2,907 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
    1. Further validating transcriptional data, CXCR3 expression was higher on CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, whereas IL-23R and CCR6 were preferentially expressed by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells (XREF_FIG G).

      ITGAE increases the amount of IL23R.

    2. Further validating transcriptional data, CXCR3 expression was higher on CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, whereas IL-23R and CCR6 were preferentially expressed by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells (XREF_FIG G).

      ITGAE increases the amount of CCR6.

    3. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      ITGA1 increases the amount of PRF1.

    4. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      ITGA1 increases the amount of PRF1.

    5. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      ITGA1 increases the amount of GZMB.

    6. Accordingly, IL-15-dependent expression of perforin and granzyme B was augmented by IL-6, but not other cytokine combinations tested (XREF_SUPPLEMENTARY C-S2E).

      IL6 increases the amount of GZMB.

    7. Rather, their cytotoxic capacity was primed through IL-2 and IL-15-mediated induction of perforin and granzyme B expression.

      IL2 increases the amount of PRF1.

    8. Rather, their cytotoxic capacity was primed through IL-2 and IL-15-mediated induction of perforin and granzyme B expression.

      IL2 increases the amount of GZMB.

    9. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      CD8 increases the amount of PRF1.

    10. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      CD8 increases the amount of PRF1.

    11. Moreover, IL-15 stimulation potentiated TCR dependent expression of IL-17 and IFN-gamma by epidermal CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and IFN-gamma by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, respectively (XREF_FIG D), substantiating effectual gamma chain receptor signaling in both subsets.

      CD8 increases the amount of IL17A.

    12. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      CD8 increases the amount of GZMB.

    13. Further validating transcriptional data, CXCR3 expression was higher on CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, whereas IL-23R and CCR6 were preferentially expressed by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells (XREF_FIG G).

      CD8 increases the amount of IL23R.

    14. Further validating transcriptional data, CXCR3 expression was higher on CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, whereas IL-23R and CCR6 were preferentially expressed by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells (XREF_FIG G).

      CD8 increases the amount of CCR6.

    15. Moreover, IL-15 stimulation potentiated TCR dependent expression of IL-17 and IFN-gamma by epidermal CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and IFN-gamma by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, respectively (XREF_FIG D), substantiating effectual gamma chain receptor signaling in both subsets.

      CD8 increases the amount of TCR.

    16. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      Trm increases the amount of PRF1.

    17. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      Trm increases the amount of PRF1.

    18. In addition, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells from healthy skin rapidly induced the expression of the effector molecules perforin and granzyme B when stimulated with IL-15, thereby promoting a strong cytotoxic response.

      Trm increases the amount of GZMB.

    19. CD103 binds E-cadherin, which is highly expressed on epithelia, whereas CD69 antagonizes sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1)-mediated egress from tissues.

      CDH1 binds ITGAE.

    20. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      IV activates ITGAE.

    21. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      IV activates IFNG.

    22. Relative to the epidermal CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells, dermal counterparts produced 3.5-fold less IL-17.

      ITGAE activates IL17A.

    23. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      ITGA1 activates ITGAE.

    24. Relative to the epidermal CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells, dermal counterparts produced 3.5-fold less IL-17.

      ITGA1 activates IL17A.

    25. Thus, CD49a expression delineated a dichotomy in Trm cell cytokine production, augmented by IL-15, with CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells preferentially producing IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively.

      ITGA1 activates IL17A.

    26. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      ITGA1 activates IFNG.

    27. In human skin epithelia, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells produced interferon-gamma, whereas CD8 + CD49a - Trm cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17).

      ITGA1 activates IFNG.

    28. Thus, CD49a expression delineated a dichotomy in Trm cell cytokine production, augmented by IL-15, with CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells preferentially producing IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively.

      ITGA1 activates IFNG.

    29. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      ITGA1 activates Trm.

    30. IL-2 and IL-15 Induce Cytotoxic Effector Protein Expression in Epidermal CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm Cells.

      IL2 activates Trm.

    31. Conversely, CD8 + CD49a - Trm cells from psoriasis lesions predominantly generated IL-17 responses that promote local inflammation in this skin disease.
    32. This functional dichotomy was evident in the comparison of distinct immune mediated skin diseases, with skin biopsies from vitiligo patients showing a predominance of cytotoxic CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells while skin biopsies from psoriasis patients featured the accumulation of the IL-17 producing CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - counterparts.

