1,434 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. “It’s something that colleges love to brag about,” said Brian Taylor, managing director of Ivy Coach, a New York counseling company, noting that many colleges list their first-gen statistics in their brochures.

      Again like in many of the other articles, i think the majority of schools use these things to their own advantage.

    2. Nearly 60 percent of admissions directors said they were likely to increase their recruiting of first-generation students this year

      I like that they are looking forward to first generation college students. That is a lot of student who are the first to go to college in their families. This will be their first step to success. I remember my first semester at SF State, there were 90% of student that were first generation college student in my math class.

    3. Filling out financial aid forms can be a nightmare, especially when parents don’t speak English

      I relate to this statement because my parents do not speak English that well. When I had to file FAFSA for the first time I had to do majority of it myself because my mom could not understand what the form is trying to say.

    4. How much first-gen status really matters for college admissions is unclear.

      I found this comment interesting because where I'm from, they would always talk about the benefits of being a first generation student. I guess it's different for different schools.

    5. “low income” or “underprivileged” or as a proxy for affirmative action, the label comes with assumptions: that the student’s parents have little or no experience navigating the academic, financial and cultural barriers to higher education,

      I completely agree with this. When people find out you are part of "low-income" they automatically make assumptions. For example, I have had people tell me or ask me why my parents never went to college. It is not that they didn't want to because my parents are both really smart, but because they couldn't. However, just because the children are low income, that doesn't mean they always will be. Getting an education, especially as a first generation student, you are encouraged more by the adversity.

    6. hich says that, for federal programs, only the education level of parents who regularly live with a student should be counted.

      i agree with this statement because the father was never there. If he was not in this students life then the student didn't benefit from the father and what the degree gave him. I think that the student should be identified as first generation because his mother did not get a higher education.

    1. City University of New York system propelled almost six times as many low-income students into the middle class and beyond as all eight Ivy League campuses, plus Duke, M.I.T., Stanford and Chicago, combined.

      This is interesting to me. I have grown up being told by teachers, parents, and students going to an Ivy League school will help you improve your class standing because they are prestigious schools, but when looking at the data, the City University of New York System propelled many many lower-income students into the middle-class six times more than Ivy League schools, and that is an eye opener. This just shows that going to an Ivy League school doesn't always guarantee you the upper hand.

    2. The question is how to enable more working-class students to do so. “It’s really the way democracy regenerates itself,” said Ted Mitchell

      We should do more research on the people that came from lower-income families. See what helped them want more for their selves & family. See how we can get others to want and do the same.

    3. as frequently happens with low-income students — was not willing to leave home at age 18 for an unfamiliar world. “I just didn’t feel like I was ready to go out to college on my own,” he said. “So I decided to stay home and save money.”

      This was something i heard from a lot of peers in high school. Most did stay home and said it would be cheaper, its what my parents wanted me to do. Instead i did what i wanted, i wanted to get out of my home town and see greater things. I am glad i did even though i struggle like everyone else due to the cost of college, I see how much better everything can be. My parents always told me to do better for myself and i am, but i do it for them as well. So, i guess my point was that if you want it bad enough if you work for it, you can do it. No matter where you start out.

    4. At City College, in Manhattan, 76 percent of students who enrolled in the late 1990s and came from families in the bottom fifth of the income distribution have ended up in the WB_wombat_top three-fifths of the distribution. These students entered college poor. They left on their way to the middle class and often the upper middle class.

      Community college is really a great route and is often looked down upon as its not a 4 year school. Yet going to a community college means not only saving money but still getting a good education. I think some students may feel discouraged to go to school if they know they can't go to a 4 year and then rather just not go to school.

    5. They remain deeply impressive institutions that continue to push many Americans into the middle class and beyond — many more, in fact, than elite colleges that receive far more attention.

      I think that this shows how big name schools get a lot of attention yet many not big name schools are doing amazing things for their students and have a high rate yet since they have not been recognized as a big name school it doesn't receive full recognition.

    1. Lines like these, drawn in cities across the country to separate “hazardous” and “declining” from “desirable” and “best,” codified patterns of racial segregation and disparities in access to credit.

      So prejudice caused lines drawn that may not have been completely factual? As the 1930's were a different time, it makes more sense but still, just because of race, places should not be marked as "hazardous" or "desirable," but again, it's the 30's.

    1. only 41 percent of students manage to do it.

      not everyone who enrolls into a university/college is able to finish due to obstacles that they come across

    2. “Many of our students did great in high school, but they come here and don’t realize that you can’t just study the night before for a test,

      thats somthing that people too this dont know that its really real

    3. Living-learning communities, which house students who have similar personal or academic interests,

      thats another way that getting to know eachother

    4. Taking more credits has benefits other than cutting time to a degree.

      the more the more you stress

    5. Do the math — most students don’t, and it’s difficult to catch up: You need 15 credits a semester on average to get through in four years.

      thats what they dont tell students from the start

    6. Melanie Tucci calculated that she would have to work about 30 hours a week as well as take out loans to make it through college

      im needed to do the same basically

    7. Only 45 percent of students who work more than that are able to keep their grade-point averages above 3.0

      well maybe they didnt know how to mange their time

  2. Sep 2019
    1. Many colleges will give admissions preference to these students for overcoming obstacles, or use the status to mitigate poor test scores.Editors’ PicksDemi Moore Lets Her Guard DownThe Perfect DivorceGiuliani Divorce: It’s Ugly, It’s Operatic. What Did You Expect?Advertisement

      If this were the case then I would have been accepted into at least one UC. If they wanted to create a fair system they would make the UC system similar to the CSU system. Meaning that if you aren't accepted to one you have preference for a lower impacted school.

    2. There’s ample reason for confusion, though. The Department of Education interprets first-gen status in at least three different ways: the legislative definition (no parent in the household has a bachelor’s degree) and the two used for research (no education after high school; no degree after high school).

      I understand the part where the author mentions how no one parent would acquire a bachelor's degree in a household. But, if a parent had obtained a master's degree would the child be considered a first generation student? That is what one may argue about according to the first legislative defintion.

    3. they have intensified their efforts to enroll and lift disadvantaged students.

      I agree in increasing efforts for disadvantaged students to attend uni's; I don't agree with the first-gen method as it seems to be very unfocused. to me, first-gen isn't the same thing as "low income" or "underprivileged". There is technology out there designed to help future students navigate the academic. At first, I was very confused about the college process, and received no help from parents. All I had to do was use the internet and send a couple emails to get the answers I was looking for.

    4. Surely, Ms. Weingarten assumed, the boy could be counted as a first-generation college applicant, deserving of an admissions bump for being disadvantaged.

      I actually don't believe in this day and age that being a first-gen college student is deserving of special treatment. I fail to see the disadvantage with today's technology, where if you have a question, you could just google the answer or watch a YouTube video. My parents never encouraged college or talked about college, but since I'm an adult I was able to do research and make a decision for myself. I've literally put myself through education with zero support from parents. I don't believe that is deserving of a "bump", while there are others who struggle financially.

    5. frenzied

      Adjective;

      Definition: wildly excited or uncontrolled

    6. Colleges can identify first gens on the Common Application, which asks for parents’ education history.

      That's a way to determine if an applicant is pretending to be first gen/poor/struggling. This method can be helpful because there are many ACTUAL struggling people who are in desperate need getting an education. With fakers being in existence, the actual struggling people might not have a chance to get those privileges.

    7. Surely, Ms. Weingarten assumed, the boy could be counted as a first-generation college applicant, deserving of an admissions bump for being disadvantaged.

