605 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2019
    1. furred full fine with purest pelts; without coif on her head, but the noblest gems traced about her hair-net by twenties in clusters

      Pelt means hair or clothes here.

      I guess, it is saying she did her hair and did not wear her hair cover....?

    2. forsooth


    3. fully him kissed.

      A bit different than their normal "courtesy kiss."

    4. But the lady for love could get no sleep, nor could the purpose impair pitched in her heart, but rose up swiftly, and took herself thither

      She could not sleep because her desire was so great.

    5. cold morn

      Interesting that it specifies this is a cold morning. Good things do not usually happen on cold mornings in British Literature.

    6. Reynard

      A fox.

    7. hallooed

      Google Translation: cry or shout “halloo” to attract attention or to give encouragement to dogs in hunting.

      Best definition yet. lol.....

    8. three hounds

      Here is the number three again.

      My guess is that three means downfall. Like the animal being hunted is meeting his downfall by the three dogs.

    9. welkin

      Google Translation: Sky or Heaven

    10. Fairest of fair was the field, for the frost clung.

      Great description.

    11. Blithely

      Google Translation: In a happy or carefree manner.

    12. “third time pays all

      I think this is the third "rooster call" or the third test.

    13. When the cock had crowed and cackled but thrice,

      This may be a biblical reference, when the rooster crowed three times after Jesus' death and Paul denied knowing Jesus three times to the Pharisees.

      The rooster here could represent three days as well. My guess is that, the rooster represents one of the three days till Gawain meets the Green knight or is seduced by the Queen and thus his downfall.

    14. but he defended himself so fairly no fault it seemed, no evil on either hand, nor did they know aught but bliss. They laughed and larked full long; at the last she did him kiss, farewell was on her tongue, and went her way, with this.

      I am proud of Gawain for not giving in, but I think she will be his downfall.

    15. What! Are you ignorant, who garner all praise, or else do you deem me too dull to heed your dalliance? For shame!

      She is accusing him of not know how to love and saying his fame is in vane, or saying she must be too dull for him. Either option is not good for a pride-filled knight.

    16. spurned;

      Google Translation: reject with disdain or contempt.

    17. liegemen

      Google translation: a vassal who owes feudal service or allegiance to a nobleman.

    18. cock


    19. betide

      Google translation: happen

    20. 55

      The King returns and gives the meat to Gawain. Gawain, kisses the king but will not tell him where he received the kiss.

    21. On a skin of the fair beast fed they their hounds with the liver and lights, and the stomach lining, and bread bathed in blood blent there among

      They used every part of the animal. They even fed their dogs.

    22. They gripped the gullet, and swiftly severed the weasand from the windpipe and whipped out the guts

      Processing the meat.

    23. assay,

      Google translation:

      determine the content or quality

    24. Thus they mulled many matters till mid-morn passed,

      They talked and discussed many things.

    25. I should bargain to win myself a brave lord, with the qualities that I know of you, knight, here,

      She is saying she did not pick her husband. She is complimenting Gawain and saying she wishes she could have picked someone like him. Basically she is feeding his pride and ego.

    26. But as I love that same Lord that the heavens rules, I have wholly in my hand what all desire through grace.’

      She is trying to justify her actions and say that it is "grace."

    27. I shall bind you in your bed, that you may trust.’

      Oh oh oh oh nooooooooo

    28. descry

      Google translation: catch sight of.

    29. With chin and cheek full sweet, both white and red together, full graciously did she greet, lips light with laughter.

      This is like a horror movie when the serial killer is running at the main character with an axe and the whole audience is yelling "No! Don't run into the woods." but then the main character does it anyway.

    30. It was the lady, the loveliest to behold, that drew the door after her full silent and still,

      I knew it! Sir Gawian don't do it! No no no no no no no no no, it is a trap.

    31. Gawain the good man

      It is interesting here, how the Arthur wants to remind us that Gawain is a good man.

    32. 46

      The King leaves with his nobles for the hunt. He takes 100 hunters with him and hounds.

