they want in the world but that their ego will get in the way of happiness. You can give a student more computers, fancier water fountains, larger screens, but in order to create student well being and health, social connections need to be made. green spaces are a space in which this can be done and results in a lot of success. I love Eckhart Tolle and he has books and many more lessons so I recommend checking him out.

      S:https://youtu.be/S4OOnlMmTKU

    62. Earth Day

      This day was started in reference to the Santa Barbara, California oil spill in 1969. The movement was started by Gaylord Nelson in order to teach people about air pollution, water pollution, and to just raise awareness of the issue.The date of April 22 was meant to be the day between spring break and final exams. on that day over 20 million people rallied to streets and businesses and ever since it has been an annual occurrence.

      S:http://www.earthday.org/about/the-history-of-earth-day/

    63. a focus on environmental education and sustainable practices

      Its very interesting that the author would bring this up. Colleges, or at least some, are attempting to become more "green" on campus because of the vastness of space and people. Georgia State, although not doing a crazy amount, is making attempts to do as such. For instance, there is a program in the panther dining where people can volunteer time to collect excess food and donate that to local homeless shelters. Although this reduces food waste, it requires volunteers which can be difficult to find sometimes. If a community wants change, then change will happen (a concept that works for everything btw).

    64. in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community

      This is interesting as people socialize, learn, and spend more time on campus, they feel more part of the community. I guess that this is the same as someone who brings their children to the park everyday feels connected to the others who do the same. They feel unified in their shared spaces and apart of something more than themselves.

    65. open spaces

      This is definitely true! Think about how different the Georgia State campus would be without hurt park, the fountains, the student center benches. There would be a lack of socializing and outside of the classroom learning. Personally, I sit out near the student center during mornings to talk to friends and socialize, that would all change without a dynamic open space.

    66. Student-nature interactions during study breaks help restore attention (Felsten, 2009).

      This is not what Felsten claims!!!! Check it out yourself just in the abstract of the article! (below) The study asked students essentially about what they were attracted to. To jump to the conclusion from this study that their "attention" was "restored" by the nature they "liked" perceiving is silly!

      ["In the present study, college students, instructed to imagine themselves cognitively fatigued, rated the perceived restorativeness of indoor campus settings that varied by view of nature: some had no views of nature, some had window views of nature with built structures present, and some had views of simulated nature depicted as large nature murals. Students rated settings with views of dramatic nature murals, especially those with water, more restorative than settings with window views of real, but mundane nature with built structures present. Students rated settings that lacked views of real or simulated nature least restorative. The findings suggest that large nature murals in indoor settings used for study breaks may provide attentionally fatigued students with opportunities for restoration when views of nature are unavailable or limited in restorative potential."]

      (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272494408000996)

    67. Traditional campus indoor spaces, by necessity and function, provide ample opportunities for structured learning experiences that draw upon students’ direct attention. However, a student’s learning experience is not often balanced by unstructured or structured opportunities for drawing forth effortless, indirect attention that occur in human-nature interactions (Valles-Planells, et. al, 2014). Attention to a mix of different learning spaces that combine nature and interesting architecture (Orr, 2004) provide more options for regulating learning and restoration cycles. Public areas and outdoor learning environments, including nature trails and ecological study areas, lend more opportunities for community interaction and social encounters that foster a sense of belonging, whereas quiet areas provide a place for students to refresh themselves, have a temporary escape, or quiet reflection, affording an enriched and enjoyable campus life (Kenney, et al., 2005). Just as Hashimshony & Haina (2006) provide visionary and heuristic scenarios for a university of the future, we need a vision for integrating a systemic view of what these integrated campus nature networks would like in the future. In addition, there is a need to conduct more focused and nuanced research on identifying the human-nature mechanisms that lead to (among others) attentional resource benefits.

      A whole paragraph of a thesis!

    68. Such holistic landscapes can impact student learning because they provide multiple everyday opportunities for multi-sensorial, student-nature encounters– an important precursor to activating the attention restoration cycle (Speake, Edmondson, & Nawaz, 2013; Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

      But what happens to them when they don't get to hand the homeless guy who stands at the intersection of Decatur and Peachtree a mocha because it's a cold cold day and you have an extra 3 bucks? Maybe that's a different kind of deficit...?

    69. Direct attention is, therefore, an important cognitive skill required on a daily basis for students processing multiple sources of information, and working towards their academic goals at universities.

      How does this resonate (or dissonate) with the discussion of attention in chapter 8 of FYG?