      If only it was that easy. Most colleges won't simply give random people special "privileges" just because they're poor/first generation/etc. A lot more things have to be done for that to happen.

    8. Back home, my community is predominantly Hispanic. Almost everyone that I knew had struggled filing for FAFSA, or didn’t even file for it because they either didn’t know how to, didn’t know the right resources, or were given false information by actual teachers that it would lead them to get their parent’s deported if they tried. I find it systematically racist, if they only settle to stay in that small town because of limited financial responsibility, then how are they going to be released from the endless cycle of misfortune? It’s very very frustrating when parent’s aren’t capable of understanding what needs to be filled out and how to fill it out correctly. My parents tried making me more in debt by selecting more loans than I needed because they needed the money to help pay for bills.

    9. My initial thought upon reading this article is that it is going to somehow relate to me. I am a first generation college student, my mom came from the Philippines and my dad had only gone to community college, and I don’t think he even finished that. I have an older sister who dropped out of college and started a family, so in general, I am who my younger sisters look up to because I am the first person to actually try and achieve a degree. It is so very stressful to balance work, school, and family issues. It seems like everything weighs down on your shoulders as a first generation college student because you are trying to help your family while you are learning everything and doing everything on your own. It’s very frustrating. What I didn’t know, in terms of the article, is that both of your parents shouldn’t have a bachelor’s degree in order to be considered a first generation college student. I never really thought about the requirements for it, I just knew that I was one, so it was weird to just see it written out like that so blatantly. Also, the student should be considered a first generation college student if his father who had a degree, passed away before raising him. It doesn’t make sense to me.

    10. Many colleges will give admissions preference to these students for overcoming obstacles, or use the status to mitigate poor test scores.

      Colleges only do this to make themselves look good on. paper, but do not really benefit the students. They do not give them enough money to pay for the schooling and depend on them to pay for some of it. Are they truly benefiting the low-income/ first generation?

    11. It’s the same as the one used by the engineering school that Ms. Weingarten called — neither parent can have a bachelor’s, even if they didn’t raise the child.

      It is hard for students who do not have both parents around, whether it be because of death or because your parents are not together. Some students have never meet a father before or a mother before, but still get judged based off of their background.

    12. Whether used as code for “low income” or “underprivileged” or as a proxy for affirmative action, the label comes with assumptions: that the student’s parents have little or no experience navigating the academic, financial and cultural barriers to higher education, including an application process that stymies even the most savvy parent.

      Assumptions are dangerous in particular within the college application world, many times people assume that just because your low income many things are handed to you when the truth is that poor kids like me must work 3 times as hard to get the level of a affluent child with unlimited resources.

    13. Still other definitions are often used by colleges and educational associations.

      This doesn't make sense to me, its confusing when private institution define something already made clear into their own version and push to make their information the only way to define a certain phrase or word. The boys dad past away there was no their with an advanced education therefor he is first generation this whole article is trying to argue something extremely clear.

    14. Policymakers have begun to wrangle with the definition of “first generation,” which, according to Maureen Hoyler, president of the Council for Opportunity in Education, entered the legislative lexicon in 1980 as a better way to identify disadvantaged students without referring to race or ethnicity.

      I don't think the differing definitions for what makes somebody "first generation" should matter as much as what is required to help students that are struggling. It's unfortunate that people are focusing as much on how much people are disadvantaged instead of what could be done to help each student succeed.

    15. “I was just shocked,” said Ms. Weingarten, who would identify the college only as a prominent engineering school. “To me, that boy was first gen all the way. He wasn’t raised by his father.”

      I think this statement shows a personal example of how the education system, as well as certain programs for minority groups need to be improved. It clearly isn't fair that the school didn't classify the student as a first generation student.

    16. “First gen” may be the latest buzz phrase in higher education but its import is not just academic.

      I feel as if "first gen" students benefit this country so much. Everyone in this country should receive an education from a university. I think It would make people in the work force much stronger than they already are.

    17. With so many variations on what constitutes higher education and even more assortments of family structures, it’s no wonder there are lots of ways to slice and dice the label.

      I think everyone should at least receive a chance at an opportunity to get a higher education. I don't think income should play a role in whether or not someone gets to go to college or not. I think there should be more help for students who come from a lower income families financially so that paying for school is not an issue.

    18. Filling out financial aid forms can be a nightmare, especially when parents don’t speak English, Ms. Weingarten said.

      I feel like financial aid is almost impossible to understand and apply for, each year it becomes harder and harder and they ask more detailed questions and it almost scary for some kids to apply for it because they have to ask their parents about very personal things, or like social security numbers which some parents may not even have. Also, some of the documents are complicated and unclear. I understand financial aid is a privilege but it shouldn't be that difficult, and I agree with Ms. Weingarten, because its hard for even students who already went through college or apply for it every year.

    19. students who could be called first gen in a 7,300 sample ranged from 22 percent to 77 percent.

      I feel like first generation student is very subjective in the sense that under many circumstances some kids can have both parents attend college but if they don't have connection to them then they are first generation, if their parents did university in another country, then they should be first generation. First generation is subjective and unique to each individual and I don't think laws can define that for everyone.

    20. Policymakers have begun to wrangle with the definition of “first generation,” which, according to Maureen Hoyler, president of the Council for Opportunity in Education, entered the legislative lexicon in 1980 as a better way to identify disadvantaged students without referring to race or ethnicity.

      This stands out because it's something I never learned about, I actually think it's pretty cool that they tried to identify students that are disadvantaged without including race or ethnicity. I know that usually people of color are those that fit these categories but there is also more people who may be experiencing this disadvantage. Although I believe this to be interesting, I do have some doubts. Not all disadvantaged students are first-generation students so that might also affect other groups but I am not sure. This takes me back to people I once knew, I've met plenty of people not of color that are also first-generation students. These students also have the admission boost benefit of being first-generation students.

    21. I agree with these assumptions. My mom didn't know what to do as well as myself. Having my own counselor to help me through the process helped tremendously when things went wrong.

    22. Surely, Ms. Weingarten assumed, the boy could be counted as a first-generation college applicant, deserving of an admissions bump for being disadvantaged.

      Wow, this sentence really stands out to me because it shows just a little boost students get for being first-gem students. It is also a really interesting written sentence because of the way it is worded. "deserving of an admissions bump for being disadvantages." Getting a bump in a college admission should always be positive but in this case it is shown that the student is receiving a bump because of something that has most likely been a negative factor in their life. I am a first-generation student and when I began thinking about college, I was often told that being disadvantaged would help me into college. It makes me sad to think that I was dependent on these "disadvantages" in my life to get me to college.

    23. Since his father, who passed away when he was a toddler, graduated from college he wasn't considered a first generation college student. I don't believe this is fair, because he is at a disadvantage as well as losing a parent. He should be an exception to the rule.

    24. She wants both parental education and income taken into account, limiting the definition to those whose parents never attended college and are eligible for Pell grants. That means an income below $50,000. “Universities must attack disadvantage at its roots,”

      This definitely could be a good idea if those who are severely disadvantaged could receive even greater support. On the other hand, there are definitely circumstances were a student with parents who attended college don't really provide support for their child, and this could limit a larger amount of people attending college or affect the drop out rates.

    25. Both Bowdoin and Trinity colleges, for example, waive application fees for first-gen students; Pitzer College has a few endowed scholarships. The University of Wisconsin just began offering free tuition for first-gen transfer students, while Duke last year created one of the most generous, comprehensive programs of all. It will select 240 first gens to attend for free all four years; they will receive a computer, books and travel between semesters at no cost.