    1. aloft.

      Wait....that's the ending???? The story ends like that? I FEEL CHEATED........This is like Game Of Thrones ending.

    2. ‘As you have travelled,’ quoth the lord, ‘from afar, and since then waked with me, you are not well served neither of sustenance nor of sleep, surely I know.

      The king is telling him that through all the traveling and partying, Gawain has not slept and should rest. The King says Gawain should sleep tomorrow in his room while he goes out hunting. He will let the Queen watch over Gawain while he is away so that he can eat with her.

    3. So, sir, this request I make of you here, that you tell me true if ever you tale heard of the green chapel, on what ground it stands, and of the knight that keeps it, the colour of green. There was established by statute a pact us between both to meet at that mark, if I should live; and of that same New Year but little is wanting, and I would look on that lord, if God would let me, more gladly, by God’s Son, than any goods gain. So, indeed, by your leave, it behoves me to go. Now to work this business I’ve barely three days, and it’s fitter I fall dead than fail of my errand.’

      He tells the king of his Journey to find the Green Giant and asks if he knows where he is.

    4. 41

      Christmas day. So it has been about one year from the time Sir Gawain and the Green knight met.....

    5. 40

      Sir Gawain goes to greet the woman. They take him to their chamber where they eat and drink until it gets dark.

    6. who most mirth might move at that Christmastide.

      He is saying they should make the most happiness in that moment because it is Christmas time. However when it gets dark and they need to light the candles, Sir Gawain leaves to his chamber.

    7. 39

      They go to chapel and Gawain meets the Kings beautiful wife.

    8. cords, red gold rings,

      Their welcoming demeanor seems suspicious to me. Why would they welcome him? They may want something from him they have not yet shown.

    9. 35

      Sir Gawain is welcomed into the castle.

    10. a porter pure pleasant. From the wall his errand he craved, and hailed the knight errant.

      It says that Gawain "craved his errand." Meaning he was ready to finally face the Giant.

    11. Good sir,’ quoth Gawain, ‘will you do my errand to the high lord of this house, harbour to crave?’

      Sir Gawain asks for a place to stay at the castle.

    12. 33

      Sir Gawain comes to a castle and seeks out the Giant.

    13. 30

      His Journey.

    14. 29

      Gawain sets off to find the Green Knight. People are mourning his departure because they think he will be killed.

    15. baldric

      From Google: a belt for a sword or other piece of equipment, worn over one shoulder and reaching down to the opposite hip.

    16. pentangle


    17. So harnessed as he was he hears the Mass, offered and honoured at the high altar, then he comes to the king and his companions, takes his courteous leave of lords and ladies; and they him kiss and convey, commend him to Christ

      He worships at the alter and gets ready. Often times this was done before a battle in case the Knight was killed. So that he would be forgiven of all his sins.

    18. 25

      Gawain's Armor

    19. 24

      Time goes by and Gawain states he must go and face the Green Knight. There is a lot of dread and courage in the hall.

    20. feast on that day

      They sure do a lot of feasting.

    21. 23

      The year continues on.

    22. Michaelmas

      A Christian holiday usually celebrated on a Sunday around September 29.


    23. Zephyrus

      A god. Here is the god's history: https://www.theoi.com/Titan/AnemosZephyros.html

    24. 21

      Arthur down plays the reality of the situation to keep fear from spreading.

    25. semblance

      Google Translation: the outward appearance or apparent form of something, especially when the reality is different

    26. 20

      The Green Knight reminds Gawain of his promise to seek him out in one year, then rides off.

    27. 19

      Gawain strikes the green knight with the axe and cuts off his head. The Green Knight stays standing as the knights kick his head around the floor. Then the Green Knight picks up his head off the floor.

    28. ; his axe he strokes

      This is such a passive statement. Like, seriously, an axe does not "stroke." Stroke involves a soft touch.... like getting a massage. Yuck. Come on, like say the the axe hit, or cut, or something.... stroke... really???