      IL17A activates CD8.

    33. Thus, CD49a expression delineated a dichotomy in Trm cell cytokine production, augmented by IL-15, with CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells preferentially producing IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively.

      IL15 activates ITGAE.

    34. Thus, CD49a expression delineated a dichotomy in Trm cell cytokine production, augmented by IL-15, with CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells preferentially producing IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively.

      IL15 activates ITGA1.

    35. Generally, IFN-gamma contributes to immunity toward intracellular infections while IL-17 provides anti-fungal defense and both of these cytokines initiate inflammatory keratinocyte responses.

      IFNG activates immune response.

    36. In line withincreased CD49a frequencies, IFN-gamma producing Trm cells were enriched in vitiligo lesions (XREF_FIG G).

      IFNG activates Trm.

    37. Nonetheless, transcripts of genes associated with IL-17 production, such as IL17F, RORC, IL23R, and CCR6, were significantly decreased in CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + relative to CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells, whereas transcripts for IFN-gamma were elevated (XREF_FIG D-E).

      IL23R activates IL17A.

    38. Nonetheless, transcripts of genes associated with IL-17 production, such as IL17F, RORC, IL23R, and CCR6, were significantly decreased in CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + relative to CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells, whereas transcripts for IFN-gamma were elevated (XREF_FIG D-E).

      IL17F activates IL17A.

    39. Nonetheless, transcripts of genes associated with IL-17 production, such as IL17F, RORC, IL23R, and CCR6, were significantly decreased in CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + relative to CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells, whereas transcripts for IFN-gamma were elevated (XREF_FIG D-E).

      CCR6 activates IL17A.

    40. TCR engagement using anti-CD3 antibodies also preferentially induced IFN-gamma by epidermal CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells (XREF_FIG D).

      TCR activates Trm.

    41. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      CD8 activates ITGAE.

    42. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      CD8 activates ITGA1.

    43. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      CD8 activates Trm.

    44. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      Collagen activates ITGAE.

    45. Collagen IV mediated engagement of CD49a enhanced IFN-gamma production by CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells, possibly through stabilizing IFNG transcripts.

      Collagen activates IFNG.

    46. TNF and IL-2 were abundantly produced by dermal and epidermal Trm cell subsets (XREF_FIG B and 6C).

      carbon atom activates IL2.

    47. TNF and IL-2 were abundantly produced by dermal and epidermal Trm cell subsets (XREF_FIG B and 6C).

      carbon atom activates TNF.

    48. TNF and IL-2 were abundantly produced by dermal and epidermal Trm cell subsets (XREF_FIG B and 6C).

      Trm activates IL2.

    49. Revealing functional specialization among epidermal Trm cells with respect to CD49a expression, CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells preferentially produced IL-17, a cytokine required for control of bacterial and fungal infections.

      Trm activates IL17A.

    50. Moreover, IL-17 or IFN-gamma production by distinct Trm cells subsets was generally maintained even in the context of the vigorous tissue inflammation.

      Trm activates IL17A.

    51. In human skin epithelia, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells produced interferon-gamma, whereas CD8 + CD49a - Trm cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17).

      Trm activates IL17A.

    52. Corroborating transcriptional profiles, CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - Trm cells produced IL-17 while CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells excelled in IFN-gamma production upon stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (XREF_FIG A-6C).

      Trm activates IL17A.

    53. Thus, CD49a expression delineated a dichotomy in Trm cell cytokine production, augmented by IL-15, with CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells preferentially producing IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively.

      Trm activates IL17A.

    54. Here, we identify CD49a expression as a marker delineating a subpopulation ofCD8 + Trm cells in human skin that specifically localize to thebasal layer of epidermis, preferentially produce IFN-gamma, and display high cytotoxic capacity upon stimulation.

      Trm activates IFNG.

    55. Moreover, IL-17 or IFN-gamma production by distinct Trm cells subsets was generally maintained even in the context of the vigorous tissue inflammation.

      Trm activates IFNG.

    56. In human skin epithelia, CD8 + CD49a + Trm cells produced interferon-gamma, whereas CD8 + CD49a - Trm cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17).

      Trm activates IFNG.