    70. Therefore, this paper will define nature or natural environment as the… “physical features and processes of nonhuman origin that people ordinarily can perceive, including the “living nature” of flora and fauna, together with still and running water, qualities of air and weather, and the landscapes that comprise these and show the influences of geological processes”

      It's important to define key terms. Without doing that here, anyone who has a problem with the discussion as it's been unfolding (like, maybe, me) would have trouble reading on. Now that I know how they define "nature" I can read to see if their argument holds in the context of how they define the terms.

    71. Nature can also be delineated as a particular place within a spectrum of naturalness from urban park to a pristine wilderness. Furthermore there is a subjective component to the concept (Nash, 1982: Proctor, 1998) due to the diverse opportunities and means through which one might encounter and experience nature (Hartig, et al., 2014).

      Oh Good... Those redwoods in the quad... "nature"? Can the quad be said to be "natural space"?

    72. This observation of campus design features that can help mentally fatigued individuals has been empirically demonstrated in a body of research that uses the Attention Restoration Theory
    73. By preserving and suitably integrating open spaces into the green infrastructure, universities can add value and quality to the campus environment by

      So being an "integrated community"-- a designed space that mingles students, faculty, homeless people, doctors, businessmen, city police, campus police, and others--isn't valuable as a "learning experience"? Hmmmm.... This seems strange to me.

    74. from the lures of the outside world (

      I would hardly think that being smack dab in the center of the city itself, without the "green space" walls that define typical B&M universities, feels like a "lure."

    75. Although university culture places demands on students’ cognitive abilities, campus natural open spaces have not been systematically examined for their potential in replenishing cognitive functioning for attentional fatigued students.

      Ah... exigency. This is the "gap in the research" these authors aim to address.

    76. Fredrick Law Olmstead

      An American architect known for building well-known parks in America. For Example;Central Park in New York

      http://www.olmsted.org/the-olmsted-legacy/frederick-law-olmsted-sr

    77. Morrill Act of 1862

      Also known as Land-Grant College Act of 1862

    78. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      Georgia State University is so far from that. I wish GSU was secluded and away from the city life and crime and maybe a lot of people would be able to focus and stay on track.

    79. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      I completely disagree with this. I feel that technology has improved students learning. We get do research without having to go to the library, interact with our professors easier and had done away with some textbooks and easier organization. For Example All my classes are based on technology. From the class discussions, to homework and even quizzes.

    80. Today’s university

      The intended audience of this article is today's universities landscapers, students, educators/professors of education.

    81. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      I never really thought about it, but I guess subconsciously it was true, before applying for college, my vision of what a college would look like was Hogwarts, from Harry Potter, not really sure why though.

    82. an attentional learning

      Not sure what this meant, quick google search lead me to this article. Completely irrelevant, but seems to have something to do with the acquisition of language through modeling. Is that wat attentioninal learning means?

    83. s. In 2009, 20.4 million students were enrolled in 2- or 4-year colleges and universities. By 2019, enrollments are expected to rise 9% for students under age 25, and rise 23% for students over the age of 25 (Snyder & Dillow, 2011)

      This is an appeal to logos for her argument, which they have yet to clearly state. The statistic itself is also interesting; has there been an increase in demand for education, or is it simply a result of the population increase? This article explores a similar topic in regards to demand for education.

    84. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student.

      This seems to be the main claim that she will try to resolve in this article. The sentence itself is really long, with a lot of moodifiers

    1. The morning weighs on my shoulders with the dreadful weight of hope an4 I take the blue envelope which Jacques has sent me and tear it sl6wly into many pieces, watching them . .. . I dance in the wind, watchiμg the wind carry them away. Yet, as I turn and begin walking tovyard the waiting people, the wind blows some of them back on me. ]

      Reading this last paragraph, it seems that not even David knows what will happen next in his life. The idea of having hope that something positive will happen in his life now. Or Giovanni won't be executed is weighing him down because even he knows that isn't realistic. Since the ending is so ambiguous I personally took David tearing the envelope Jacques sent him slowly as him trying to start over, but when he threw it in the wind as he was walking away the wind blows it back to him. Making me believe that even though he wants to start over and forget what has happened he won't be able to move forward because something in his past will keep bringing him down. I also believe that the reason why Baldwin made the ending so ambiguous is because during that time maybe he didn’t know what to do next or how to move on. It was said that Giovanni’s room was based off of actual events that happened to Baldwin before he starting writing this book. Baldwin was in a love affair with a man named Lucien Happersberger who ended up marrying a women and that’s why the book is dedicated to Lucien.

      I tagged an article where Baldwin talks about Giovanni's Room and what it means to him as well as a very short clip of an interview with Baldwin.

