227 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2016
    1. a” poderia estourar em grandes movimentos sociais, reivindicando a reforma agrár

      Migrações internas como forma de evitar conflitos de terra.

  2. Jun 2016
    1. A partir de ese marco, la epidemiología convencional cayó en una distorsión múltiple de la metodología, posible de sintetizar en los siguientes cinco elementos: Una explicación fenoménica, reduccionista y fragmentaria de la realidad y la determinación de la salud Primacía absoluta de la asociación causa-efecto como gran organizadora y lógica del universo epidemiológico Reificación de la relación causa-efecto como artefacto formal aplicado para identificar factores de riesgo La reducción de la noción de exposición/vulnerabilidad a un problema esencialmente individual de naturaleza probabilística A la hora de organizar la práctica epidemiológica, la reducción de ésta en acciones funcionales sobre factores de riesgo.

      Premisas de la metodología tradicional respecto a la epidemiología convencional.

  3. Mar 2016
    1. and since the digital converges all media into a single state (that is to say digital data)

      the historical side of newspapers and other texts moving forward in time...this essentially provides tech users with more opportunities to explore their world whether it be the technological world or "reality" as we know it

      eedr2016

    2. must first be digitised to data, then modulated between storage and display in an endless protocol-based negotiation that both severs any link to the data’s semantic source and creates an ever-growing excess of data weirdly related to, but ontologically distinct from, its originating data source.

      ironically this seems more labor intensive than simple verbal or written communication. But, after this is all said and done, digital media will lend more information than expected and it can be done in less than a second of time

      eedr2016

    3. What broadly characterises this trend is its commitment to a return to a full-blown metaphysics of ‘being,’ outside of any subjective or human ‘correlation.’

      Has technology surpassed the finite minds of humans although we are the creators of technology? We have given technology so much power to do/think for us to the point that a realm of dependency surfaces.

      eedr2016

    4. Ontology, when it enters at all, can only do so as an historically-circumscribed concern.

      This theory is restricted by the here and now. Sooner or later the discourse surrounding human-technology interactions will change because the concepts behind the technology will only progress from today's advances

      eedr2016

    5. Fixed social structures produce an impoverished form of agency because agency always belongs to the same components or groups.

      In the case of "fixed social structures" I can't help but make the connection to the idea of Marxist theory—the ideological state apparatus; the idea of agency and interpellation is complicated and perhaps disrupted by this consideration of agency as "multi-determinate and inclusive."

    6. Assemblage theory does not treat agency as something that belongs to or stems solely from humans or from technology alone but from the interaction of a number of heterogeneous tendencies that together produce emergent properties that enable new capacities. In addition, every assemblage contains actants, like Go, that can modify other entities giving them new functions and abilities. Without new associations or without continually forming new connections this process cannot take place and agency cannot occur.

      This seems to point to the idea of agency itself as being emergent given the fact that "assemblages contain actants."

    7. The examples of Foxtel Go and the LetsPlay channels demonstrate how new television can be thought of as an assemblage of heterogeneous elements that has moments of stability and moments of transformation depending on the kinds of connections that are formed. They also demonstrate how the social is refigured through the new productions and viewing practices they engender.

      One of the interesting things about the social is the idea of impermanence or its quality of being subject to change—television is but one analogy of how seemingly stable concepts can be changed, disrupted, broken down, or reconfigured, given a change in the constraints that mediate those concepts.

    8. For them, the transmission of television via a simultaneous schedule is an entirely foreign concept, even though this has been one of the defining elements of television as a medium for decades

      This difference in viewpoint that children experience—"emergent viewing practices—is very interesting in the light of the way television has been experienced across its history.

    9. Latour argues that it is through the process of reshuffling agency that associations between objects are revealed as social. He argues that the social ‘is an association between entities which are in no way recognizable as being social in the ordinary manner, except during the brief moment when they are reshuffled together’ (Latour, 2005: 65).

      It's interesting how Latour uses the idea of "social" outside its normal context to talk about relationships between "entities." That word keeps the door open to consider the agency of non-human objects and the interrelational connections among them.

    10. Reciprocal determination is a non-linear form of determination that emerges from a process of interaction.

      Interaction then encourages non-linearity.

    11. Finally, the concept of assemblages shows promise in theorising multiplatform television as an arrangement that challenges a linear determination based on a cause and effect logic, in favour of a multi-determinate trajectory.

      Finally, a non-linear approach to rhetoric, an art that is often misconstrued as being married to the the linear.

    12. Keilbach and Stauff have a similar issue with the framing of television as a stable medium. They argue that recent discussions about the dramatic changes in television that ‘distinguish the medium’s current heterogeneity from television as it used to be’; [imply] that television once had a stable identity that is now being called into question

      This is the same assumption that we make with the internet, that it has a past that has been stable, but this is not the case. The very nature, as they say later, of televisions that of change.

    13. In the US context, Amanda Lotz argues that the shift to the digital multiplatform has altered television’s industrial logic and therefore requires ‘a fundamental reassessment’ of how television ‘operates as a cultural institution’

      This is the same argument that is taking place over rhetoric in the face of digital media.

    14. engage with a show’s interactive material or create and distribute user generated content.

      Engaging in what we see brings an experiential aspect to television that we lacked before.

    15. Reciprocal determination is a non-linear form of determination that emerges from a process of interaction. To appreciate the importance of this concept to the functioning of assemblages, it is necessary to understand how it relates to both the virtual and the actual. Assemblages function on two planes: the plane of consistency or virtuality, which is made up of becomings or pure differentiation; and, a plane of organisation that actualises these virualities by segmenting and stratifying them

      Defining reciprocal determination

    16. Processes of deterritorialisation, on the other hand, undo fixed orderings, disrupt hierarchical power structures, and by privileging contingent relations between heterogeneous parts, open the assemblage to new possibilities (Deleuze and Guattari, 1987: 3–25)

      In terms of destabilization and withdrawing privilege from hierarchical structures, deterritoialisation could be seen as valuable for feminist critique as a way or process of challenging binaristic qualities and dominant/patriarchal power structures.

    17. Actants are entities that contribute something new to the assemblage and can be human or non-human.

      This concept would support the kind of "relational" ontology that Nancy Tuana offers in her considerations of the Anthropocene and the concept of viscous porosity.

    18. Complicating matters is the fact that different theorists use different terminology to describe what might appear to be similar phenomena.

      This is an important quality to consider when comparing theories. The absence of standardized terms and analogies leads to nomenclature which can often be confusing.

    19. The implication of this is that social theory misses transformations in culture and the social itself.

      As culture is fluidly experienced and is indeed changing, this seems like an important point to note.

    20. in favour of a multi-determinate trajectory

      How will multi-determinate trajectory be dealt with?