    57. Thus, CD49a expression delineated a dichotomy in Trm cell cytokine production, augmented by IL-15, with CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - and CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + Trm cells preferentially producing IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively.

      Trm activates IFNG.

    58. TNF and IL-2 were abundantly produced by dermal and epidermal Trm cell subsets (XREF_FIG B and 6C).

      Trm activates TNF.

    1. It was recently shown that MAVS recruits NLRP3 to the mitochondria for activation in response to non crystalline activators and that microtubule driven trafficking of the mitochondria is necessary for NLRP3 and ASC complex assembly and activation.

      MAVS translocates to the mitochondrion.

    2. It was recently shown that MAVS recruits NLRP3 to the mitochondria for activation in response to non crystalline activators and that microtubule driven trafficking of the mitochondria is necessary for NLRP3 and ASC complex assembly and activation.

      NLRP3 translocates to the mitochondrion.

    3. By triggering the phosphorylation of the autophagy inducer ULK1, RIPK2 induces autophagy of disrupted mitochondria (mitophagy), preventing the accumulation of ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

      RIPK2 leads to the phosphorylation of ULK1.

    4. Conversely, others have shown that overexpression of NLRP7 inhibited pro-IL-1beta synthesis and secretion.

      NLRP7 inhibits IL1B.

    5. Some studies have suggested that NLRP12 may negatively regulate the NF-kappaB pathway.

      NLRP12 inhibits NFkappaB.

    6. IFNgamma functions via signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and can not induce NLRC5 expression in the absence of STAT1.

      IFNG increases the amount of NLRC5.

    7. It was recently shown that MAVS recruits NLRP3 to the mitochondria for activation in response to non crystalline activators and that microtubule driven trafficking of the mitochondria is necessary for NLRP3 and ASC complex assembly and activation.

      STS binds NLRP3.

    8. NOD1 and 2 both interact with RIPK2, via a CARD-CARD homotypic interaction.

      RIPK2 binds NOD1.

    9. In Alzheimer 's disease, amyloid-beta aggregates were shown to activate NLRP3 ex vivo in primary macrophages and microglia.

      APP activates NLRP3.

    10. The possibility of a role for NOD2 in non bacterial infections has also been suggested, with NOD2 having been shown to induce an IFNbeta driven antiviral response following recognition of single stranded viral RNA.

      NOD2 activates IFNB1.

    11. IL-1beta produced downstream of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which is also stimulated by islet amyloid polypeptide, promotes beta-cell dysfunction, and cell death, linking NLRP3 activation to insulin resistance.

      IAPP activates NLRP3.

    12. Moreover, it was recently reported that bacterial acylated lipopeptides (acLP) activated NLRP7 and stimulated formation of an NLRP7-ASC-caspase-1 inflammasome.

      AEBP1 activates NLRP7.

    13. NLRX1 has been shown to enhance ROS production when it is overexpressed, following Chlamydia and Shigella infection, as well as in response to TNFalpha and poly (I : C).
    14. A recent study by Zhong et al. suggested that particulate stimuli might induce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggers a calcium influx mediated by transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) to activate NLRP3.

      TRPM3 activates NLRP3.

    15. A recent study by Zhong et al. suggested that particulate stimuli might induce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggers a calcium influx mediated by transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) to activate NLRP3.

      TRPM3 activates calcium(2+).

    16. Mutations in NLRP3 were reported to induce an overproduction of IL-1beta that triggers the subsequent development of severe inflammation.

      NLRP3 activates IL1B.

    17. Ceballos-Olvera et al. demonstrated that while IL-18 and pyroptosis are both essential for host resistance, the production of IL-1beta by NLRP3 was deleterious, as it triggered excessive neutrophil recruitment and exacerbated the disease.

      NLRP3 activates IL1B.

    18. Other NLRs such as NOD1, NOD2, NLRP10, NLRX1, NLRC5, and CIITA do not directly engage the inflammatory caspases, but instead activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) to stimulate innate immunity.
    19. A recent study by Zhong et al. suggested that particulate stimuli might induce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggers a calcium influx mediated by transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) to activate NLRP3.

      TRPM2 activates NLRP3.

    20. By triggering the phosphorylation of the autophagy inducer ULK1, RIPK2 induces autophagy of disrupted mitochondria (mitophagy), preventing the accumulation of ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

      RIPK2 activates autophagy.