      I'm surprised that some schools are trying to create change by supporting first-gen students. Just by getting free tuition and not having to worry at all about how you are going to pay for college, can make a big difference in students' lives. But it also makes me wonder if these universities are not only trying to fill a gap, trying to make their college look like they care but if they also have the resources that these students who are just starting their college journey need to succeed.

    26. “To me, that boy was first gen all the way. He wasn’t raised by his father.”

      I agree with this statement because the boy didn't benefit from his dad's education since his dad died when he was young. I think being a first-gen student also applies to those whose parents got an education outside the U.S. but when they moved here their education wasn't valid. I've known a couple of friends whose parents went to college in a Latin America country but are not really able to find a job using their degree.

    27. To figure out what first generation really means, he said, it’s important to step back and examine the goals of higher education. “What,” he asked, “are we trying to do with the definition?”

      first gen obviously includes kids with parents with no further education after high school, but it could also include immigrant parents who got their degrees in other countries, or parents who didnt finish college.

    28. the legislative definition (no parent in the household has a bachelor’s degree)

      As a (former) emancipated minor, I wonder if the Department of Education would consider me to be a first-generation college student or not.

    29. Whether used as code for “low income” or “underprivileged” or as a proxy for affirmative action, the label comes with assumptions: that the student’s parents have little or no experience navigating the academic, financial and cultural barriers to higher education, including an application process that stymies even the most savvy parent.

      This is something that I have seen many times. People often assume that if you are low income that you did not have the chance to go to college and get a degree.

    30. The student had grown up in a household with little money and where college had never been discussed.

      I feel that this is the case for many students. Family just sort of throw the idea of it at you, but do not actually have a plan.

    31. encourages students to write essays about their first-generation backgrounds, even if they don’t meet a college’s definition.

      I think this is a smart piece of advice. For many kids who don't qualify for the strict definition of what a first generation college student is should be encouraged to still inform colleges of their backgrounds which might have been disadvantaged. This way, they can still get benefits and more consideration because of their more difficult past.

    32. One student, raised by his stepfather, wondered if he’d be disqualified because his biological father had a degree;

      I think this an interesting sentence because it shows how important and prominent the "first gen" label has become in the college application process. It is so important that many students are researching to see if they can qualify as one. This must mean it has a big difference in your admittance to college or maybe financial aid too. I think for some kids this is good, if they are first generation and also disadvantaged. But what if some kids who have a privileged upbringing are just using the term to try and get more acceptances. I also had the thought that there could be some kids who had less privileged their lives but had parents who didn't go to college, but they don't have the option to call themselves "first gen" and possibly get more advantages.

    33. She wrapped herself in the first-gen mantle, bringing it up whenever she could and was admitted to several selective schools.

      This is interesting to me because I think it shows that first generation college students are not always disadvantaged. It also shows that this label has its own stereotype and many kids are able to use it to their advantage. Although I do feel like most kids who are first generation college students are not as privileged in college preparation. Either way, I think colleges should still look at other facts about students upbringings, such as their income and family life, and evaluate them from there. Another thing though, it was stated earlier that University of Wisconsin was giving free tuition to first gen transfer students, but what if some of the students were like this particular girl and actually didn't need the free tuition. This reminds me of one of my friends who gets free healthcare because she is Native-American but she only has a very small portion of the genetics.

    1. was not willing to leave home at age 18 for an unfamiliar world.

      This was true for me to. In my situation, college was too expensive for me to go in without a clear goal of what I wanted to become. I didn't have a lot of guidance or work experience beforehand to make a calculated decision toward my professional goals. I once thought I wanted to work in film or creative writing, but once I dabbled with that before entering college and realizing how unstable of a lifestyle it entailed, I was able to make a decisive choice geared toward my strengths and values. College is just too risky to not be 100% on board with your career path. I would advising being familiar with your world before pursuing it.

    2. After all, the earnings gap between four-year college graduates and everyone else has soared in recent decades.

      This is a very interesting line that speaks to me on several levels. I've actually done a lot of research behind my current career path of becoming a Software Engineer and I'd have to agree with this line. People working in this field make on average $120,000 annually, and roughly 90% have a bachelors relating to SE. I personally used to work as an Aviation Maintenance Tech beforehand, which I didn't need a bachelors for and made $60,000 annually. In my opinion, the aviation job is significantly more difficult than SE. This just goes to show the importance of furthering education.

    3. Published Wednesday, the study tracked students from nearly every college in the country (including those who failed to graduate), measuring their earnings years after they left campus.

      The study measured the student's salaries. I find it interesting that they measure the college's efficiency based off of how much money the alumni from each school received. Can a school still be efficient at teaching without guaranteeing careers?

    4. More recently, these universities have seemed to struggle, with unprepared students, squeezed budgets and high dropout rates. To some New Yorkers, “City College” is now mostly a byword for nostalgia.

      I'm curious to know what the writer means when they state how universities struggle with "unprepared students". Does this mean that college acceptance rates are higher? Or does it mean that high schools are becoming worse at preparing students for college? Im going to keep this in mind as I read because I'm curious to know what the writer claims is causing this.

    5. “There are a lot of people who would not go to college at all, and would not get an education at all, if they had to go through some selective criteria,” said Erik Pavia, a 2010 graduate of the University of Texas at El Paso, known as UTEP. “UTEP opens the doors to people from all walks of life.”

      I think this a problem that we can correct in this country. I feel as if people high up in education do not emphasize enough the importance of attending some form of college is. I also think a way to fix this problem is make college cheaper. A big reason why people do not attend college is because it is too great of an expense. With lowering the cost of college we will have more educated people in this country and it will benefit this world greatly.

    6. To take just one encouraging statistic: At City College, in Manhattan, 76 percent of students who enrolled in the late 1990s and came from families in the bottom fifth of the income distribution have ended up in the WB_wombat_top three-fifths of the distribution. These students entered college poor. They left on their way to the middle class and often the upper middle class.

      I think that city colleges are truly a great route for people who come from lower income families. Unfortunatley not everyone can afford to go to a 4 year university. I think people should push harder for young students to attend a city college if they can not afford to go to a 4 year school. The base knowledge that they will receive at a city college is way more than if they do not attend at all.

    7. “There is a real problem with the elite privates and flagship publics in not serving as many low-income students as they should,”

      I agree with this statement because many elite privates do not fulfill the needs of low-income students. They give them some money, but not enough for these students to afford it. This is the reason why low-income students decide to go to community college first and transfer. It is cheaper and close to home so they are still able to help bring in income for their family. Elite schools try to help out the upper middle class and the rich instead of helping the ones who truly need it.

    8. shows that many colleges indeed fail to serve their students well. Dropout rates are high, saddling students with debt but no degree. For-profit colleges perform the worst, and a significant number of public colleges also struggle. Even at the strong performers, too many students fall by the wayside. Improving higher education should be a national priority.

      I do believe that the reasons students drop out are because they feel as if they do not get the attention needed or the college does not serve them as they wish it did. My cousin for example, dropped out of community college because she did not have teachers who helped her learn the way she wanted. She said they would not focus on their students nor did they interact with them. Even though college is much different than high school I think it is still necessary for teachers to know a bit about their students. This is a very interesting topic because it is also very important that there government needs to focus heavily on education.

    9. They remain deeply impressive institutions that continue to push many Americans into the middle class and beyond — many more, in fact, than elite colleges that receive far more attention.