    21. deterritorialised and reterritorialised,

      These terms are an application of Deleuze. The terms are described here on the Deleuze wiki:

      http://bit.ly/1UwnN7r

    22. ‘takes seriously the particular objects, technologies, and forms through which culture is brought together’

      If this assemblage theory is inclusive, does it also consider the interrelational quality of of the connections among technology, objects, forms and agents?

    23. television once had a stable identity that is now being called into question

      The concept of identity as a stable concept or entity, in general, is interesting towards feminist considerations of how gender and sexuality can be described using the concept of "fluidity." How can this notion be cross-applied to the issue of ever-changing technological media?

    24. theorists suggest that there is a need to develop new theoretical frameworks that encompass more than the analogue broadcast model.

      Therefore, we are to assume a discussion of interactivity and reciprocal determination; I am curious as to how newer theories might deal with the idea of consumer/commodity or consumer as commodity.

    25. emerged

      Data is being modulated in different kinds of display states: smartphones, computers, t.v.'s, and through different protocols which offer that modulation: Netflix, Hulu, etc.

    26. the way television culture can be deterritorialised and reterritorialised through new connections and in doing so introduce new qualities such as interactivity and reciprocal determination.

      This is pointing to the focus of the argument or thesis idea.

    27. Within assemblage theory, agency is dependent on the kinds of relationships that are formed between different elements.

      I like the idea of agency related to relationships. People act differently in different roles, and roles change with time.

    28. In a multiplatform environment participation and agency can happen in more subtle ubiquitous ways; it happens through practices like using the Foxtel Go that transforms computers, tablets and phones into television sets.

      Agency is usually thought of as something obvious and unmistakable, so rarely do people using netflix think of themselves as agents.

    29. it is also becoming increasingly multiplatform by spreading its content across different devices and platforms that encourage viewer participation.

      Yes! Apps like WatchABC and what not. It's interesting because some people use these apps as backup when they miss the original air time of a show, but because they missed it, they have to interact with the provider.

    30. For example, a viewer who personalises their news to receive only business news or entertainment news misses out on hard news and is not exposed to a mixed diet of news sub-genres

      Or conservative vs. liberal news, etc.

    31. Furthermore, Bennett and Strange point out that customisation and personalisation technologies that enable viewers to select programmes according to personal taste

      It's human nature to go to what is similar to us and our views. So I can see how this would be a problem.

    32. As a stable structure, broadcast television may not offer the personalisation and customisation features that digital television does, however it possesses some very important functions. By addressing a mass audience, it facilitates a sense of nationhood and enables the spread of important information

      I agree with Karisa. This seems like a stretch, like she was going for something purely emotional and went straight to nationhood. Important info can easily be spread through other outlets, I mean heck, I get most of my news from Twitter. Maybe people are afraid of this decentralization of television.

    33. viewers to become schedulers

      viewers as schedulers... interesting concept, but also totally understandable, i.e. Netflix

    34. With their simple content and amateur production standards, LetsPlay channels have very rudimentary aesthetics that challenge the broadcast/network model.

      But could they be "amateur" to appeal to children? Just a thought.

    35. Even the name given to these channels ‘LetsPlay’

      Deliberate choice!

    36. Their hybrid nature puts into question television’s ontological status and the idea that it is a stable medium. While I agree with Uricchio who argues that historically television demonstrates a propensity for change and that different models of television have always existed, I would also suggest that examples like LetsPlay channels signal that digital technology has considerably increased the number of different forms of television and the rate of change.

      I agree with this argument, but I can't help but think back to Clemens and Nash. Examples like LetsPlay also blue the lines between media, bringing us back to their idea of a digital ontology and a single medium.

    37. Go behaves as an agent that enables new viewing practices by forming connections between different parts of the assemblage including viewers, industry, texts and related technology.

      Go is a new agent here. Much like the internet, it allows multiple agents to convene to form a new, single agent

    38. effect logic toward a multiple determination.

      Are we back to the heterogenous determinants?

    39. This signals a shift in how television is viewed; live television can now be viewed without the need for a television set.

      I'm wondering if the tv set will eventually be obsolete

    40. It enables computers, tablets and phones to do what just a few years ago only the television set could do

      distributing agency

    41. One of the most interesting aspects of Go is that it incorporates a number of functions that were previously distributed amongst different technological devices such as the television set, the remote control, the set top box, and the Personal Digital

      "Go" is an assemblage of agency

    42. television has always been a hybrid medium

      I'm confused as to how it was ever thought of a non-hybrid medium

    43. If we understand multiplatform television as an assemblage that is constantly forming new connections between viewers, texts, technologies, polices and practices, we can imagine a virtual realm full of possible outcomes. However, it is difficult to predict which will be actualised and which will remain in the realm of the virtual. This sense of contingency and chance means that social and cultural television formations are open to the new and unthought rather than limited to fixed relations.

      We circle back to the hyperreal and the real... Digital space embodies rhetoric but does it also confuse it? This also relates to the idea of agency. We mentioned the problem with cyberbullying and how people feel protected behind a screen; is it because the digital space shares some agency with them? Are they working on the contingency that no one finds their actual identity?

    44. exploring emergent properties.

      Rhetoric emerging through various agents?

    45. binaries and hierarchies such as production/consumption, producer/audience, industry/consumer and even technologies/text.

      The digital blurs these binary divisions. Producers are also audiences, consumers can produce their own content and are not limited to one producer, viewers can also produce content...

    46. Tamsin Loraine uses the example of a tree that might be comprised of tendencies toward bending and falling

      This is an interesting example, and it supports the idea of distributed agency

    47. These processes also affect how agency operates within an assemblage. Firstly, agency cannot be attributed to any one component or actant, human or non-human but emerges from the association of different parts. It is intrinsically tied to the kinds of connections that make

      I don't know how I feel about this... Isn't the root of web content developed by a human?

    48. Processes of territorialisation can over-code an assemblage by giving its parts fixed roles and meanings and by producing a closed unified structure with a central point of power and signification

      This is an interesting thought... Why do we try to regulate things like this? Is this happening with the web and its content? We appreciate that so many people can post online, but we also try so hard to regulate it...

    49. Unlike fixed structures that always act in the same way and produce the same outcomes, assemblages introduce new possibilities.

      We could benefit from thinking of rhetoric as an assemblage; we have five modes to work with and countless outlets for composition. I don't think this proves that digital rhetoric is more pervasive, though... I'm honestly quite torn on this topic.

    50. with binary relations

      Oh, the binary.

    51. As old connections disappear and new ones form, it changes quantitatively, in terms of the number of connections it has:

      Also, the digital allows us more connection than pen and paper

    52. Although this mode of theorizing provides a basis for prediction and thus for intervention and rational governance, it falls short in accounting for change

      Yes, yes it does. I can think of quite a few people who are uncomfortable with our progress into digital rhetoric... The digital sphere, though, allows different voices to speak, much like the new TV "system" allows more people to access content.