  2. Aug 2016
    1. to America or the Colonies

      As Steve Jones says in my attached article, the 19th century relationship between the US and Britain was actually quite strong. Doyle is using this brief mention of America to display the relationship between the nations at the time. Though America became independent from the UK in 1776, by the 1800's it has become quite reasonable for someone to possibly seek refuge in "the Colonies".

  3. Jul 2016
  4. Jun 2016
    1. French science was much more profession-alized and institutionalized than was the case in either of theother European powers. Specifically, they found that morethan half of all the coauthored scientific articles in theirhistoric sample had been produced by French scientists.

      in 18th and 19th C french scientists were more professional and half of all coauthored science papers had been produced by french scientists

    2. After World War II, collaboration became a defin-ing feature of ‘big science’ (Bordons & Gomez, 2000;Cronin, 1995, pp. 4 –13; Katz & Martin, 1997).

      collaboration becomes a defining feature of "big science" after the war.

    3. hapin (1995,p. 178) notes in his brilliant study of trust in 17th-centuryEnglish science,

      "Brilliant study of trust in 17th century English science"

  5. Apr 2016
    1. one of the annotations is simply a link to a Google search for a phrase that’s been used.

      Glad this was mentioned. To the Eric Raymonds of this world, such a response sounds “perfectly legitimate”. But it’s precisely what can differentiate communities and make one more welcoming than the other. Case in point: Arduino-related forums, in contrast with the Raspberry Pi community. Was looking for information about building a device to track knee movement. Noticed that “goniometer” was the technical term for that kind of device, measuring an angle (say, in physiotherapy). Ended up on this page, where someone had asked a legitimate question about Arduino and goniometers. First, the question:

      Trying to make a goniometer using imu (gy-85). Hoe do I aquire data from the imu using the arduino? How do I code the data acquisition? Are there any tutorials avaible online? Thanks =)

      Maybe it wouldn’t pass the Raymond test for “smart questions”, but it’s easy to understand and a straight answer could help others (e.g., me).

      Now, the answer:

      For me, google found 87,000,000 hits for gy-85. I wonder why it failed for you.

      Wow. Just, wow.

      Then, on the key part of the question (the goniometer):

      No idea what that is or why I should have to google it for you.

      While this one aborted Q&A is enough to put somebody off Arduino forever, it’s just an example among many. Like Stack Overflow, Quora, and geek hideouts, Arduino-related forums are filled with these kinds of snarky comments about #LMGTFY.

      Contrast this with the Raspberry Pi. Liz Upton said it best in a recent interview (ca. 25:30):

      People find it difficult to remember that sometimes when somebody comes along… and appears to be “not thinking very hard”, it could well be because they’re ten years old.

      And we understand (from the context and such) that it’s about appearance (not about “not thinking clearly”). It’s also not really about age.

      So, imagine this scenario. You’re teacher a class, seminar, workshop… Someone asks a question about using data from a device to make it into a goniometer. What’s the most appropriate strategy? Sure, you might ask the person to look for some of that information online. But there are ways to do so which are much more effective than the offputting ’tude behind #LMGTFY. Assuming they do search for that kind of information, you might want to help them dig through the massive results to find something usable, which is a remarkably difficult task which is misunderstood by someone who answer questions about goniometers without knowing the least thing about them.

      The situation also applies to the notion that a question which has already been asked isn’t a legitimate question. A teacher adopting this notion would probably have a very difficult time teaching anyone who’s not in extremely narrow a field. (Those teachers do exist, but they complain bitterly about their job.)

      Further, the same logic applies to the pedantry of correcting others. Despite the fact that English-speakers’ language ideology allows for a lot of non-normative speech, the kind of online #WordRage which leads to the creation of “language police” bots is more than a mere annoyance. Notice the name of this Twitter account (and the profile of the account which “liked” this tweet).

      Lots of insight from @BiellaColeman on people who do things “for the lulz”. Her work is becoming increasingly relevant to thoughtful dialogue on annotations.

  6. Feb 2016
    1. Rather than making it possible for players to “embody political positions and engage in political actions that many will never have previously experienced,” most contemporary political games are little more than gimmicks.

      The Redistricting Game is a particular case, but there's a whole other discipline of (what mass comm. students generally refer to as) news games that do precisely this.

      Minnesota Public Radio and Marketplace built such a game a few years back called Budget Hero (since removed).

      As Roundtree (previously described) stated, we can't use the data output from the simulation to forecast or reflect the validity of those procedures in the real world -- the simplifying assumptions made are large and numerous -- the game itself is made to convey the complexity of making political decisions. If it succeeds in that way, I'd say it's hardly a "gimmick."

  7. Nov 2015