    29. 17

      The Green Knight and Gawain face one another.

    30. First I entreat you, man, how are you named, that tell me truly, then, so trust it I may.’

      The green knight wants to things the chiverolous way.

    31. 16

      Gawain challenges the Green Knight in Arthurs stead.

    32. 15

      Arthur takes up the Green Knights challenge.

    33. 13

      The Green knight challenges the knights of the round table to a New Years sports dual to build trust.

    34. About on these benches are but beardless children; if I were clasped in armour on a high steed, here is no man to match me, his might so weak.

      The green knight has some balls..... He just compared the knights of the round table to little children.

    35. 12

      Arthur and the green knight speak. The knight says he is not here to fight or go to war.

    36. 11

      The knights are shocked.

    37. On knights he cast his eyes, And rolled them up and down.

      He is looking the knights up and down. Almost like an authority figure.

    38. danger un-fearing.

      He was not afraid.

    39. 8

      Spends a lot of writing to describe the clothing and attire of the Green man.

    40. 7

      A large green giant of a man comes in and interrupts the party.

    41. 5

      This section gives the reader a better idea of Arthurs character and personality.

    42. 4

      This section talks about the New Year Celebration.

    43. 3

      This section talks about the Christmas celebration.

    44. And so of earnest adventure I aim to show, that astonishes sight as some men do hold it, an outstanding action of Arthur’s wonders.

      Sets the main character and focus of the story to Arthur.

    45. their carols to make.

      They are partying after the Christmas tournament for 15 days

    46. If you will list to this lay but a little while, I’ll tell it straight, as I in town heard it, with tongue;

      The novel creates a "story-teller" style. As was common and many stories from this day.

    47. 1

      This section states that the story takes place after the war of Troy. It states that the war was won, and the land was taken over and divided up, the king of Rome was set in place, and basically it was re-domesticated.

    48. Troy

      A reference to another medieval story involving a war over a woman named Helen of Troy "The face that launched a thousand ships." Supposedly so beautiful that many countries were willing to go to war for her. At the end the war was won with a Trojan horse.

    1. To win the favour of any, he must speak to the understanding of all.

      That is kind of cool.

    2. wrought a new Lay

      I feel rather disappointed in Tristan right now....

    3. There he cut a wand from out a certain hazel-tree, and having trimmed and peeled it of its bark, with his dagger he carved his name upon the wood.

      interesting verbage. Anyone know what a wand means here in the context?

    4. or should her fairness fall beneath his boast, then let him be cast off from our fellowship, and be sent forth from the service of the King.”

      Beauty contest

    5. plight.

      a dangerous, difficult, or otherwise unfortunate situation.

    6. fiefs

      Land; basically Launfal had to have the knights to act as a bail so he would not be imprisoned until his judgement day.

    7. he would come before this judgment in his own body.

      In those days, a knight had a right to have someone else receive his judgment instead of the knight.

    8. folly

      lack of good sense; foolishness.

    9. He saw very clearly that he had lost his friend, since he had declared their love to men.

      Is he saying he is gay? I'm so confused? I thought he loved the first maiden?

    10. know now and be persuaded, that she, whom I serve, is so rich in state, that the very meanest of her maidens, excels you, Lady Queen, as much in clerkly skill and goodness, as in sweetness of body and face, and in every virtue.”

      yeah.... I don't thing the queen is gonna like that response.

    11. He was not slow to take up the Queen’s glove,

      In those days, a night could challenge another knight to a dual by throwing his glove down in front of the other.

      This is saying that the queen was challenging him with her words and he did not want to argue back.

    12. . You remain only for his harm and loss.”

      Wow. She is so mean.

    13. There are sins more black that a man may have upon his soul.

      She is saying that there are worse sins.

    14. perron,

      an exterior set of steps and a platform at the main entrance to a large building such as a church or mansion.

    15. disport


    16. Gawain

      Gawain is the knight from another story. He is King Arthur's cousin and a member of the round table.

    17. solace,

      comfort or consolation in a time of distress or sadness.