    53. It also allows us to consider how agency is reshuffled, as new connections are formed between new kinds of devices, texts, practices and applications.

      Agency is slowly being transferred to the user. We are no longer passively watching our scheduled programming.

    54. As Goggin notes assemblage theory ‘questions the constitution, production, and reproduction of the social, pointing to how particular objects suggest different conceptions, ordering and politics

      I prefer this definition; it hints at the transformation from viewer to user and how multimodality influences our concepts of content.

    55. Keilbach and Stauff have a similar issue with the framing of television as a stable medium.

      How can one consider anything digital as stable?

    56. For Joke Hermes television and television viewing is so vastly different than it once was that ‘we are in need of evaluating what television is about and, perhaps also, of updating our theoretical frame-work to understand the medium’

      It's so interesting that these advances are forcing us to reevaluate what we once thought about media and content. We are literally developing a new rhetorical situation. I'm not sure if Plato would be proud, considering that most of us cannot go speak with authors and directors, but he might see it as a step forward.

    57. The emergence of digital, multiplatform television also puts into question many of the central concepts and theories for understanding television and television culture, such as: appointment viewing, mass audiences, liveness and broadcast-flow

      Providers and content developers can now target more specific audiences.

    58. In the midst of this change at least three new and distinct functions stand out: pay per view, search and retrieve, and upload and share.

      We already have a new rhetorical situation here: viewers are no longer simply viewers. They are users and they interact with their television

    59. at a time of their choosing.

      Giving agency to the consumer

    60. Empowerment and the agency of audiences has been a contested aspect of digital media.

      Connection to Reeves' idea of structured flow

    61. For example, José van Dijck challenges the idea that online platforms like YouTube signal any shift in media power because they mine the metadata of users in order to target advertising to individuals

      Not a shift in who has power, just in how they use/maintain it

    62. can limit their exposure to different kinds of programmes and different perspectives

      "echo chamber" in Reeves' flow

    63. It enables us to not only to consider current television formations, but to contemplate how these connect and relate to past formations, and possible future formations.

      The assemblages, all the possibilities- this is what we had, this is what we have, and what will we get?

    64. The years of stability that Uricchio refers to could be understood as precisely a set of links that reinforce particular arrangements and by doing so block other possibilities. However, digital technology has enabled new links to form that open up the television assemblage to new forms of production and new forms of engagement.

      Interesting use of the word "links" here. Are there underlying connotations?

    65. beckons viewers to become engaged and to become players rather than passive viewers.

      interactive media rather than the "lazy viewer"

    66. This means taking into account that children are not tied to temporal modes of viewing based on schedules and other expectations to do with broadcast television such as high production standards and established genres.

      What does this mean for the future of television?

    67. what is lost in this new formation?

      We move "forward" but at what costs? Privacy? Interaction?

    68. If we think about these components as simply the actualisation of a number of possible virtulalities, then it becomes apparent that their actualisation is contingent on a variety of tendencies coming together and not the result of a linear logic.

      No linear logic involved? Well what then of math problems and science experiments that lead to possibilities (virtulalities) and realizations (actualisations). Those seem like linear logic paths to me...

    69. the actual is always informed and influenced by the virtual and that, while the virtual may have an infinite number of possibilities, only some are actualised

      The possibilities versus what becomes reality. The infinite versus the finite.

    70. Firstly, agency cannot be attributed to any one component or actant, human or non-human but emerges from the association of different parts.

      The various sums of parts change and create change not necessarily the parts themselves. Like a person involved in a social or political movement. The person adds to the movement and is a part of it, but it is the movement that affects change.

    71. as the nature of the system changes, its capacities or what it enables, also change. DeLanda discusses this process in terms of emergent properties.

      Ripple effect. If one think changes it is bound to affect other things, even if they are not obvious.

    72. First, because assemblages form new connections with the outside, the social itself becomes open to change.

      Disruptions enter and question why things are the way they are and how they could change, this is very obvious in technology and business, subtle at social level.

    73. the concept of assemblages provides a means of accounting for the formation of new kinds of connections between discrete devices, texts and applications, at times across different mediums. It enables us to think about how previous and current devices, texts and medium are reconfigured and adopt new functionalities or are modified, so as to display new qualities.

      The potential possibilities, by taking the pieces and rearranging them, taking some out, and adding in some new we create new things.

    74. change and transformation are not simply ‘characteristics of the medium’s current phase but more generally [are] one of television’s integral features’

      the transformative nature of television. While we think of it as the one thing in our living rooms, tv is really a conglomerate (aka collection of appendages)

    75. Internet TV

      Combining two forms of media onto one device

  4. Feb 2016
    1. Fixed social structures produce an impoverished form of agency because agency always belongs to the same components or groups.

      Comments on the possibility of television to be an oppressive environment (not to mention a stale form of entertainment).

    2. This unique function addresses a society as a whole and reinforces a sense of nationhood and citizenship.

      This function also leaves broadcast television particularly susceptible to those who would spread excessive nationalism in service of that "sense of nationhood and citizenship."

    3. This means taking into account that children are not tied to temporal modes of viewing based on schedules and other expectations to do with broadcast television such as high production standards and established genres.

      I always thought it was odd that my nephew would watch obviously homemade YouTube videos (so long as they featured Spider-Man) with the same excitement as he would have watching studio-made professional productions. Sometimes more even.

    4. This is no small matter when we consider the scenario described at the start of this essay, where as little as ten years ago not only did viewers have very little control over where and when they watch television, but they also had to deal with incredibly cumbersome technology.

      At the time, I'm sure that technology was considered anything but "incredibly cumbersome." Just as I'm sure that in my lifetime, I'll see a day where the use of something as portable as say a tablet will be remembered as "incredibly cumbersome."

    5. Go’s search and retrieve logic also challenges a fixed idea of a television schedule that is organised by the scheduling department of a television channel with the aim of enticing viewers to immerse themselves in its flow. Go, on the other hand, is defined by a multiplicity of possibilities that may or may not actualise as schedules. Viewing is no longer reliant on schedules as viewing on Go means choosing programmes from a number of lists and menus that can be swiped through, personalised into favourites or arranged into a number of different playlists. This form of interaction removes programming and scheduling as something that is solely the domain of the industry and reconfigures it into a shared arrangement.

      This sort of flow was described in the Reeves article, as was the shift toward highly personalized content.

    6. By doing so, it literally brings new elements into an assemblage that deterritorialises a number of connections fundamental to broadcast television.

      This assemblage is physical rather than theoretical.

    7. I’m on the bus. I take out my iPad and open Foxtel’s application the Go. I can watch programmes on 60 live channels, or I can choose from hundreds of shows and movies from the ‘on demand’ menu.

      Immediately presenting concrete examples of the major paradigm shift in both space (on the bus) and time (whenever) of television from its original iteration.