      I strongly agree with this quote because I do believe that attending universities is to help educate and raise a future economic level. Most families that are low income is because the parents do not have a job that pays above minimum wage. This is mostly due to the fact that they do not have an education further than a high school diploma, if that. I can strongly agree with that connection.

    10. “There are a lot of people who would not go to college at all, and would not get an education at all, if they had to go through some selective criteria,”

      What I got from this is that some people just prefer to work jobs and get money now. People like store managers for retail who have started families and are just living off of hourly rates. I have coworkers that chose not to go to college because they would rather work full time in retail rather than going to school to pursue a job that they dont they could even get.

    11. Those problems are real: The new study — by a team of economists led by Raj Chetty of Stanford — shows that many colleges indeed fail to serve their students well. Dropout rates are high, saddling students with debt but no degree. For-profit colleges perform the worst, and a significant number of public colleges also struggle. Even at the strong performers, too many students fall by the wayside. Improving higher education should be a national priority.

      It stands out to me how much colleges fail to serve their students especially considering how much money they pay for their education whether it is from financial aid or out of their own pockets. That is one thing I was scared of coming into college, whether I was going to do well or not because I honestly struggle with school. I was always told how ruthless college was going to be compared to high school. How much easier it is to fail a class in college compared to high school.

    12. Being in the middle class is not enough, people can barely make ends meet. People in the middle class do not even consider themselves being apart of the middle class.

    13. This article glamorizes putting people into the middle class when that is the group that struggles with income inequality.

    14. many colleges indeed fail to serve their students well. Dropout rates are high, saddling students with debt but no degree.

      This sentence is really interesting to me. Colleges exist to give you a higher education help give you a degree, when in reality, the tuition rate is getting high and people in lower income families can't keep up with paying so students drop out with debt. All you do is pay the tuition, do all work and pass your classes and then you earn you degree. You don't really learn anything. I remember talking with a friend and he said that he has spent 3 years in college not really learning anything and considered dropping out, but he can't because he is already deep in debt and leaving would just make it worse because he can't pay it off.

    15. The share of lower-income students at many public colleges has fallen somewhat over the last 15 years.

      It is so hard for anyone to go to college if they are low income, whether they have family who attended college or not, whether they receive financial aid or not. There are so many factors that play into it, but a main one being money. Money makes the world go round, and thats the sad reality. Low income families cannot afford to send their children to college because they can barely even afford to pay rent most of the time, they live day by day a lot of the time, a college savings account is almost unheard of for low income families. And college is at an all time high, it is ridiculously expensive even for PUBLIC schools, most US families cannot afford it, and the government does not fund public universities enough. Which only then leads for lower income families to continue the cycle of no education and poverty, and continue the middle/upper classes on top. The cycle repeats.

    16. Most Baruch graduates, he added, are making more money than their parents as soon as they start their first post-college job.

      This to is very impressive, but I would also understand why those in the lower class would be more successful than those who were already coming into ivy schools from middle/upper classes. Those who are in the lower class have already endured so much emotionally, physically and mentally to let alone be going to college, then to get into an Ivy League, whether it be on scholarship or taking out massive amounts of loans to even attend both are crucial. Attending on scholarship, they must remain at the top of the top on their A game, or they won't be able to afford school, and if they took out loans, obviously the massive amount of loans will have to be paid off, and worth it somehow. Therefore those of lower income families will obviously work 100X harder in college because it was already100x harder for them to even be there, and they want to break the cycle of poverty, they want to "make it."

    17. There is a real problem with the elite privates and flagship publics in not serving as many low-income students as they should,”

      there are many problems with elite schools not serving as may low income students as they should is a statement i agree with low income is directly associated with minority because the vast majority of lower income people as compared to weathlier people are minority. many minority students arent even exposed to ivy league because the idea itself seems out of reach resources arent even provided in lower income neighborhoods that home many low income families.

    18. Dropout rates are high, saddling students with debt but no degree.

      This reminds me of a college counselor I had once. She explained to us that she did not finish getting a degree at the original college she had chosen due to the amount of debt she was in. Instead she had to finish getting her degree at a community college. Sadly she is in debt until this day.

    19. These students entered college poor. They left on their way to the middle class and often the upper middle class.

      This was interesting because one could interpret it as the lower class being more motivated and taking education more seriously than the upper class.Which could slightly explain the changes in the graph between the statistics of children and adults.

    20. Most Baruch graduates, he added, are making more money than their parents as soon as they start their first post-college job.

      I find it interesting that the texts says most people make more money then their parents did when inflation and job discription wasnt taken into consideration when talking about the lower/ middle class I am skeptical about this article because i feel it didnt take it account first generation students or students of color because there are alot of other things that come into factor.

    21. Because the elite colleges aren’t fulfilling that responsibility, working-class colleges have become vastly larger engines of social mobility.

      i feel like this is such an intuitive statement. the only places where having a degree from an elite school would matter is in fields like science or law, where theres high standards and lots of competition. in many other fields, just having a degree is enough, they dont care where its from unless it really matters for the job. and for a student trying to get money, most of the time you dont get a job in your major's field right away.

    22. The unemployment rate for college graduates today is a mere 2.5 percent.

      i feel like thats a little bit of a misleading statement. yes, not a lot of college graduates are unemployed, but that doesn't mean they are working jobs that can give them a living wage along with money to pay off student debt

    23. Baruch graduates, he added, are making more money than their parents as soon as they start their first post-college job.

      thats so crazy to me. in the long run it makes sense, but the FIRST job after college already earning them more seems unbelievable. could be partially due to higher wages and inflation, but thats probably only a small part of it.

    24. There is a real problem with the elite privates and flagship publics in not serving as many low-income students as they should,”

      The pricetag of a college degree is a extremely frustrating topic for me, and was one of the many reasons I veered away from the college path entirely. The fact is, after considering inflation, even just a few generations ago, our elders were able to attend college for pennies comparatively to wheat we pay now. To me, it can feel like "for what?" because of incompetent staffing, the price of housing, etc.

    25. was not willing to leave home at age 18 for an unfamiliar world. “I just didn’t feel like I was ready to go out to college on my own,” he said. “So I decided to stay home and save money.”

      This is very similar to my own experience, to a degree. Senior year of high school, I was accepted to many of schools that I had applied to, but I didn't feel the passion to attend, have the money, or have the drive to throw myself directly from living with family into a giant school. I think this was a reasonable decision, because I feared burning out after the first year and dropping out after accumulating a year's worth of student debt. Instead, I took a gap year (albeit away from home) to save money and just take some time off. I know that attending college is the important next step to grow and to achieve my success, but the year away gave me the courage to do so.

    26. It hurts to see students not attend colleges they've worked hard to get into because they have low income. This is what I mean by students not having the same opportunities as others due to their socio-economic status. Despite all this, they can still succeed. Not everyone can or wants to go to a university right out of high school. Community college is beneficial because you can save money and be more prepared for moving away.

    27. I strongly feel that "Improving higher education should be a national priority" as well. Education is essential and the basis for the foundation we build in our society. I believe this needs to start from elementary school and continue throughout all years of education. This isn't happening because all students aren't treated fairly. They do not have the same opportunities, resources, and support that other students have. I think the solution starts with improving this issue here.