    18. but never knew how his purse was filled.

      He has a sugar momma! She is giving him money now too???

    19. raiment.


    20. Sweeter than the dainties within his mouth, was the lady’s kiss upon his lips.

      Woah.... Is Launfal kissing another woman???

    21. varlet

      Google defines the word varlet as a man acting as an attendant or servant.

      I think this is a very interesting word choice. Is he her servant now? Or is the text referring to Launfal being God's servant? Also if it is referring to the first context, does that mean this is foreshadow and he will then be manipulated by her to someone horrible tradgedy?

    22. loath

      reluctant; unwilling.

    23. plighted

      pledge or promise solemnly (one's faith or loyalty).

    24. “Friend,” she said, “hearken to my counsel. I lay this charge upon you, and pray you urgently, that you tell not to any man the secret of our love. If you show this matter, you will lose your friend, for ever and a day. Never again may you see my face. Never again will you have seisin of that body, which is now so tender in your eyes.”

      I wonder why she is so worried about someone knowing.

    25. forthwith


    26. For you I renounce my father and my father’s house. This only I pray, that I may dwell with you in your lodging, and that you will never send me from your side.”

      That is an a big thing to do for a complete stranger.

    27. there is naught that you may bid me do—right or wrong, evil or good—that I will not do to the utmost of my power.

      Sounds like trouble is brewing. EWhhhhhh

    28. prudent

      acting with or showing care and thought for the future.

    29. raiment


    30. coverlet


    31. napery

      bed sheets; linen

    32. raiment


    33. kirtles

      A woman's gown or outer petticoat.

    34. misease

      Does anyone know what this means? Google did not know.....

    35. marvel

      be filled with wonder or astonishment.

    36. prowess

      bravery in battle.

    1. .

      This is my favorite story so far. I think it is very cool how even despite the circumstances Tristan and Iseult remain moral characters. Even after Isuelt and Tristan are living in the woods, the two do no become intimate keeping Iseults vow to Mark. This story challenges right from wrong. How do we know what is really right from wrong? Is there some grey? Would one thing be wrong at one time and right at another? I don't thing Tristan and Iseult were wrong at all. In fact I really admire there self discipline to do the right thing.

    2. Lord Tristan, give back the Queen to the man who espoused her lawfully according to the laws of Rome.”

      It is interesting to see the moral differences between today and when this story was written. People assumed the laws of Rome were the same thing as what is right.

    3. lepers

      Lepers are people with leprosy. A horrible disease where flesh and limbs rot off. It is contagious and did not have a cure.

    4. hearts so stricken will lose their vigilance.

      Interesting quote!

    5. basest

      Without morals

    6. philtres

      This word comes originates from the Latin word, philos, which means to love.

    7. clad


    8. Tintagel

      The place where Tristan's parents were wed.

    9. ravage

      seriously damage

    10. fleet


    11. manned


    12. . I will leave this country, dear though it be, and in Cornwall I will serve King Mark as my lord.

      This is an important line because once again it shows the depth of the relationship between King Mark and Tristan. Tristan could have stayed and ruled his land but instead he would rather serve Mark.

    13. The barons also cherished him, and (as you shall learn) Dinas of Lidan, the seneschal, beyond all others. And more tenderly than the barons and than Dinas the King loved him

      This is an important line for the future of the story. It tells the reader the report and the state of relationship between Tristan and King Mark. The love between them adds a unique dynamic to the situation that will come later in the story.

    14. For our joy did you come to this roof, stay near us a long time, friend

      Tristan is invited to stay

    15. Tintagel

      Castles name

    16. venery


    17. unbeknownst

      Without his knowledge

    18. rapine.

      Violent seizure of someone's property.

    19. but in his heart revered him as his lord.

      Even though Roholt loves Tristan as a son, he has not forgotten who Tristan is and that he is by birth still his Lord.

    20. Tristan; that is the child of sadness

      Foreshadow. Was Tristan destined from birth to have a life of sadness?