    8. a virtualised form of participation.

      Reality and game shows still do not represent actual viewer participation, as the participants lose their audience status upon entry.

    9. gender groups at particular times

      Some problematic assumptions surrounding those "particular times."

    10. The concept of reciprocal determination is important for challenging the centrality of broadcast television and the idea of television and television culture as something with a fixed and stable structure based on fixed roles, binaries and hierarchies such as production/consumption, producer/audience, industry/consumer and even technologies/text.

      Neither side of any of these binaries exists without the other, so in a sense, they are constantly creating one another and renegotiating traditional roles as advances in technology allow for a more communicative experience all around. Throughout the duration of this process, the binaries become less binding, and each party takes on more of the attributes of the other.

    11. These are properties that arise from the interactions of heterogeneous parts so that the assemblage as a whole acquires new attributes. At the same time, the parts of an assemblage retain their unique properties, and do not lose their distinctiveness.

      The whole is greater than (or at the very least fundamentally different than) the sum of its parts. This fact, however, does not at all diminish the original natures of the parts, which retain their individual capacities despite their collection into an assemblage.

    12. so that a part may be detached and made a component of another assemblage’

      When applied to art or academia, this can refer to the application of interdisciplinarity to create entirely new disciplines such as the art of graphic novels or the study of political science.

    13. More specifically, in this paper I argue that the concept of assemblages provides a means of accounting for the formation of new kinds of connections between discrete devices, texts and applications, at times across different mediums. It enables us to think about how previous and current devices, texts and medium are reconfigured and adopt new functionalities or are modified, so as to display new qualities.

      A good deal of modern art seems to be a result of synthesis of preexisting forms rather than an attempt at complete novelty. This is (rightfully) celebrated by those who engage in this sort of remix culture.

    14. ‘[p]art of the ‘power of television’ lies in its constant transformation process, enforced by a continuous reflection on the ‘appropriate’ use and an ongoing redefinition of television’

      This is true of all of our arts and technologies: language, writing, rhetoric, and composition for the sake of this class, but the same goes for music, radio, art, dance, poetry, animation, and so much more. As repertoires expand and access spreads to capable, creative people with increasingly varied experiences, everything we know becomes overtly temporary in the best possible way.

    15. The emergence of digital, multiplatform television also puts into question many of the central concepts and theories for understanding television and television culture, such as: appointment viewing, mass audiences, liveness and broadcast-flow

      These concepts have been expanded on by live-streaming services such as Twitch and Periscope which deliver specialized content to specific audiences and allow for instantaneous feedback, encouraging interaction between content, creators, and audience members, often blurring the lines between the three.

    16. Upload and share practices enable viewers to engage with a show’s interactive material or create and distribute user generated content. These changes have transformed television from a single platform medium into an interactive multiplatform medium that encourages viewer (if this term is still appropriate) participation.

      I was anticipating "upload and share" to refer to television piracy, which regardless of morality is a very real and very prominent facet of the modern culture of television worthy of discussion. Maybe later?

    17. hinking about these problems in terms of assemblage theory, we could say that in these instances YouTube is captured and over-coded by molar ordering that reinstitutes a hierarchical structure and a central agent of power.

      Think also of Google, Amazon, and Facebook - how they track your searches and purchases in order to advertise to your liking

    18. customisation and personalisation technologies that enable viewers to select programmes according to personal taste can limit their exposure to different kinds of programmes and different perspectives

      This is a better argument, and the only thing I can say from experience to challenge this is that I've gained exposure to different genres and programs from "suggestions" or "most popular shows" that apps like Netflix display. These are results from a collaboration of people customizing and personalizing their programs.

    19. By addressing a mass audience, it facilitates a sense of nationhood and enables the spread of important information.

      I understand that this entire article focuses on television and its many platforms, I feel like this is where it starts to become very limiting and results in a weak argument because, although this is true, it does not address other factors that dwindle this argument about nationhood. For instance, social media now takes most of the responsibility for dispersing essential issues and information.

    20. LetsPlay channels can be see as one manifestation of these new links,

      LetsPlay channels are actualisations of new links, also known as elements in the virtual

    21. In fact, children’s viewing practices should form an important base for how we rethink what television is and what it does, because today’s children have had little or no exposure to television prior to a digital age.

      Shifts in generation

    22. They incorporate a mix of television and gaming elements and cultural practices.

      How does this change the 'acceptable' uses of television?

    23. ‘we have to reshuffle our conceptions of what was associated together because the previous definition has been made somewhat irrelevant’

      As I annotated earlier, we give definitions to the things we use simply by the ways that we use them.

    24. At the same time, we could also ask what is lost in this new formation? One possibility is that members of a household act in isolation from each other in relation to planning and scheduling communal viewing.

      Communal viewing is only lost because of mobility, but Go's PDR records shows which, I think, actually encourages communal viewing since members of a household can view it at a time most convenient for all of them.

    25. the Foxtel iQ disrupts appointment viewing or a temporal mode of viewing by enabling viewers, to not only record programmes easily (that is without needing to know the start and end time or date) but also ‘create a personal playlist from the pool of programs they have recorded, which can then be watched at the viewer’s convenience’

      binge-watching shows emerges from this as well; in particularly, shows that have narration where we are required to watch he show from the first episode in order to understand the rest of the series (House of Cards, Narcos, Game of Thrones, etc.)

    26. mobility becomes an emergent property

      mobility is a huge factor that resulted from different digital platforms

    27. At the same time, I am not assuming that prior to multiplatform television viewers were passive, as acts of reading and making meaning are also forms of activity.

      I like how the author covers their bases by clarifying and acknowledging this. Anticipating counterarguments is something that is aesthetically appealing in a text.

    28. While this event may be read through a linear cause and effect logic after it has occurred, it is first a series of heterogeneous tendencies that come together to form an expression.

      This is striking to think about because most of us would think of the tree bending and falling in terms of a linear cause-and-effect logic rather than thinking about the factors or 'tendencies' individually that form expressions.

    29. processes of deterritorialisation

      associated with rhizomatic assemblage because of its ability to destabilize structure and keep an open system

    30. processes of territorialisation

      associated with stratified assemblage because of its homogeneous and fixed characteristics

    31. Unlike fixed structures that always act in the same way and produce the same outcomes, assemblages introduce new possibilities.

      Fixed structures are considered stratified assemblages, aren't they? The shift in word usage makes this a little confusing. Rhizomatic assemblages introduce new possibilities.

    32. rhizome, clearly meant a series of transformations, translations, transductions, which could not be captured by any of the traditional terms of social theory’ (Latour, 1999:15).