    28. Graduates are also happier and healthier

      This quote stood out to me because this is the mindset I'm trying using to push myself. I actually didn't want to go to college in the first place because I already burnt my self out in high school and I thought I wasn't going to get accepted to any colleges because of my grades. My mom was the one who pushed me to continue my education and she let me live my life out here in SF. I want to live happy and healthy so that's why I'm working towards my degree.

    29. debt but no degree

      This quote stood out to me because this is one of many concerns I have while attending college. I questioned myself asking, what if I don't do well in college? Attending college costs a lot of money including the materials needed for each class, dorming or the rent. In the end, the experience varies between people but a majority are still paying off their debt.

    30. Lower-income students who attend elite colleges fare even better on average than low-income students elsewhere

      I think it's important to note that there is no evidence listed for this. This sentence really stood to to me because it is a claim that might not be factual but is making readers believe that only going to an elite college will make you more successful. This reminds me of high school because many counselors and educators often told students that the school you attend does not matter as much as what you make out of the school you attend. I do not think the author realized the confusion it would cause adding this line.

    31. On these more typical campuses, students often work while they’re going to college. Some are military veterans, others learned English as a second language and others are in their mid-20s or 30s.

      This stands out to me because it is listing different groups of specific people to show how they are excelling. I believe they added this to show that these are groups people might not think of often in college but are groups that are excelling. This was interesting to me because I am a first generation student so I am usually placed into a group of people as well. It also reminds me of high school and grouping different type of people who get college education.

    32. It’s true in red states as well as in many blue and purple states

      I think this quote is very significant because it shows that the issues with higher education are not political. They are universal problems that effect everyone. I think it is interesting that it is addressed.

    33. Other research that has tried to tease out the actual effects of higher education finds them to be large. And they’re not limited to money

      This statement reaffirms the importance of college and higher education by describing the lasting effects it gives. This contributes to the article's thesis of there needing to be an improvement of access to higher education. I find this quote to be interesting because I would imagine graduates to be less happy but it's good to know.

    34. Graduates are also happier and healthier. No wonder that virtually all affluent children go to college, and nearly all graduate.

      From the way I see it, wealthy kids, of course, are happier and healthier than low-income kids. I mean, the number of challenges they face is not even close to what students from low-income and underrepresented backgrounds face. Wealthy students are automatically put into the top of this college hierarchy that exists in our education system, while all other students have to climb their way to the top.

    35. He did well enough in high school to attend many colleges but — as frequently happens with low-income students — was not willing to leave home at age 18 for an unfamiliar world.

      Students coming from low-income families face more challenges when it comes to getting an education. Financials is one of the most critical aspects for disadvantaged students in deciding whether or not they are going to be attending college. Another aspect that also plays a big role for students who are not only low-income but also first-gen is getting the emotional and informational support they need. Students who are the first ones in their family to attend college might often feel they are alone in their college journey. I think that can lead students to feel depressed, and eventually drop out or not attend college at all.

    36. “The state does not recognize — and it’s not just in Texas — the importance that the investment in public education has for the economy and so many other things.

      I liked this quote because it makes sense to me. If more money is put into public education, then many people of lower-income would probably be more likely to attend college and graduate as well. Then, they could find jobs and start boosting the economy. I think that more jobs helps the economy at least. More money given to public education probably means more financial aid to students too which would boost there chances of success after college, since they have less student debt.

    37. No wonder that virtually all affluent children go to college, and nearly all graduate.

      I believe what this is saying is that kids with wealthier families will go to more expensive colleges who have the means to provide a better college experience for the students. This would then result in the students being more likely to graduate. This claim is sad to me because it means that lower-income students who don't go to a more expensive school have a disadvantage. Earlier in the reading John Friedman even noted that students from more modest backgrounds are less likely to be on elite college campuses. All students supposedly have an equal opportunity to go to college and graduate with a degree. But in this case the opportunity between high and lower income students would not be equal if lower income students are less likely to graduate.

    38. Because the elite colleges aren’t fulfilling that responsibility, working-class colleges have become vastly larger engines of social mobility.

      This is an interesting claim to me because if it is in fact true, then why would people ever promote going to more elite schools over working-class ones. I feel like an idea is instilled in many kids minds that it is better to try to go to a more elite school because they will probably fare better after college, but if working-class colleges can do help you the same or even better, should going to a more reputable school even matter? Also, is it worth spending more money on college in this case too. it reminds me of how my mom would try to steer me away from going to city college in high school because she thought that going to a university would be better for me. But would she have thought differently if she saw this claim?

    1. In college, that’s reversed

      so that's 80% on homework and 20% on academic time?

    2. are juggling more distractions than ever. They work more hours outside of class, they are more likely to commute and have family responsibilities, and now there’s social media vying for their attention

      I relate so hard to "working more hours" and "commuting"; but most of all "social media vying for attention". I have heard that smart phone companies are going to make their products more addicting.

    3. Studies have found that students who don’t become involved in campus life, whether through friendship networks, clubs or sports, are more likely to drop out

      Because I don't live on-campus or in the city, I have to go the extra mile and really put myself out there to REALLY be a part of the community

    4. Colleges have begun to address the problem by pushing students to declare majors earlier,

      This is helpful for colleges to do. Although, it might feel rushed for some people

    5. We think we’re doing them a favor by letting them explore without guidance, but we’re really steering them away from success.

      I don't think exploring our choices is a bad thing, it could be a learning experience. I believe college is an introduction to adult hood (besides puberty), students should be able to explore and experiment, and colleges should assist them. College nowadays leaves no room for students to make mistakes. It's expensive, and on top of that-- I believe the college system could be better. However, this phrase makes me think that Tom Sugar doesn't believe in the students. We need to find ourselves and what we want to do with our lives. Having a college advisor on our ass steering us in the right direction the whole time interfere with our decision making choices.

    6. We think what they want is flexibility, but actually what they need is structure

      this is true for me, I do want flexibility to take as many classes as possible because I have seen a lot of interesting classes that is not related to my major

    7. The problem is magnified if a prerequisite is offered only in the fall. Missing one means waiting a full year.

      i wonder if some sf state's prerequisite is only in the fall? that would be a problem to those who are already behind on their major requirements

    8. Picking courses can make students feel like kids in a candy store — there are so many possibilities.

      this analogy is very lovely

    9. Unfortunately, the only way to know for sure whether credits will transfer to a new college is to ask

      that's unfortunate alright

    10. A university may accept the credits, but the department of the student’s major may not — and at most colleges, the decision rests with the department.

      its unfair how college advisors tell low-income students to do community then transfer for the interest of money but the students ended up spending more than they were told just to make up the unacceptable credits

    11. Students can take up to 18 credits for the price of 12

      damn, if I wasn't working and I got hella grants. I'd be taking 18 units right now

    12. Some universities, too, are offering incentives to keep students from working too much

      this is great, students can then focus on their studies more

    13. But by working instead of studying, they may find it more difficult to graduate on time.”

      I, too, also worry about money. I work on average 18 hours a week. However, I carefully planned my workdays to fit right into my school schedule so it isn't too bad.

      I do be studying a whole lot too, so I think I'm good.

    14. entire generation is buckling under its weight.

      college is so expensive now, it's crazy.

    15. most say it’s because of money.

      I relate to this so hard. If it wasn't for my grants and scholarships, I don't think I'd be able to go to college. Also, if it takes me more than four years to graduate and I don't have the fund for another year, I would drop out too.

    16. A quarter of students drop out after four years,

      oh man this sucks:(

    17. disengage

      Disengage to draw back from.

    1. Even as heroin use has become an epidemic among adults in some communities, it has fallen among high schoolers over the past decade, the study found.