    21. Mark gave him his sister Blanchefleur

      Rivalen helps Mark in the war. As a favor Mark gives his sister to be wed to Rivalen.

    1. Hrethel’s

      I forgot who this was, so I looked it up on Smoosh. It says

      "Hrethel, the previous king of the Geats, was the father of Hygelac, Herebeald, Haethcyn, and a daughter, and the foster-father of his great-nephew Beowulf. Although the exact details are somewhat unclear, Hrethel seems to die of grief after his son Haethcyn accidentally kills his brother Hearebeald."

    2. peerless

      unequaled; unrivaled.

    3. Nevermore would they meet each other Face to face. And such was his affection That he could not help being overcome: His fondness for the man was so deep-founded, It warmed his heart and wound the heartstrings Tight in his breast. 1880 The embrace ended

      Hrthgar really loves Beowulf like a son. when he says he is adopted sone it is not just words or a performance. I think there relationship is really interesting.

    4. forebodings

      fearful apprehension; a feeling that something bad will happen

    5. alacrity

      brisk and cheerful readiness.

    6. He said he had found it a friend in battle 1810 And a powerful help; he put no blame On the blade’s cutting edge. He was a considerate man

      Unferth and Beowulf seem to have found a respect for one another. Maybe a friendship is blooming?

    7. raucous


    8. felicity

      Derived from the Latin word which means happy.

    9. Prudent

      acting with or showing care and thought for the future.

    10. resolute

      admirably purposeful, determined, and unwavering.

    11. They suffered a terrible severance from the Lord;

      This confirms the flood they are speaking of is the bibical version

    12. The warrior determined to take revenge For every gross act Grendel had committed

      Here we see a possible character flaw. Lets see how revenge works out for Beowolf.

    13. A sword in her armory, an ancient heirloom From the days of the giants, an ideal weapon, One that any warrior would envy, 1560 But so huge and heavy in itself Only Beowulf could wield it in battle.

      Is this a king Arthur reference?

    14. Unferth is to have what I inherited: To that far-famed man I bequeath my own Sharp-horned, wave-sheened wonder blade.

      Beowulf says earlier that the sword is his most precious gift. Now he is willing to will it to Unferth should he die.

    15. Hrunting

      Swords name

    16. bone-cage

      Kenning for Ribs

    17. Men gazed at in awe. Beowulf got ready,

      It says the men gazed at it in awe. Where as Beowulf was ready for action. He wasn't "gazing" he was "ready." Maybe this is a symbol for fear in our lives. Beowulf, who is successful is not gazed by fear.

    18. war-horn


    19. Aechere’s head at the foot of the cliff.


    20. The gap of danger where the demon waits Is still unknown to you. Seek it if you dare.

      Beowulf's new assignment is to seek out Grendel's mother.

    21. heather-stepper

      Kenning: Heather is a purple flower. So a flower stepper? Someone who steps on flowers?

    22. And the mere bottom Has never been sounded by the sons of men.

      It is deep water

    23. moors

      open land

    24. marauders


    25. Aeschere

      The man whom Grendels mother took to her den.

    26. hell-brute


    27. after Cain had killed His father’s son, felled his own Brother with the sword. Banished an outlaw, Marked by having murdered, he moved into the wilds, Shunning company and joy. And from Cain there sprang Misbegotten spirits, among them Grendel,

      Grendel is Cain's son from the Bible Genesis story.

    28. To summarize, The Danes have a major issue with a demonic creature after the king builds a mead hall. Beowulf hears of the demon and sails to save the day. He injures the beast in the hall. The story makes clear that the beast will die from the injury and the people celebrate.

    29. one man 1240 Lay down to his rest, already marked for death.

      Is this one man Beowulf? Is he now marked for death because he killed Grindle.

    30. a sword carried high, That was both precious object and a token of honor.

      I think it is interesting that the sword is the most treasured gift.

    31. Unferth the boaster

      The man who was challenging Beowulf earlier in the story because of jealousy. He is known for boasting.