      Because social theory itself does not recognize transformations or change

    33. As Latour argues, social theory privileges stability and tends to structure the social around fixed terms and binaries such as ‘actor and system, or agency and structure’ (Latour, 1999: 16)

      a relationship between rhetoric and humanism

    34. The concept of assemblages takes into consideration the way television culture can be deterritorialised and reterritorialised, so that new functionalities and qualities are introduced.

      I watched a Wordpress tutorial about child themes, and the instructor explained this type of concept by using a car made of legos. He said that we can deconstruct it and reconstruct it using the same set of legos in order to build something with new functionalities and qualities. This is how I view the concept of assemblages.

    35. LetsPlay channels put into question the idea of television as a stable medium, and invite us to rethink what television is and what it can be.

      LetsPlay channels allow the viewer an extensive, inside glimpse into a video game, with added commentary from the channel's gamer, allowing them to "play" allow with the gamer they are viewing.

    36. LetsPlay

      Live (video) gaming streaming.

    37. Viewers are therefore no longer bound to the television set to watch live television.

      Mobility and convenience.

    38. However, unlike mobile phones and tablets which promote mobility, I would argue that these home based technologies attempt to maintain the television set as the privileged site for viewing and the home as a central location.

      Further arguing that television that once was an event, still remains an event that has the luxury of being played at the comfort of your own home.

    39. Go and apps like it offer new lines of connections that potentially reformulate television culture by deterritorialising appointment, mass and home viewing.

      Online streaming anywhere and anytime.

    40. Foxtel Go is one of a number of television applications (or ‘apps’) that enable viewers to watch television on different devices.

      Basic online streaming service.

    41. broadcast television offers viewers very few opportunities to actively participate in the media texts that they are directed to consume

      Little to no audience participation. Possible exception of news stations asking for audience feedback ("Send us your pictures of the storm," "Tweet us," etc.).

    42. broadcast television is a highly organised structure that revolves around a centre of significance, tends toward homogeneity and produces images and representations for viewers to consume.

      Broadcast television is a binary structure.

    43. reciprocal determination

      Theory that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment.

    44. deterritorialisation

      The severance of social, political, or cultural practices from their native places and populations.

    45. rhizomatic assemblage

      Theory that allows for multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation.

    46. social as a constantly stable structure

      Social aspects remain unchanged and stable.

    47. television once had a stable identity that is now being called into question

      Television used to be an event. Everyone in the household would gather around the television at a certain time and a certain day and all watch a program together. With new ways to access television shows, this togetherness has dissolved; the audience no longer adapts their time in order to watch a show, but a show adapts to fit around the viewer's schedule.

    48. 1950 and 1980

      This time period helped set the foundations for television. Rizzo is arguing that, in the long run, this time period will only be considered a brief period rather than a vital time.

    49. [p]art of the ‘power of television

      Television has the power to inform, persuade, challenge, entertain, and much more to a mass audience.

    50. viewers can access their favourite shows in a number of different ways

      On-demand, online streaming, etc.

    51. assemblages

      Collection or gathering of people or things.

    52. By taking over the combined functions of the television set, the remote control, the set top box, and the PDR, Go produces new lines of connections that cause a shift in how we understand what television is and what it does. In this sense, the set of associations and connections that shape broadcast/network television culture are disassembled and reconfigured as some of its vital actants and their connections disappear and new ones emerge.

      I am reminded of social media, particularly Twitter. As people take over the dissemination of news 140 characters at a time, news culture is disassembled and reconfigures, vital actants disappear and new actants emerge-- particularly those who have never had a vital voice in the cultural conversation-- rather they were the ones being acted on even though the conversation was about them.

      eedr2016

    53. As Latour argues, social theory privileges stability and tends to structure the social around fixed terms and binaries such as ‘actor and system, or agency and structure’ (Latour, 1999: 16). Social theory also finds it difficult to account for changes in the social that come about as new connections are formed, and how these potentially reformulate or transform the way the social is ordered or assembled.

      This speaks directly to the acceptability of the new voice in cultural discourse. If rhetoric takes a nontraditional turn, meaning that a wider and more divers audience than ever before has access to and agency through digital rhetoric platforms, then the traditional culture will object, does already object. Is this dilution evolution of the message? have missed out on the real message, the divine truth, by limiting the number of people able to participate in the conversation?

      eedr2016

    54. This examination of the evolution of television mirrors the evolution of rhetoric into multimodal platforms. That tv was only stable from 1950-1980s suggests that this definition of television is only a "blip" in the ongoing history of the medium. The same with more traditional rhetoric. Will the written word become a blip in the timeline of communication? Will we return to this "more stable" platform, abandoning the ephemeral new fangled multimodal communication platforms? Is the discord of the discussion in believing (falsely) that things were better in a time before and that the future lies in an even further corruption of the truth? Can we have discourse without these opposing beliefs-- that tv was better in its original form, that rhetoric was better in its oral or print form?

      eedr2016

    55. ex falso quodlibet

      Mediaeval name for the rule of inference which allows that from a contradiction you may deduce anything whatsoever.

    56. symbolic placeholders for binary switches: on/off, +/-, yes/no, is/is-not

      Zeroes and ones are numerical in a binary sense, but represent symbols that represent switches that lead to an overall meaning.

    57. The age of media is over, for there is now only one medium

      There is one media, but rather, one medium: everything online is data and is made up of a code or type of coding language. It's definitely an interesting point that I haven't previously considered before.

    58. aphorism

      Speaking of a general truth in a memorable way ("If it ain't broke, don't fix it.").

    59. hypomnesis

      Weakened memory.

    60. amamnesis

      The idea that humans possess knowledge from past incarnations and that learning consists of rediscovering that knowledge within us. (live and learn?)

    61. Digital ontology is the event of the end of media

      Very interesting.

    62. One must be able to communicate to be considered a being and to exist.

    63. full-blown metaphysics of ‘being

      This raises the question of what it means to be. Can a computer "be" and exist without human interaction? Does a computer need a human to input or output information?

    64. web 2.0 practices

      HTML, CSS, and other coding languages.

    65. displacing ‘the human’ from the centre of action

      Lack of embodiment in a digital sphere?

    66. ever-growing excess of data

      It is both interesting and a little scary to think that anyone can post online and that anyone can also access anything that anyone has posted as well. I think that this can really change the way we produce texts, but can also cause problems.

    67. How does censorship play a role in rhetoric. the right to these tools be taken away can cause riots or other up rising. How can censorship effect are ability as rhetoricians to demonstrate are knowledge as well as are ability to evoke emotion and etc in are audience working around censorship. will we change are tools based on these

    68. his tension leads to certain opacities or blind-spots regarding the status of media for each trajectory, which the others can supply only at the cost of their own blindness.

      Can this blindness be associated with what we allow the reader to see or to allow the reader to read between the lines. Do we give this power to the audience or do we trust the audience to understand what we are saying

    69. Using technology to express are thoughts compare to that of written text.

    70. When modulating some digital data into a display state and experiencing it as an image (say, in order to show a picture of your child to a friend on your phone),

      If this is the way things are, how do we think of ourselves? Are we display states?