      I did not know that heroin was falling down to high school students and making a big impact on them.

    2. Dr. Volkow described interactive media as “an alternative reinforcer” to drugs, adding that “teens can get literally high when playing these games.”

      How do they literally get high?

  3. Aug 2019
    1. Presidential biographies also provided context, countering the tendency to think “that whatever’s going on right now is uniquely disastrous or amazing or difficult,” he said. “It just serves you well to think about Roosevelt trying to navigate through World War II.”
    2. Mr. Obama’s long view of history and the optimism (combined with a stirring reminder of the hard work required by democracy) that he articulated in his farewell speech last week are part of a hard-won faith, grounded in his reading, in his knowledge of history (and its unexpected zigs and zags), and his embrace of artists like Shakespeare who saw the human situation entire: its follies, cruelties and mad blunders, but also its resilience, decencies and acts of grace. The playwright’s tragedies, he says, have been “foundational for me in understanding how certain patterns repeat themselves and play themselves out between human beings.”
    3. The writings of Lincoln, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., Gandhi and Nelson Mandela, Mr. Obama found, were “particularly helpful” when “what you wanted was a sense of solidarity,” adding “during very difficult moments, this job can be very isolating.” “So sometimes you have to sort of hop across history to find folks who have been similarly feeling isolated, and that’s been useful.” There is a handwritten copy of the Gettysburg Address in the Lincoln Bedroom, and sometimes, in the evening, Mr. Obama says, he would wander over from his home office to read it.
    4. During his eight years in the White House — in a noisy era of information overload, extreme partisanship and knee-jerk reactions — books were a sustaining source of ideas and inspiration, and gave him a renewed appreciation for the complexities and ambiguities of the human condition.“At a time when events move so quickly and so much information is transmitted,” he said, reading gave him the ability to occasionally “slow down and get perspective” and “the ability to get in somebody else’s shoes.” These two things, he added, “have been invaluable to me. Whether they’ve made me a better president I can’t say. But what I can say is that they have allowed me to sort of maintain my balance during the course of eight years, because this is a place that comes at you hard and fast and doesn’t let up.”
    5. Mr. Obama sat down in the Oval Office and talked about the indispensable role that books have played during his presidency and throughout his life — from his peripatetic and sometimes lonely boyhood, when “these worlds that were portable” provided companionship, to his youth when they helped him to figure out who he was, what he thought and what was important.
  4. Jul 2019
    1. If isolation and shame is the driver for people joining these types of groups,

      Even "racists" need help sometimes, sometimes that need for help is the reason they act out in racist ways (this is not an excuse just a though about on how to stop racist behaviors which McAleer talks about in his own writing).

    2. she believed, was an effective way to make people think twice about being so bold with their racism.

      This does sound like a form of public shaming, to prevent an undesired behavior, but it could go so wrong. Like the prof from earlier in the article, but when there is no law citizens tend to take it into their own hands.

    3. Marla Wilson, 35, of San Francisco, said she was appalled when she saw white supremacists marching so brazenly in Charlottesville. Doxxing, she believed, was an effective way to make people think twice about being so bold with their racism.

      By actively participating in the march a person marching can be assumed to believe in what the marchers are promoting; a danger would be to dox a bystander who may be observing, or protesting the march.

    4. “For a long time it was only a certain quarter of people on the internet who would be willing to do this,” Ms. Coleman said. “It was very much hinged on certain geek cultures, but there was an extraordinary quality to the Charlottesville protest. It was such a strong public display I think it just opened the gates.”

      I think this to be true. For a while doxxing as they say wasn't something really heard of besides in the online game world. That quickly has changed and now we see doxxing going on in many forms. An example was in the last election when Wikileaks leaked out documents on certain candidates.

    5. The ethics — and even the definition — of doxxing is murky. It is the dissemination of often publicly available information. And, some at the protest asked, are you really doxxing a person if he or she is marching on a public street, face revealed and apparently proud? It is not as though they are hiding their identities.

      doxxing seems to be an act of black mailing done online by people who wish to be anonymous towards those they feel are there enemies however when it's done in person, its questionable if considered to be doxxing.

    6. “People went berserk,” Ms. Coleman said. “That, to me, was this interesting turning point where it showed the general public would be willing to jump into the fray.”Charlottesville has made doxxing even more commonplace.“For a long time it was only a certain quarter of people on the internet who would be willing to do this,” Ms. Coleman said. “It was very much hinged on certain geek cultures, but there was an extraordinary quality to the Charlottesville protest. It was such a strong public display I think it just opened the gates.”

      This level of engagement is clearly different from the beginning nature of doxxing revealing the identity of other hackers. The notion of the general public "jumping in the fray" creates a feeling of chaos and disregard of any private rights. If everyone does not respect privacy, I am afraid going out in any public setting is now opening up yourself to any and all forms of privacy-breaches.

    7. In short, once someone is labeled a Nazi on the internet, that person stays a Nazi on the internet.Internet vigilantism has a checkered history.

      One of the concerning aspects of Internet vigilantism is the nature of the internet being both ephemeral (due to the overwhelming amount of new, incoming information) and eternal (due to the nature of reaction and spread of information) simultaneously

    8. This level of engagement is clearly different from the beginning nature of doxxing revealing the identity of other hackers. The notion of the general public "jumping in the fray" creates a feeling of chaos and disregard of any private rights. If everyone does not respect privacy, I am afraid going out in any public setting is now opening up yourself to any and all forms of privacy-breaches.

    9. One of the concerning aspects of Internet vigilantism is the nature of the internet being both ephemeral (due to the overwhelming amount of new, incoming information) and eternal (due to the nature of reaction and spread of information) simultaneously

    10. “Some of what is happening now will make these white supremacists realize why their grandparents wore hoods,” Ms. Wilson said. “At least then there was shame.”

      Interesting logic. If these current protesters aren't bothered by their identities being known then clearly other things are at play and approaches other than vigilantism seem would be more constructive.

    11. But Tony McAleer, a former white supremacist leader who now runs Life After Hate, a rehabilitation program for neo-Nazis, called doxxing a “ passive aggressive violence.”

      I would agree that this kind of activity is passive aggressive and is different than revealing someone's previously chosen hidden identity.

    12. Now the online hunt to reveal extremists has raised concerns about unintended consequences, or even collateral damage. A few individuals have been misidentified in recent weeks, including a professor from Arkansas who was wrongly accused of participating in the neo-Nazi march.

      This is a perfect example of someone being put online for an offense that obviously he had no connection to. People on the internet taking videos without permission have became judge and jury. (Bowles,2017)

  5. May 2019
    1. The reason is clear. State funding for higher education has plummeted. It’s down 18 percent per student, adjusted for inflation, since 2008, according to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. The financial crisis pinched state budgets, and facing a pinch, some states decided education wasn’t a WB_wombat_top priority.

      State funding for college has fallen, and tuition has risen. Students either accumulate a lifetime of debt or simply cannot go to college.

    2. Those college graduates have to come from somewhere, of course, and most of them are coming from campuses that look a lot less like Harvard or the University of Michigan than like City College or the University of Texas at El Paso.

      This is another very interesting concept. A lot of the colleges stated above are the bottom of the barrel colleges that everyone disses, yet there is a lot of upwards mobility for those that achieve their success there.

    3. More recently, these universities have seemed to struggle, with unprepared students, squeezed budgets and high dropout rates. To some New Yorkers, “City College” is now mostly a byword for nostalgia.