    21. Nlrp6 - / - mice had increased numbers of immune cells in their circulation, as well as enhanced activation of MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling, though Toll like receptor (TLR) activation, suggesting that NLRP6 may suppress TLR pathways after the recognition of pathogens to prevent amplified inflammatory pathology.

      TLR activates NFkappaB.

    22. Other NLRs such as NOD1, NOD2, NLRP10, NLRX1, NLRC5, and CIITA do not directly engage the inflammatory caspases, but instead activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) to stimulate innate immunity.
    23. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    24. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    25. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    26. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    27. A recent study by Zhong et al. suggested that particulate stimuli might induce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggers a calcium influx mediated by transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) to activate NLRP3.
    28. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    29. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    30. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    31. The exact mechanism of NLRP3 activation by uric acid crystals is still unknown, but monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found to induce NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation and the subsequent processing of IL-1beta and IL-18.
    32. Ceramide, a specific product from the metabolism of long-chain saturated fatty acids, and the saturated free fatty acid, palmitate, have been shown to induce IL-1beta in an NLRP3 dependent fashion [Ref.

      ceramide activates IL1B.

    33. Crystalline cholesterol was proposed to cause atherosclerosis by acting as a danger signal and initiating inflammation through the NLRP3 inflammasome.
    34. A recent study by Zhong et al. suggested that particulate stimuli might induce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggers a calcium influx mediated by transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) to activate NLRP3.

      dioxygen activates calcium(2+).

    1. In cultured rodent DRG neurons, a mixture of inflammatory mediators including NGF, serotonin, interleukin-1, and bradykinin significantly increase ASIC3 currents, and NGF is known to increase ASIC3 expression.

      NGF increases the amount of ASIC3.

    2. XREF_BIBR, XREF_BIBR NGF signaling increases ASIC3 expression through a p75NTR dependent transcriptional switch in primary cultured rat DRG neurons.

      NGF increases the amount of ASIC3.

    3. Evidence suggests that IL-1beta contributes to increased NGF levels in cultured sciatic nerve explants, and inhibiting bradykinin-1 receptor activity blocks NGF induced thermal hyperalgesia in rodents.

      IL1B increases the amount of NGF.

    4. XREF_BIBR This NGF mutation also inhibits processing of proNGF to mature NGF, which may lower systemic NGF levels, and abolishes NGF binding to p75NTR.

      NGF decreases the amount of NGF.

    5. Mutations in the TrkA gene cause a related disorder, HSAN IV, which produces a phenotype similar to HSAN V. XREF_BIBR These TrkA gene mutations result in defective binding of NGF to TrkA and, as a result, the inhibition of NGF induced TrkA phosphorylation and downstream signaling cascades.

      NGF binds NTRK1.

    6. These include monoclonal antibodies that bind and neutralize TrkA and small molecule NGF and pro-NGF inhibitors that disrupt NGF and proNGF binding to TrkA and p75NTR.

      NGF binds NTRK1.

    7. XREF_BIBR - XREF_BIBR The NGF and TrkA complex is internalized into endosomes where it can be retrogradely transported, recycled, or degraded.

      NGF binds NTRK1.

    8. XREF_BIBR Immediate pro nociceptive effects resulting from NGF and TrkA signaling (such as modulation of ion channel activity) occur in the peripheral nociceptor terminal, while longer-term effects (such as modification of gene expression) occur in the soma following retrograde axonal transport of the NGF and TrkA complex to the DRG.

      NGF binds NTRK1.

    9. XREF_BIBR This mutation does not affect NGF binding to TrkA but does reduce PLC signaling downstream of TrkA.

      NGF binds NTRK1.

    10. XREF_BIBR TrkA is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and is thought to mediate most of the important effects of NGF on the nociceptive system.

      NTRK1 activates NGF.

    11. Cell culture studies have implicated each of the major signaling pathways downstream of TrkA activation in NGF induced sensitization of TRPV1, though data particularly support a role for PI3K as a mediator of TRPV1 sensitization.

      NTRK1 activates NGF.

    12. For example, NGF can potentiate the sensitivity of rat DRG neurons to bradykinin.

      NGF activates KNG1.

    13. XREF_BIBR In freshly isolated mouse DRG, NGF exposure increases bradykinin B2 receptor mRNA and membrane expression.

      NGF activates KNG1.