    71. It is noteworthy that these three major trajectories (the naturalist, the socio-historical and the object-oriented-ontological) in contemporary media studies are incommensurable, if in perhaps unexpected ways.
    72. What broadly characterises this trend is its commitment to a return to a full-blown metaphysics of ‘being,’ outside of any subjective or human ‘correlation.’
    73. ‘object oriented ontology’ (OOO), expressly named as such by Harman on the model of ‘object oriented programming’—but just as expressly without any further relation to computing than that

      human interaction vs computer interactions?

    74. Culture is redefined or re-created when formatted in web based content, because we can use various modes of rhetoric to express history

    75. history depends on human interaction, thus cause and effect

    76. hen modulated between storage and display in an endless network of protocol-based negotiation that both severs any link to the data's semantic source and creates an ever-growing excess of data weirdly related to, but ontologically distinct from, its originating data source.

      the difference between history of rhetoric using web base development

    77. Later, we will see how this could help us also understand immanently digital entities and their relationship to the world.

      Think about how we consider digital entities. We consider them entities, but do they have agency? Are they rhetors, or are they just mediums?

    78. there are no longer any media, saying, “with numbers, everything goes […] a digital base will erase the very concept of medium”

      'media' doesn't exist; we only have data that we view on different digital platforms

    79. technics

      Hood gives the traditional definition of technology originating with Aristotle as “a human arrangement of technics—tools, machines, instruments, materials, sciences, and personnel—to make possible and serve the attainment of human ends” (Hood, 1983, p. 347).

      Philosophy of Technology- Erwin Marquit, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota,

      Published in vol. 13 of the Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (entry “Technology, Philosophy of”), pp. 417–29. VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1995.

    80. Or, to put this differently, we have argued that: logic is the medium of being, insofar as it inscribes the necessity of pure minimal differences before contradiction; mathematics the medium that concretises minimal differences into consistency-without-phenomenal-identity as the possibility of any actualisation; technics the actualising medium of modulating these consistencies in turn. This tripartite distinction—difference, consistency, modulation—entails that all phenomenal presentations are at once infinitely variable as they are entirely constrained in specific ways.

      The use of medium as a way of discussing digital ontology makes sense: logic as medium of being, mathematics as a substantiating medium, and technics as the medium of modulation and actualization.

    81. otiose

      serving no practical purpose or result.

      (Google)

    82. Yet our point here is that, at base, the digital is a model of logic, not a specific technology (Chun, 2011: 140). Second, and just as importantly, because the physical reality of the computer is an electronic and magnetic enactment of this logic, it is impossible to ever identify any specific being of digital data, since the ‘movement’ of data back and forth between disks, RAM (Random Access Memory), caches and registers on the CPU (Central Processing Unit), is in fact a constant process of modulation between states of magnetic polarity or electric charge in these physical objects. Because of this, it is impossible to say that any given bit of digital data is even the same as itself, or point to its localisation or appearance in the world as a criterion or determinant of its identity, laying bare the fundamental spuriousness of the concept of a ‘copy.’ Data’s ‘identity’ is a pure, non-phenomenal, distributed-cohering-across-materials. And, ‘underneath’ that, there are simply absolutely minimal differences or pure binaries—which are thus differences-without-identity, not subject to the laws of non-contradiction.

      Here again, there is this summation and recontextualization of what is meant by digital and the ambivalence of identity as a result of modulation and display states.

    83. ferromagnetic

      (of a body or substance) having a high susceptibility to magnetization, the strength of which depends on that of the applied magnetizing field, and that may persist after removal of the applied field. This is the kind of magnetism displayed by iron and is associated with parallel magnetic alignment of neighboring atoms.

      (Google)

    84. digital ontology as founded on pure differences established by the primacy of excluded middle, data should be considered a hyperdifferentiated consistency without identity. We thereby reiterate and extend our fundamental point about digital data, which is that it scrambles inherited metaphysical polarities. The principle of excluded middle rules the foundations of the digital universe, not the principle of non-contradiction. Digital ontology is paraconsistent, not classical or intuitionist.

      So, in a sense, digital ontology is dualistic, but with a caveat— digital data "scrambles inherited metaphysical polarities." Therefore, it creates an monistic effect while underlining the paradoxical concept of paraconsistency, rejecting the "classical or intuitionist."

    85. incommensurable

      not able to be judged by the same standard as something; having no common standard of measurement.

      (Google)

    86. Yet recent developments in logic—those broadly denominated ‘paraconsistent’—have attempted to construct logical systems in which contradictions are not necessarily ‘explosive.’ In traditional propositional logic, everything follows from a contradiction, but variants of para-consistent logic propose otherwise. As Greg Restall explains: Paraconsistent logics are distinctive in that they do not mandate explosion. […] Instead, for paraconsistent logics the entailment fails […] in the semantics for these logics there are interpretations in which A and -A may both be taken to be true, but in which not everything is true (Restall, 2006: 76). - 36 - It is essential here to understand that paraconsistency separates out contradiction from consistency, such that certain contradictions might be true, without all of them being so. Whereas consistency and the foreclosure-of-contradiction are identical in classical and intuitionist logics, this is not the case for paraconsistent ones. Moreover, this situation establishes the actuality that there may well be many different modes of constructing logical systems, even a kind of logical pluralism. This reopens the old question regarding the foundations of logic in a radical new fashion. - 37 - What we want to underline is that the instantiation of Boolean logic in post-war computing led very quickly to the appearance of a vacillation in the data computers were handling, such that paraconsistent logics initially came to be developed “to prevent computers, such as expert medical systems, from deducing anything whatsoever from contradictory data… because of the principle of ex falso quodlibet” (Meillasoux, 2009: 76). [12] Unlike regimes governed by classical logic, then, such a digital ontology would render pure difference (not identity) fundamental; unlike intuitionist logic, digital ontology could also affirm actual infinities. One corollary is the possibility, even actuality, perhaps even necessity, of true contradictions; another is the patency of contingency in any modulation.

      The concept of paraconsistency allows room for paradoxes to occur without the collapse of the logical system. This seems within the spirit of postructuralist rhetoric.

    87. But we, four, disagree that ontology must be classical, as well as, five, that logic can only describe (and therefore does not prescribe) existents. So it is time for us to bring together all the points we have made above into a clear and distinct summary of digital ontology.

      Here's the difference from Badiou.

    88. they are ideological in this new sense, that they are produced on the basis of absolute binary operations whose operations vanish in the presentation of numbers, thereby also remodulating the data they present. The very organisation of data through various forms of modulation puts all sorts of pressures on the numbers that numbers themselves cannot say (Mackenzie, 2012: 335–350). We are thus committed here to understanding the digital as prior to number. Above all, we use this fact as a hint in our construction of a digital ontology. We maintain that it is vital to understand that to construct a digital ontology is to have recourse to a logical and not a mathematical ontology. But what does this mean?