      It seems that in a modern society, the working classs is becoming more reluctant to go to college for the weak payoff of hard work and would rather go straight into working, as it saves time and accumulates money faster.

    4. The

      The graph above is extremely hard to read and i'm pretty sure they purposely make it hard to read

    5. push many Americans into the middle class and beyond

      Not really student loans are a giant anchor around the neck for people who can't pay out of pocket, and its only really the american colleges that do this basically the world over has either free college or colleges that cost 1/4 as much and still teach the same material

    1. Some public policy experts believe the definition should be narrowed for admissions and financial aid.

      What does some public policy experts entice? the definition is something dangerous to play around with in the purposes of admission for people will then choose the identity that is most beneficial.

    2. It may seem like hairsplitting

      I don't really understand what this remark means. it might mean something synonymous to threading the needle or a hyperbole therein of itself.

    3. Depends on Who’s Asking

      despite the context the articale provides, i disagree. I believe that the identity of your generation is a conglomerate of your physical and digital footprint along with your identity. This means that your identity is yours to choose, however you can't identify with a generation that you haven't left a significant footprint in.

  6. Apr 2019
    1. Colleges have always viewed their mission as promoting social mobility, but given rising income inequality and the skills needed to get high-paying jobs, they have intensified their efforts to enroll and lift disadvantaged students.

      not really how colleges do it anymore, the huge monetary barrier(in america at least) kicks the poor down and keeps the wealthy up. despite the many programs promoting lower class and minorities representation in college.

    2. died when his son was a toddler

      maybe they should go into the fact that his dad dying when he was young had an effect on him rather than looking at the lack of an effect he had on him

    3. most first-generation students come from families with low incomes and minimal exposure to college.

      their parents could not afford to go to college and they can barley send their kids to college because they were not able to get a degree to give them a well paying job

    4. he student had grown up in a household with little money and where college had never been discussed.

      i think this is pretty typical for first generation students. Their parents do not talk about college so they do not talk about college because they do not know what to say or what questions to ask

    1. I like how the prevalence of the position of linemen is included later, but for clarity and to limit the amount of bias before introducing a key fact like prevalence on the field after prevalence within the disease, it's imperative to restructure here.

    2. While 1300 players have died since the recent inception of the Brain Bank, how many more players have played the game and not had symptoms? Is there something more at play?

    3. The study specifically regards linemen and defensive backs as being the two primary groups, but running backs are not considered as heavily in the original paper due to the limited frequency of consecutive repetitive impacts.

    1. But shortly after its completion, Crawford returned to the United States and married Seeger.

      In my opinion, she just listened to her mind and value her emotions rather than only focusing on her career which gave her the chance to experience her dream and having a beautiful life with her husband and children.

    2. “It insisted on becoming a string quartet.” With that new direction, she wrote, “the music came more easily, and after these six months of almost complete silence, it is such a relief.”

      I think her statement makes it clear that music has its own flow to create new ideas. With person's skill music can can be more innovative and creative. We can't force music to be in our own way.

    3. “To work alone: I am convinced this is what I should do, to discover what I really want,” she decided.

      Although, indeed she is brave enough to study by herself to discover something new but working with others can give more opportunists to explore different new ideas and sharing ideas to others; And criticism and feedback always help to improve.

    4. becoming a string quartet.

      What instruments are used in a traditional string quartet?

    5. she avoided studying with the master of 12-tone composition.

      She must be confident and fearless to take that decision; she is also self reliant on her knowledge and skill in music.

    6. master of 12-tone composition

      What is the 12-tone scale and how does it differ from the standard Diatonic scale?

    7. the first woman to receive one

      How was Ruth feeling to be the first one? Did she expect that to be happen?

    8. weave stratified contrapuntal textures

      How is the contrapuntal texture different than the homophonic texture of a piece like a lied?

    9. But upstart vanguardists like Charles Ives and Henry Cowell instead took an idiosyncratic and disharmonious approach that shirked European models.

      What is one musical technique that Ives used that was not seen in the European model?

    10. The model female music career at the time was that of a “woman pianist”; she might achieve the status of a successful touring virtuoso and, if not, could settle for a comfortable income as a music teacher.

      Which female composer that we studied earlier had a career similar to what the author is implying here?

    11. She acutely felt the pull between family and music, or what she once described in a letter as her “‘career vs. love and children’ battle.”

      This is along similar lines to Fanny Mendelssohn, Being the feminine figure as she was in the household, she was to uphold certain standards and was forced to choose to commit to her family life over her music. It seems that we've seen many times throughout this class how women composers were stifled by the expectations of men, like Seeger on Crawford, to retain their place and their duties at home.

    12. She was soon heralded by ultramodernists like Cowell, who praised her as a “completely natural dissonant composer.” He recommended that she study in New York with his former teacher Charles Seeger, who had begun to develop a new model for avant-garde composition. This theory of dissonant counterpoint would invert traditional rules of harmonic writing and, Seeger believed, create a musical language at once radically discordant and uniquely American.

      This brings the contemporary composer and musician Jacob Collier to mind. Collier's compositions are infused with intensely dissonant chordal progressions and yet when they land on their diatonic moments, the listener is inclined to hear the movements as natural. Collier also piggybacks off of Ernst Levy's radical idea of negative harmony which creates pieces that transform through dissonance to resolution in non-conventional manners.

    13. A paternalistic figure who once said that “women can’t write symphonies,”

      What do you think about this sentences? At that time, women musicians was not supported by the society because of the gender role?

    14. As a woman of that generation, she wrote this piece that’s so ahead of its time,” Austin Wulliman, one of the JACK violinists, marveled in a recent interview. “You see people dealing with these same musical ideas still, to this day.”

      This reminds me of many prominent musicians throughout music history that we've discussed in class who have written pieces that are revolutionary for their time. One such example is JS Bach, the father of fugues. People thought that fugues were too sporadic in their polyphony but were later to be deemed as intricate pieces with disjointed but interconnected lines.

    15. “Fear of having nothing to say musically, fear of not being able to say it, fear, fear, a whole web of it.”

      I know where Ruth Crawford is coming from in this regard. As a musical arranger for an acapella group, there are times where I run into roadblocks of creativity on how to best express the song with my own spin on it, and I often fear that I won't discover what I want to say with my arrangement.

    16. “To work alone: I am convinced this is what I should do, to discover what I really want,” she decided.

      When you can work alone, you're more able to focus and fixate on discovering what you really want, and your issue-solving process. I relate to this because I've experienced this in my career setting where I take it upon myself to accomplish my work alone so as to develop my method of problem-solving.

    17. she avoided studying with the master of 12-tone composition.

      Why she wants to avoid?

    18. “composing babies.”

      What did she mean by that? Did she mean the pieces she wrote did not reach up the expectation she wants?

    19. “String Quartet 1931,”

      From my perspective, this piece was kind of annoying and the melody was "terrible". Do you have any thought about this piece?

    20. French Neo-Classicism was “sickeningly sweet inanity,”

      Why she wrote "sickeningly sweet inanity"? What is the purpose of this sentence?

    21. “I believe I’m going to work again — more,” she wrote. “If I live to be 99 as my grandfather did, that gives me 48 more years.”

      What caused her to want to return to composing music?

    22. Crawford attempted to reconcile her folk present and her dissonant past with a second quartet, but no sketches for it survive.

      Why was Crawford unable to write pieces that she was passionate about? Was she writing for herself or purely for monetary gain?