    14. Repeated subcutaneous administration of NGF increases CGRP and substance P release at central afferent terminals of sensory neurons in rodents.

      NGF activates S100A12.

    15. XREF_BIBR NGF contributes to neuronal phenotype by modulating axonal guidance, gene transcription, neurotransmitter release, and synaptic plasticity.
    16. XREF_BIBR, XREF_BIBR NGF can trigger the release of histamine and leukotriene from human basophils, serotonin and histamine from rodent mast cells, and histamine and tryptase from a human mast cell line.

      NGF activates serotonin.

    17. XREF_BIBR A single injection of NGF into the facia of the musculus erector spinae muscle produces both mechanical and chemical (proton) hyperalgesia.

      NGF activates dihydrogen.

    18. XREF_BIBR Proton gated acid sensing ion channels (ASIC) levels may also be modulated by NGF.

      NGF activates dihydrogen.

    19. XREF_BIBR In adult rats, BDNF mRNA levels are selectively increased in TrkA expressing DRG cells in response to intrathecal administration of NGF.

      BDNF activates MCF2L2.

    1. Moreover, TNF-alpha inhibits tyrosinase and Trp1 activity, both essential for melanin synthesis.

      TNF inhibits TYR.

    2. While its role as an apoptotic mediator has been shown in multiple cell types, in vitiligo, TNF-alpha inhibits melanogenesis by activating the transcription factor NF-kappaB.
    3. Increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+]), in addition to augmented ROS production, induces a reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) in melanocytes and the circulating mononuclear cells of vitiligo patients.
    4. Calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that regulates Ca 2+ homeostasis and signaling, is also modulated by H 2 O 2, which increases calreticulin expression and translocation to the cell surface of melanocytes.

      CALR increases the amount of CALR.

    5. Calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that regulates Ca 2+ homeostasis and signaling, is also modulated by H 2 O 2, which increases calreticulin expression and translocation to the cell surface of melanocytes.

      endoplasmic reticulum increases the amount of CALR.

    6. It is well accepted that the interaction between the autoantigen : MHC-I complex and the self-reactive TCR on CD8 T cells is weak.

      TCR binds Autoantigens.

    7. Of significance, proinflammatory signals such as IFN-alpha and TLR4 and TLR7/8 signaling, as well as the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATM and ATR) DNA damage response pathway also result in surface expression of these ligands.

      ATM activates Rad3.

    8. Interestingly, keratinocytes in vitiligo lesions aberrantly produce IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, which inhibit melanocyte function and elicit an inflammatory response.
    9. Blockade of IL-15Rbeta (CD122) reduces IFN-gamma production and can eliminate skin T RM and reverse vitiligo.

      IL2RB activates IFNG.

    10. Blockade of IL-15Rbeta (CD122) reduces IFN-gamma production and can eliminate skin T RM and reverse vitiligo.

      IL2RB activates IFNG.

    11. Blockade of IL-15Rbeta (CD122) reduces IFN-gamma production and can eliminate skin T RM and reverse vitiligo.

      IL2RB activates Arg-Met.

    12. Blockade of IL-15Rbeta (CD122) reduces IFN-gamma production and can eliminate skin T RM and reverse vitiligo.

      IL2RB activates Arg-Met.

    13. This differentiation is mediated by IL-15 derived from keratinocytes.
    14. Studies show that IFN-gamma directly induces melanocyte apoptosis and its signaling enhances CD8 T cell function and expansion.

      IFNG activates apoptotic process.

    15. Following nuclear translocation, HSF1 binds to the promoter regions of both HSP70i and NKG2DL, initiating their transcription.
    16. Notably, we and others have demonstrated that NKG2D signaling upregulates IFN-gamma production.

      KLRK1 activates IFNG.

    17. In this case, NKG2D enhances TCR activation and thus, T cell function.

      KLRK1 activates TCR.

    18. NKG2D mediated activation of CD8 T cells may thus play a significant role in the development of vitiligo, as discussed below.

      KLRK1 activates CD8.

    19. Interestingly, keratinocytes in vitiligo lesions aberrantly produce IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, which inhibit melanocyte function and elicit an inflammatory response.
    20. ROS production is also increased by TNF-alpha, further promoting stress signals in vitiligo melanocytes.
    21. Of significance, proinflammatory signals such as IFN-alpha and TLR4 and TLR7/8 signaling, as well as the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATM and ATR) DNA damage response pathway also result in surface expression of these ligands.