      The concept of ideology enters the conversation in an interesting way: since data is fundamentally represented in "absolute binary operations," the numbers are the substance of the ideology, and the ideological apparatus could be said to be the forms of modulation, where numbers are interpellated as subjects of that ideology, where the forms "put all sorts of pressures on the numbers that the numbers themselves cannot say."

    89. The move to pure quantities is far easier to understand when we accept the numerical as simply another parameter in the modulation process between data and its display, and may help us move closer to an understanding of the relationship between the contemporary technical interdependence of virtual/material and the Deleuzian interdependence of virtual/actual (Nash, 2012).

      Here, digital as an ontological metaphor is further clarified as numerical is represented as a parameter of modulation rather than the "substance" of being.

    90. it is that the unprecedented powers of thought and action that derive from the electrification of Boolean algebra first established by Shannon, and now incarnated globally in the form of contemporary computing, must have some fundamental anchoring in ‘being’ for it to function at all (Shannon, 1937). Second, this means that to speak of ‘digital media’ is not simply to speak of a set of hardware and software components developed by a particular species on a particular planet at a particular time using particular materials: it is rather to be given a new access to being itself, and one which must thereafter guide our thinking of natural processes more generally. Third, if there remains something unthought in the Wolfram-Fredkin hypothesis, it is simply that there is something preprogrammed, indeed too representational, about the direct projection of a contemporaneously-dominant media paradigm onto being itself. Moreover, if the social conditions of such a projection are occluded, then we should expect such an occlusion to create certain symptoms too; not least the immediate carrying-across of a number of features of contemporary computing to nature itself in an unjustified manner. What we wish to do here, then, is radicalise the Wolfram-Fredkin hypothesis along logical lines. Above all, we agree that when we speak about the ‘digital,’ this must have an extension far greater than simply referring to the actualities of new media, at the same time that these new media must simultaneously function as our primary mode of access to this recognition. But we disagree that the universe is a computer. We believe, rather, that being is digital, if in a very particular sense.

      Here, there is a summation of the basic argument and a refutation of the idea of the universe as a computer. The concept of "being is digital" then remediates the word digital into a way of negotiating meaning through the understanding of being and reality through the apparatus of modulation and display state, from the unmodified to the experienced, from the non-ontological to that which is conceptualized.

    91. at all other times it exists as unmodulated digital data with no clear ontological state. This is true of all digital data. These may perhaps be termed ‘immanently digital entities,’ and could be said to be true of any and all of the excess of data created by the use of digital data and networks. ‘Likes’ and ‘friends’ and ‘photos’ and ‘text’ and ‘links’ and ‘Tweets’ and ‘followers’ and all other ostensibly differentiable digital phenomena–some of these may have identifiable provenance in the non-digital world, and some may be uniquely generated by and in the digital sphere, but all can be said to be ‘immanently digital entities.’ It is this problem, unique to the non-medium of the digital, that leads thinkers such as those mentioned above to concepts of ‘inorganic life’ and technogenesis, as well as scientists like Stephen Wolfram and Edward Fredkin to posit—in a move emblematic of Kittler’s assertion that “media determine our situation”—an hypothesis of the universe as a digital computer (Kittler, 1999: xxxix; Chaitin, 1999: 108).

      The unmodifed raw data exists in kind of a formless state, before it is modulated into a display state. This analogy of the universe as a digital computer kind of sounds like a borrowing from some Eastern ontological ideas like that of Hinduism and the Purusha Sukta from the Rigveda, where the universe is a kind of display state that results from a modulation of consciousness within the godhead, or create force manifest as a deity known as Purusha. The analogy might not be useful, but it serves as a way to connect thought conceptually for me.

    92. chimeric

      chimera

      1 a capitalized : a fire-breathing she-monster in Greek mythology having a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail b : an imaginary monster compounded of incongruous parts 2 : an illusion or fabrication of the mind; especially : an unrealizable dream <a fancy, a chimera in my brain, troubles me in my prayer — John Donne> 3 : an individual, organ, or part consisting of tissues of diverse genetic constitution

      (Merriam Webster)

    93. the ‘experience’ of the digital becomes one of process, a performance (Groys, 2008: 84). As we have already implied, being qua data proceeds from its operations. When modulating some digital data into a display state and experiencing it as an image (say, in order to show a picture of your child to a friend on your phone), you can no more say that it is the same, or even a copy of the image you showed a different friend yesterday than you could say the D flat played by Martha Goldstein in her 1970 performance of Chopin’s “Etude Op.25 No. 8” was the same D flat that Hermann Scholtz played in his 1879 performance of the same work, let alone the same D flat that Abel Tesfaye sang in The Weeknd’s 2011 performance of their song “The Knowing”.

      This example of display state, I really get the sense of the notion of individuation through the musical analogy, and the concept of process/performance is made clear. The idea of privileging process over product applies to the valuation of what is experienced rather than the means of production.

    94. phenomenological

      phenomenology

      a philosophical movement that describes the formal structure of the objects of awareness and of awareness itself in abstraction from any claims concerning existence

      (Merriam Webster)

    95. “ [T]hese very terms,” Manovich writes, “content, cultural object, cultural production, and cultural consumption—are redefined by web 2.0 practices” (2009, 326)

      Instead of the terms defining our actions, today’s actions are defining the terms.

    96. the grand assertion

      everything is digital, and digital is everything

    97. ontology

      a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being

    98. They are directed at displacing ‘the human’ from the centre of action, multiplying the sites and forces and functions that are to be analysed, at the same time that these factors are simultaneously treated as part of a sole and single natural world.

      Treating things that are considered unnatural (site, forces, functions) and treating as natural.

    99. proprioception

      from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual," and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

      (wiki)

    100. corporeal

      having a body

    101. Hayles does not go quite as far as Bernard Stiegler, who repurposes the Epimetheus myth in order to show that humans have no essence separable from the technologies they require for life (Stiegler, 1998). Stiegler complicates temporality even further by asserting that technics, “far from being merely in time, properly constitutes time” (1998: 27). The logical conclusion of this train of thought is that ‘the human’ emerges as a post-facto image from particular technological situations (and not from all of them!), a conclusion that Hayles’s version of Simondon’s and others’ approaches does acknowledge without fully accepting, by insisting on the adaptive approach of epigenetic evolution (Hayles, 2012: 90). Francisco Varela’s work with organic living systems, abstracted to apply to the assemblages formed between technical systems and organic beings, also strongly informs this mode of thought. Varela talks of “embodied cognitive structures” and models of understanding based on “microworlds and microidentities,” as well as of knowledge that is “built from small domains” (Varela, 1992: 334). He defines embodied cognition as the experience of a body with sensorimotor capacities that are “themselves embedded in a more encompassing biological and cultural context” (Varela, 1992: 329). Deleuze’s reading of Spinoza’s concept of a body is available to apply this theory to digital environments, and many contemporary theorists of new media and affect have done just that, including Anna Munster, Claire Colebrook and especially Luicana Parisi in her book Abstract Sex. Parisi uses such readings to move beyond the dichotomy of embodiment and disembodiment. She also calls on Donna Haraway’s famous explication of the cyborg, reminding us of the need to revisit Haraway’s thesis in the light of the contemporary era of cyborgian digital networks (Parisi, 2004: 135).