    23. But the children, who called her “Dio,” had little knowledge of their mother’s former life as a beacon of American ultramodernism

      How is this possible? Did Crawford try to separate her personal and professional lives?

    24. the couple became closely acquainted with the father-and-son folklorists John and Alan Lomax

      Why did they work together? Did they have similar political or artistic beliefs?

    25. Crawford was less vocal politically, but again put into practice her husband’s theories in the militant songs “Sacco, Vanzetti” and “Chinaman, Laundryman,”

      Did Crawford have the same political views as her husband? What was her motive behind writing these pieces?

    26. She acutely felt the pull between family and music, or what she once described in a letter as her “‘career vs. love and children’ battle.”

      How was Crawford able to balance both the duties of a wife and that of a professional composer?

    27. Each movement is a miniature essay, bringing to visceral musical life the ideas of dissonant counterpoint.

      Did Seeger write music like this as well?

    28. Crawford and Seeger, who was an unhappily married father of three when they met, fell in love

      How does their love story compare to that of Clara and Robert Schumann?

    29. She became indispensable to his work

      Did she receive the credit that she deserved in helping him with his compositions?

    30. She was soon heralded by ultramodernists like Cowell

      Was it common for women to amass a lot of fame and success during this time period?

    31. Crawford found her compositional voice just as modernism was emerging in American music.

      How did modernism impact her musical style?

    32. traveled to Chicago to study piano after showing musical promise

      Was her family supportive of this endeavor?

    1. Environmentalists say they believe that the coal industry, having dealt with a sharp downturn in recent years and facing an aggressive investor divestment movement, may be shifting its views on climate change more for its own business interests than any newfound love for the environment.

      oh 100% percent obviously

  7. Mar 2019
    1. “As a woman of that generation, she wrote this piece that’s so ahead of its time,” Austin Wulliman

      What's so special about this piece?

    2. And for the next two decades, before she died at 52 in 1953, she wrote only a handful of works.

      Is this because she was restricted by her duties as a wife?

    3. But shortly after its completion, Crawford returned to the United States and married Seeger.

      How did her marriage impact her work?

    4. “Fear of having nothing to say musically, fear of not being able to say it, fear, fear, a whole web of it.”

      Who was her support system during this time?

    5. “To work alone: I am convinced this is what I should do, to discover what I really want,” she decided.

      Since she did not study with any prominent teachers, was this a detriment to the quality of her work or did this allow her to create a unique and distinctive style of sound?

    6. the first woman to receive one

      Was Ruth nervous? Did she suffer from imposter syndrome like many women in underrepresented fields do today?

    7. was a significant contribution to the canon of American modernism

      In my opinion it is hard to consider it "American modernism" since its stylistic roots seem quite embeded in the German expressionist current of the time. I think that true American modernists wouldn't include this piece as being part of their movement. I think Ives would disagree strongly.

    8. Although residing in the same city as Arnold Schoenberg, she avoided studying with the master of 12-tone composition.

      She might not have used the 12-tone scale, but her quartet is quite reminiscent of the compositions of the second Vienese school.

    9. Though mostly oblivious to the political upheaval in Germany at the time

      It is quite hard to believe that she was unaware of what was going on in the country. The Nazi party gained power only 3 years after she arrived in Germany.

    10. “In Europe one can work!”

      According to an article I found on the unemployment rate in Germany: "By the end of 1930 the figure had reached nearly 4 million, 15.3 per cent of the population." This makes her claim quite ironic. https://spartacus-educational.com/GERunemployment.htm

    1. The change, which will take effect in June 2018, was announced in a royal decree read live on state television and in a simultaneous media event in Washington. The decision highlights the damage that the ban on women driving has done to the kingdom’s international reputation and its hopes for a public relations benefit from the reform.Saudi leaders also hope the new policy will help the economy by increasing women’s participation in the workplace. Many working Saudi women spend much of their salaries on drivers or must be driven to work by male relatives.

      Unbiased view

    1. In the 17 years I’ve spent covering Silicon Valley, I’ve never seen anything shake the place like his victory. In the span of a few months, the Valley has been transformed from a politically disengaged company town into a center of anti-Trump resistance and fear.

      The anti-immigration and populist, nationalist rhetoric is very alarming to progressive liberals, and it makes sense that Trump being elected would be a turning point that finally engages the Silicon Valley community.

    2. used the service to turn fake stories into viral sensations, like the one about Pope Francis’ endorsing Trump (he hadn’t)

      These type of news stories are a huge reason why the election was skewed in favor of trump.

    1. if analysts stumble across evidence that an American has committed any crime, they will send it to the Justice Department.

      "If"

    2. There is a parallel debate about the FISA Amendments Act’s warrantless surveillance program. National security analysts sometimes search that act’s repository for Americans’ information, as do F.B.I. agents working on ordinary criminal cases. Critics call this the “backdoor search loophole,” and some lawmakers want to require a warrant for such searches.

      Things the majority of people dont know or probably understand.

    3. But Patrick Toomey, a lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union, called the move an erosion of rules intended to protect the privacy of Americans when their messages are caught by the N.S.A.’s powerful global collection methods. He noted that domestic internet data was often routed or stored abroad, where it may get vacuumed up without court oversight.

      can be used for the use of court but will most likely not

    4. In its final days, the Obama administration has expanded the power of the National Security Agency to share globally intercepted personal communications with the government’s 16 other intelligence agencies before applying privacy protections.

      Not a good thing that theyre giving more power to the people thatre using more power than they already have.

    5. a 23-page, largely declassified copy of the procedures.

      Terms and conditions we dont accept but exist anyways

    6. Previously, the N.S.A. filtered information before sharing intercepted communications with another agency, like the C.I.A. or the intelligence branches of the F.B.I. and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The N.S.A.’s analysts passed on only information they deemed pertinent, screening out the identities of innocent people and irrelevant personal information.

      emplying that is no longer the case and that they are indeed doing things they know they shouldnt be

    1. I wanted to make something to dream about, not something real. Saint Laurent, when he started, did real clothes. Those real clothes are everywhere, in the stores, in Zara, everywhere. You dress like he predicted in the ’70s

      Exclusivity and uniqueness

    2. His “Beat” line was the first couture collection inspired by the street, and foreshadowed the youthquake counterculture of the 1960s as well as punk.

      History that makes the brand fun to wear because it represents a huge french high fashion brand that has been able to keep up with culture and significant shifts in culture

    3. Not only is Saint Laurent one of the most influential brands, creatively and culturally, but now, thanks to the success of Slimane, it’s also one of the biggest financially.

      The brand represents one of the biggest and best fashion houses that has been influential and significant in pop culture

    4. r, Hedi Slimane, determined the décor and the general ambience of sleek modernity and distinctly French formality. But Slimane was based in Los Angeles.

      French brand with head creative designer based in Los Angeles but still creating a French look.

    1. As all historians know, forgetting is as essential to public understandings of history as remembering.

      On Forgetting.

  8. Feb 2019
    1. Students certainly don’t need to strive obsessively for perfection, but I should have prioritized grades, not guys.

      students should balance social and academic life

    1. He was 18. He came to school and was invited to a party his first weekend, and he didn’t know anybody. So he started to drink. He drank way too much and ended up lying on a bench in his residential hall, feeling very sick. Nobody stopped and said, ‘How are you doing? Are you O.K.?’ And he felt so isolated. When he came in to speak with me the next day, the thing that struck him — what he said — was, ‘There I was, alone, with all these people around.’ ”

      This makes me sad. I have seen it, people drink way too much. They're unstoppable.