      TLR4 activates Rad3.

    22. Of significance, proinflammatory signals such as IFN-alpha and TLR4 and TLR7/8 signaling, as well as the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATM and ATR) DNA damage response pathway also result in surface expression of these ligands.

      IFNA activates Rad3.

    23. Moreover, free Hsp70 also triggers an immune response by interacting with DC surface receptors, inducing the expression of human NKG2DL MICA.

      HSPA activates immune response.

    24. Exposure to UV light and its absorption by melanocytes causes photo oxidation of melanin, generating superoxide radicals, which in turn induce melanin biosynthesis.
    25. Monobenzone induces ROS generation and oxidative stress in the skin, further contributing to the autoimmune response in vitiligo.
    26. High ROS can also induce ER oxidation; in particular, H 2 O 2 can interfere with the ion channel TRPM2, resulting in higher Ca 2+ influx into the cell and the mitochondria.
    27. Exposure to UV light and its absorption by melanocytes causes photo oxidation of melanin, generating superoxide radicals, which in turn induce melanin biosynthesis.

      superoxide activates Melanin.

    1. Curcumin has also been reported to reactivate the neprilysin gene (a strong inhibitor of Akt) through CpG demethylation, leading to Akt inhibition and the subsequent inhibition of NFkappaB in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells [XREF_BIBR].

      MME inhibits AKT.

    2. In addition, resveratrol as well as oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol significantly reduce the activation of NFkappaB in LPS stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay [XREF_BIBR].
    3. In addition, resveratrol as well as oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol significantly reduce the activation of NFkappaB in LPS stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay [XREF_BIBR].
    4. EGCG has been shown to reduce the activity of NFkappaB via hypoacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the activity of histone acetyl transferase [XREF_BIBR, XREF_BIBR].
    5. Curcumin has also been reported to reactivate the neprilysin gene (a strong inhibitor of Akt) through CpG demethylation, leading to Akt inhibition and the subsequent inhibition of NFkappaB in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells [XREF_BIBR].

      curcumin inhibits AKT.

    6. Genistein has been shown to reduce the overproduction of TNFalpha and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by LPS via inhibition of NFkappaB activation [XREF_BIBR].

      genistein inhibits IL6.

    7. Genistein has been shown to reduce the overproduction of TNFalpha and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by LPS via inhibition of NFkappaB activation [XREF_BIBR].

      genistein inhibits TNF.

    8. Resveratrol treatment inhibited p38 and JNK signalling pathways in IL-1beta-stimulated rat RSC-364 synovial cells and in HUVECs treated with hydrogen peroxide [XREF_BIBR, XREF_BIBR].

      resveratrol inhibits p38.

    9. In addition, resveratrol as well as oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol significantly reduce the activation of NFkappaB in LPS stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay [XREF_BIBR].

      resveratrol inhibits NFkappaB.

    10. Resveratrol blocks the activation of NF-kappaB in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells when stimulated with LPS through avoiding IKK activation and IkappaB phosphorylation [XREF_BIBR].

      resveratrol inhibits NFkappaB.

    11. Resveratrol treatment inhibited p38 and JNK signalling pathways in IL-1beta-stimulated rat RSC-364 synovial cells and in HUVECs treated with hydrogen peroxide [XREF_BIBR, XREF_BIBR].

      resveratrol inhibits JNK.

    12. In addition, resveratrol as well as oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol significantly reduce the activation of NFkappaB in LPS stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay [XREF_BIBR].
    13. Quercetin, a flavonoid class of polyphenolic compound was tested for its beneficial effect to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis.
    14. EGCG also prevented the IKK activation and inhibited phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFkappaB in a human respiratory epithelium A549 cells stimulated by IL-1beta [XREF_BIBR].

      (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate leads to the dephosphorylation of RELA.

    15. An interesting study showed that quercetin and honokiol inhibited cytosolic PLA2 phosphorylation and activation in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells [XREF_BIBR].

      quercetin leads to the dephosphorylation of PLA2.

    16. Quercetin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt by direct binding and inhibition of PI3K in JB6 mouse epidermal cells [XREF_BIBR].

      quercetin leads to the dephosphorylation of AKT.