    32. So now, Beowulf, adopt you in my heart as a dear son. Nourish and maintain this new connection, You noblest of men; there’ll be nothing you want for, No worldly good that won’t be yours.

      King Hrthgar says Beowulf is like a son to him.

    33. Stalwart

      loyal, reliable, and hardworking.

    34. earl

      military ranking.

    35. terror-monger


    36. “When it comes to fighting, I count myself As dangerous any day as Grendel. So it won’t be a cutting edge I’ll wield To mow him down, easily as I might. 680 He has no ideas of the arts of war, Of shield or sword-play, though he does possess A wild strength.

      I find Beowulf to be a very conceited character. I find that part of his attitude very off-putting.

    37. hall-warden

      Kenning. Someone who will protect the hall.

    38. cloud-murk

      Kenning. Grey skys prolly foggy

    39. I shall fulfill that purpose, Prove myself with a proud deed Or meet my death here in the mead-hall.”

      Beowulf says he will fight to the death. He will either win or die trying. This goes back to the general idea at the time that dying in battle was the best way to die.

    40. whale-beasts


    41. Beowulf, Ecgtheow’s son

      Ecgtheow is Beowulfs father.

    42. Heathoreams

      I wonder if this is derived from the word Heathen?

    43. minstrel

      A medieval singer or musician

    44. stalwart

      Loyal Reliable and hardworking

    45. war-board:


    46. plight

      a dangerous, difficult, or otherwise unfortunate situation.

    47. Hygelac’s kinsman,

      Beowulf is related to Hygelac.

    48. e welcomes you here to Heorot And salutes your arrival from across the sea.

      Permission to meet the king.

    49. retainers

      A fee paid in advanced to someone in order to keep their services when required.

    50. herald

      Officer of arms ranking above a persuivant and below king of arms.

    51. May the Almighty Father keep you and in His kindness Watch over your exploits. I

      The danes at this time were a religious people.

    52. “Anyone with gumption And a sharp mind will take the measure Of two things: what’s said and what’s done.

      Super wise! I will remember this quote!

    53. come to proffer My wholehearted help and counsel. I can show the wise Hrothgar a way To defeat his enemy and find respite

      Beowulf states his reason for coming to the land.

    54. word-hoard


    55. Heorot

      The mead hall

    56. Cain’s clan

      This is a reference to a bible story in Genesis. In the story, God asks for a sacrifice. Two brothers, Cain and Able mush each give God their best products. Abel gives his best products. Cain does not. God finds favor in Abels gift because he sacrificed his best. Cain kills Abel out of Jealousy. When God finds out of Cains sin, he curses Cain and sends him away from the land. He marks him so that all can see that Cain is cursed. This curse is to pass on to his decedents.

    57. The fortunes of war favored Hrothgar.


    58. revered

      Feel deep respect or admiration.

    59. scourge

      A person or thing that causes great suffering.

    60. Spear-Danes

      Tells that the people are Danish.

    61. Because of his courage when he killed the dragon,

      I think this is a very important song the Thane is singing. It is a foreshadow of the dragon to come. Beowulf is an addict to glory. He cannot stop himself. like an addict. It even foreshadows the consequences of such an need for glory.

    62. Heremod

      Definition used from Google: A figure from Norse mythology, famous for slaying a dragon. His story is told in praise of Beowulf and foreshadows Beowulf's encounter with the dragon. Term. King Heremod.

    63. There was a feud one time, begun by your father. With his own hands he had killed Heatholaf, 460 Who was a Wulfing; so war was looming And his people, in fear of it, forced him to leave. He came away then over rolling waves To the South Danes here, the sons of honor. I was then in the full flush of kingship, Establishing my sway over all the rich strongholds Of this heroic land. Heorogar, My older brother and the better man, Also a son of Halfdane’s, had died. Finally I healed the feud by paying: 470 I shipped a treasure-trove to the Wulfings And Ecgtheow acknowledged me with oaths of allegiance.

      The history of war between Hrthgars father and beowulfs.