      The idea of a human "essence" being inseparable from technology is especially telling of our current moment, given that Stiegler wrote his comment in 1998, before the onset of constant digital bombardment. I think in terms of investigating these notions, a prolonged engagement with these ideas and a consideration of Haraway would be instrumental in further developing a critique for the capstone project.

    102. ather he understands mediation purely as the process of interactive communication between the two structures, a process which always amplifies (Simondon, 1992: 304).

      This idea of mediation is interesting, given our interest in rhetoric and the digital. Considering modulation as amplifying, interactive communication between two structures, we could see rhetoric in our current moment as informed by "medium" as with Lane's work on subversion in social media. That particular type of rhetorical move is informed and enabled by the available means, i.e., Twitter and cross-platform hashtagging. The cross-platform feature is an example of how one feature in one mode is being amplified across media.

    103. “modulation is molding in a continuous and perpetually variable manner” (Deleuze and Guattari, 1987: 562 n92).

      Modulation in this case would be resistant to singularity of meaning, which would fall in line with Derridean ambiguity.

    104. it is rather to be given a new access to being itself, and one which must thereafter guide our thinking of natural processes more generally.

      Do we exist in the digital?

    105. Unlike broadcast television, multiplatform television can be understood as a rhizomatic assemblage as it contains no centre of significance and cannot be unified into a whole. Multiplatform television consists of a number of different media sites, services and devices where viewers can access the programmes of their choice at any time.

      Is this the direction that rhetoric is going in?

    106. The concept of reciprocal determination is important for challenging the centrality of broadcast television and the idea of television and television culture as something with a fixed and stable structure based on fixed roles, binaries and hierarchies such as production/consumption, producer/audience, industry/consumer and even technologies/text.

      I think this concept can very well be applied to rhetoric, i.e. writing/speaking

    107. This approach means that the actual is always informed and influenced by the virtual and that, while the virtual may have an infinite number of possibilities, only some are actualised. It also implies that ‘the determination of every actual being by the virtual past in its entirety remains contingent for Deleuze:

      Going back to agency and the confusing divide between digital and real. We don't consider the digital to be real, but what happens in the digital realm is produced by humans

    108. constantly being reconfigured according to the introduction of new elements and components. This essay turns to assemblage theory because it specifically focuses on open and dynamic systems.

      Much like rhetoric is constantly evolving

    109. challenges a linear determination based on a cause and effect logic,

      It's interesting that this way of thinking is present in TV and in writing. We have finally started to move away from a linear writing process, and it seems as though the same thought process is present in media production.

    110. ‘[T]hey have helped to mask some of the medium’s fundamental transformations, and they have continued to shape key assumptions about television’s interactions with its audiences,

      I agree with this; my parents and grandparents have yet to embrace the interactivity of television. My grandparents have a basic cable subscription and they refuse to upgrade because the newer technology threatens to disrupt what they know about television.

    111. These changes have transformed television from a single platform medium into an interactive multiplatform medium that encourages viewer (if this term is still appropriate) participation

      perhaps "viewer" needs to be changed to "user"

    112. In this mediating sense, we can understand modulation as becoming, although for Simondon mediation never refers to a third entity acting between two structures,

      Is rhetoric literally embodied through the digital? I like that he doesn't refers to a third party; the idea of the interactive communication is fascinating. Perhaps writing in collaboration with machines creates a secondary audience for us.

    113. In this mode, the word takes on a definite sense of shaping, even of sculpting, since the shape of the carrier wave is modified by the signal for transmission,

      I like this idea of shaping and sculpting. It seems to personify machines.

    114. It has come to denote a similar performative action in speech.

      So, are machines performers? Since they translate what we write and kind of interpret what we compose?

    115. Because digitisation places the emphasis on a plurality of modulations of the same material, just as Spinoza conceives of a single substance expressed in an infinity of modes, these modulations are no longer media in any traditional sense.

      How does this transformation affect how we write or compose for audiences? Is the digital sphere a stepping stone to including a more universal audience?

    116. “with numbers, everything goes […] a digital base will erase the very concept of medium”

      Maybe I'm having a hard time grasping this because I've literally been trained to love the written word, but even a digital base has to be modulated, doesn't it? Even though we write for machines, I think we ultimately consider a human audience. Machines translate, but humans read.

    117. such an option repeats rather than resolves the difficulties.

      hence the naturalistic motifs

      eedr2016

    118. What is certainly notable about all these ontologies is their radicalisation of what Martin Heidegger (1996) phrased ‘the ontico-ontological difference’

      seems like technology extremism

      eedr2016

    119. software studies “has to investigate the role of software in contemporary culture, and the cultural and social forces that are shaping the development of software itself” (Manovich, 2013: 10)

      is this a counterargument?

      Humans aren't necessarily displaced in the digital world, but help shape it instead

      eedr2016

    120. consequences

      typically used with negative connotation, but here it could mean the convenient accesses afforded to users of technology.

      eedr2016

    121. They are directed at displacing ‘the human’ from the centre of action, multiplying the sites and forces and functions that are to be analysed, at the same time that these factors are simultaneously treated as part of a sole and single natural world.
      • The human takes on the job of self-manipulation not consciously knowing it.

      • Through digital mediums he/she is given false authority.

      • The digital world has become the "new" norm with all factors working collectively.

      eedr2016

    122. What is the ‘sender,’ ‘producer,’ ‘receiver,’ ‘message’ of a simple Facebook post? The digitisation process creates an excess of digital data through its own operations, an actual excess greater than the sum of just simple meta-media and the retroactive virtuality of the media being digitised as virtual content.

      This is an interesting concept in terms of disrupting the ideas of traditional categorizations. of media

    123. [T]hese very terms,” Manovich writes, “content, cultural object, cultural production, and cultural consumption—are redefined by web 2.0 practices” (2009, 326). Or, as he puts it in another text, software studies “has to investigate the role of software in contemporary culture, and the cultural and social forces that are shaping the development of software itself” (Manovich, 2013: 10)

      This would be interesting in terms of a Marxist critique like that of Horkheimer and Adorno in The Culture Industry. When he speaks of cultural and social forces, it makes me think of ideology. #eedr2016