    17. EGCG inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inflammation via the PI3K and AKT pathway by upregulating the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN).

      (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate decreases the amount of PTEN.

    18. Curcumin has been found to upregulate the expression of miR-181b, which, in turn, reduces the expression of the pro inflammatory chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 [XREF_BIBR].

      curcumin decreases the amount of CXCL2.

    19. Curcumin has been found to upregulate the expression of miR-181b, which, in turn, reduces the expression of the pro inflammatory chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 [XREF_BIBR].

      curcumin decreases the amount of CXCL1.

    20. The expression of the pro inflammatory cytokine IL-17 was reduced by resveratrol treatment in cardiac fibroblasts in a process mediated by PI3K and Akt inhibition [XREF_BIBR].

      resveratrol decreases the amount of IL17A.

    21. Resveratrol has been shown to decrease miR-21 expression and NFkappaB activity in U251 brain tumour cells [XREF_BIBR].

      resveratrol decreases the amount of MIR21.

    22. This effect seems to be initially mediated by the inhibition of the IRAK (IL-1beta-mediated IL-1beta receptor associated kinase) degradation, which prevents IKK activation.

      IRAK1 activates IKK_complex.

    23. EGCG has been shown to reduce the activity of NFkappaB via hypoacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the activity of histone acetyl transferase [XREF_BIBR, XREF_BIBR].
    24. EGCG has been shown to reduce the activity of NFkappaB via hypoacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the activity of histone acetyl transferase [XREF_BIBR, XREF_BIBR].
    25. Curcumin has also been reported to reactivate the neprilysin gene (a strong inhibitor of Akt) through CpG demethylation, leading to Akt inhibition and the subsequent inhibition of NFkappaB in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells [XREF_BIBR].

      curcumin activates MME.

    1. Similarly, CD8 + T cells lacking CCR10 impaired their T RM forming capacity.

      CD8 inhibits Arg-Met.

    2. Apart from maintenance property, IL-15 strongly induces perforin and granzyme B expression in CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + T RM cells but not in CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - T RM cells isolated from normal human skin.

      IL15 increases the amount of PRF1.

    3. Apart from maintenance property, IL-15 strongly induces perforin and granzyme B expression in CD8 + CD103 + CD49a + T RM cells but not in CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - T RM cells isolated from normal human skin.

      IL15 increases the amount of GZMB.

    4. The retention of tissue-residentmemoryT cells is mediated by TGF-beta, which up-regulates CD103 expression and down-regulates CCR7 expression.

      TGFB increases the amount of ITGAE.

    5. TGF-beta induces CD103 expression on activated CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, and leads to CD103 mediated adhesion of CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, to monolayer human keratinocyte cultures.

      TGFB increases the amount of ITGAE.

    6. However, another study showed that TGF-beta also induces CD103 expression on CD4 + T cells and mediates cell adhesion to keratinocyte.

      TGFB increases the amount of ITGAE.

    7. IL-12 and TGF-beta can upregulate CD49a expression on CD8 + T cells.

      TGFB increases the amount of ITGA1.

    8. IL-12 and TGF-beta can upregulate CD49a expression on CD8 + T cells.

      IL12 increases the amount of ITGA1.

    9. Since IL-12 can induce IFN-gamma production and CD49a expression, it is tempting to speculate that in the psoriasis context, IL-17A-producing T RM cells, which preferentially express IL-23R, downregulate their CD49a due to a greater influence of IL-23 over IL-12.

      IL12 increases the amount of ITGA1.

    10. Similarly, CD8 + T RM cells in the skin also increase the expression of FABP4 and FABP5.

      CD8 increases the amount of FABP5.

    11. Similarly, CD8 + T RM cells in the skin also increase the expression of FABP4 and FABP5.

      CD8 increases the amount of FABP4.

    12. Similarly, CD8 + T RM cells in the skin also increase the expression of FABP4 and FABP5.

      Arg-Met increases the amount of FABP5.

    13. Similarly, CD8 + T RM cells in the skin also increase the expression of FABP4 and FABP5.

      Arg-Met increases the amount of FABP4.

    14. The ligand for CCR8, CCL1, is preferentially expressed in human skin, and keratinocyte derived prostaglandin E 2 and vitamin D3 can induce CCR8 expression by CD8 + T cells, suggesting that it may involve in T RM localization in skin.

      calciol increases the amount of CCR8.

    15. In contrast, thexenografting model with human skin showed that CD4 + CLA + CD103 + T RM cells down-regulate CD69 expression, exit from the skin, and reach into the circulation.

      ITGAE decreases the amount of CD69.

    16. In contrast, thexenografting model with human skin showed that CD4 + CLA + CD103 + T RM cells down-regulate CD69 expression, exit from the skin, and reach into the circulation.

      CD4 decreases the amount of CD69.

    17. The retention of tissue-residentmemoryT cells is mediated by TGF-beta, which up-regulates CD103 expression and down-regulates CCR7 expression.

      TGFB decreases the amount of CCR7.

    18. Upon stimulation of the skin of psoriasis patients, the CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - T RM cells in the epidermis seem to be reactivated and initiate IL-17A production.

      ITGAE activates IL17A.

    19. In the ex vivo expanded T cells, certain populations of CD8 + CD103 + T cells produce IFN- gamma, IL-17A or IL-22, while CD4 + CD103 + T cells scarcely elaborate these cytokines.

      ITGAE activates IL17A.

    20. In the ex vivo expanded T cells, certain populations of CD8 + CD103 + T cells produce IFN- gamma, IL-17A or IL-22, while CD4 + CD103 + T cells scarcely elaborate these cytokines.

      ITGAE activates IFNG.

    21. TGF-beta induces CD103 expression on activated CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, and leads to CD103 mediated adhesion of CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, to monolayer human keratinocyte cultures.

      ITGAE activates CD4.

    22. In the ex vivo expanded T cells, certain populations of CD8 + CD103 + T cells produce IFN- gamma, IL-17A or IL-22, while CD4 + CD103 + T cells scarcely elaborate these cytokines.

      ITGAE activates IL22.

    23. CD103 on CD8 T RM cells mediate cell adhesion to the epidermis and thus promote local retention.

      ITGAE activates cell adhesion.

    24. TGF-beta induces CD103 expression on activated CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, and leads to CD103 mediated adhesion of CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, to monolayer human keratinocyte cultures.

      ITGAE activates cell adhesion.

    25. However, another study showed that TGF-beta also induces CD103 expression on CD4 + T cells and mediates cell adhesion to keratinocyte.

      ITGAE activates cell adhesion.

    26. TGF-beta induces CD103 expression on activated CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, and leads to CD103 mediated adhesion of CD8 + T cells, but not CD4 + T cells, to monolayer human keratinocyte cultures.

      ITGAE activates CD8.

    27. Basically, IL-15 promotes proliferation and survival of circulating memory CD8 + T cells but did not affect regulatory T cell populations in human.
    28. They sense autoantigen in the skin long after stabilization of disease and produce IFN-gamma, which further induces CXCL9, and CXCL10 production.

      IFNG activates CXCL9.

    29. CD4 + T cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, named Th17 cells, play an essential role in its pathogenesis.

      CD4 activates interleukin.

    30. They sense autoantigen in the skin long after stabilization of disease and produce IFN-gamma, which further induces CXCL9, and CXCL10 production.

      CXCL10 activates CXCL9.

    31. Thus, CD8 + CD103 + T RM cells efficiently produce IL-17A.

      CD8 activates IL17A.

    32. Upon stimulation of the skin of psoriasis patients, the CD8 + CD103 + CD49a - T RM cells in the epidermis seem to be reactivated and initiate IL-17A production.

      CD8 activates IL17A.

    33. In the ex vivo expanded T cells, certain populations of CD8 + CD103 + T cells produce IFN- gamma, IL-17A or IL-22, while CD4 + CD103 + T cells scarcely elaborate these cytokines.

      CD8 activates IL17A.

    34. In the ex vivo expanded T cells, certain populations of CD8 + CD103 + T cells produce IFN- gamma, IL-17A or IL-22, while CD4 + CD103 + T cells scarcely elaborate these cytokines.

      CD8 activates IL22.

    35. CD103 + T RM cells produce IFN-gamma, IL-17A, and IL-22.

      Arg-Met activates IL17A.

    36. In CD8 + T cells, CD103 + T RM cells more frequently produce IL-17A than CD103 - T cells.

      Arg-Met activates IL17A.

    37. Thus, CD8 + CD103 + T RM cells efficiently produce IL-17A.

      Arg-Met activates IL17A.