274 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2017
    1. blood prior to 1990 at risk for contracting HCV

      again, you have a cool story, make sure you tell it. e.g., Prior to 1990, blood donations were not screened for HCV and as a consequence, xxxx number of people contracted HCV through blood transfusions. Donor screening has decreased HCV infection through blood transfusions to XXX.

    2. frequent screening vital to controlling the virus (S

      you might want to put these risk factors into little stories.

    3. 80% of intravenous drug users (I

      how many people is this do you expect? millions?

    4. demographic factors

      aka risk factors

    5. effects

      affects or infects

    6. HCV is typically spread from person to person by blood to blood contact, where the most common risk factors for contracting the virus are IV drug use and receiving a blood donation before 1990 (Lauer 41). There is also a risk of infection through sexual contact and needle sticks in the healthcare setting but these modes of transmission have a much lower rate of infection as compared to the other ways of spreading the virus (Lauer 41). Upon entering a newly infected host, HCV infects the liver when the envelope of the virus binds to receptors on the surface of the hepatocytes (Tang and Grisé 53). This causes endocytosis into the cell, which under the current understanding results in the pumping of hydrogen ions into the newly formed vesicle (Tang and Grisé 55). The acidification of this vesicle degrades the envelope and releases the RNA into the cytoplasm of the cell. From here it is translated and replicated creating new virus particles (Tang and Grisé 55).The large majority of people infected with HCV will develop viremia (74-86%), or the presence of virus within the bloodstream, and most of these individuals will go on to present with hepatic inflammation or fibrosis (Lauer 43). This involves swelling of the liver and addition of connective tissue to as a result of the trauma caused by the presence of the virus respectively. However, upon acute infection, individuals do not often present with symptoms, and can go as long as 30 years before showing signs of infection (Lauer 43). For this reason, it has been extremely difficult for researchers to track the history of the disease.

      save all of this until the molecular portion....it's too much for an overview.

    7. ntering a newly infected host, HCV infects th

      the act of entering results in infection, not the other way around

    8. to the other ways of spreading the vir

      do you mean blood transfer? i would repeat that here so your reader doesn't have to remember.

    9. HCV is typically spread from person to person by blood to blood contact, where the most common risk factors for contracting the virus are IV drug use and receiving a blood donation before 19

      what disease does it cause? why should we care about this virus?

    10. Overview of Hepatitis C Virus

      maybe put this later when we start getting into the molecular stuff

    11. CV) is a member of the flaviviruses meaning it is composed of an envelope surrounding one continuous segment of RNA that codes for a single protein that is later processed to form all of the proteins needed by the virus (Lauer 42). T

      this is all true but is it really how you want to start discussing this very cool virus?

    12. fairly significant prevalence

      that definitely needs some numbers. I have no idea what fairly significant means!

    1. Hosts that can carry the influenza virus are humans, horses, pigs, along with many avian species4. Many of the common influenza reservoirs that carry human infectious subtypes are either huma

      maybe discuss that MOST influenza type A strains that are dangerous to us are found in birds and pigs (or other animals) and that we are often accidental.

    2. n

      please refer to the figure if you are going to include it and make sure it is at the same level as your writing (this is very molecular).

    3. tems the flu can cause death.

      that isn't always true. the spanish flu pandemic was more fatal in healthy young people than in older. Also, the most recent flu pandemic targeted young people particularly.

    4. flu vaccine h

      I think the vaccine would be an important "global perspective" to share. Maybe expound on that.

    5. In humans influenza viruses are located in a person’s respiratory tract2. The most common portal of exit is by coughing or sneezing4. Direct contact, fomites, airborne, or transfer of bodily fluids are all modes of transmission for the influenza virus. This virus is easily spread and can be spread over a long period of time4. Adults can spread the virus for 3 to 5 days while children can spread it for up to 7 days4. Influenza enters the human body through the respiratory tract and its ultimate location depends on what kind of influenza it is. Human to human influenza infects the upper respiratory tract while avian influenza infects the lower respiratory tract. Once infected a person develops symptoms such as fever, sore throat, body aches, coughing, headaches, fatigue, along with vomiting and diarrhea5.

      you have a lot of ideas here. Maybe break it up into symptoms, viral entry (RT), timeline of infection, and spread.

    6. In humans influenza viruses are located in a person’s respiratory tract2. The most common portal of exit is by coughing or sneezing4. Direct contact, fomites, airborne, or transfer of bodily fluids are all modes of transmission for the influenza virus. This virus is easily spread and can be spread over a long period of time4. Adults can spread the virus for 3 to 5 days while children can spread it for up to 7 days4.

      ummm...redundant to following paragraph?

    7. ducks, geese, and shorebirds

      this is almost a direct lift from this site. you need to be VERY careful not to do that

    8. proteins

      proteins don't settle in the RT, viruses do. Why are you bringing up these proteins here? You should explain H3N2 in the context of these proteins, not separately.

    9. Spanish influenza, Asian influenza, and Hong-Kong influenza

      maybe break these out and explain them or don't call them out. you are talking about them as if everyone should know about them already.

    10. mong humans

      since you make this distinction, where are the other types? what do they infect?

    11. mainly strain A

      are there other types? why call out type A if you don't differentiate between other types.

    12. greater

      more than is better

    13. people each yea

      in the US or worldwide?

    1. being from the first outbreak in 1967

      how many people total?

    2. rotein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates, called serum,

      maybe start with serum from previously infected people and then work your way up to the details of how to get serum. what is in this magical elixir?

    3. low blood pressure (

      how do you die? how many people die? what is hemorrhagic fever?

    4. immediately

      give times

    5. almost anyone

      why not talk about how you might get exposed...what do you mean by almost anyone? do you mean most people are susceptable?

    6. mmon in laboratories

      attach some numbers here. how many people affected? maybe relate the viral importance to it's close cousin ebola.

    7. the plasma membrane of the infected host cell (M

      why is this important here? why does your reader need to know about the structure of the virus

    8. What is the Marburg virus?

      maybe start with the disease instead of the virus. You want to hook your reader.

    1. Overview

      Overall, I'd like you to break your sentences into single ideas. Reference every sentence that isn't your own thought Keep your tone even. If you start global, stay there.

    2. les virus s

      this image should be saved for later since you do not refer to it in your text. I also expected you would talk about vaccination rates and disease prevalence more and molecular stuff less.

    3. ted with measles

      I think you can tell more of a story here and less of a list of things you should know about measles.

    4. s after the primary infection.

      this is interesting but you may want to bring that up in association with the vaccine to measles.

    5. symptoms heightening wi

      maybe put symptoms before incubation times.

    6. long

      how long?

    7. short

      how short?

    8. The measles virus is a spherical, envelope, non-segmented single stranded RNA virus that is member of the Morbillivirus genus and the Paramyxoviridae family. This virus contains approximately 16000 nucleotides and encodes for eight proteins (155). When first entering into the person the virus first comes into contact with the lung tissue where it attacks the immune system and its associated cells. These cells are macrophages and dendritic cells which serve as an early defense and warning system. From the lungs the virus migrate to the lymph nodes which contain B and T cells. The virus contains cell receptors CD26 and CD150 (SLAM) which are help to signal the lymphatic system into action. CD46 is a regulatory molecule found on cells with nucleus in the human body while SLAM can be found on active T and B lymphocytes (155). SLAM is also found on the surface on white blood cells and this functions as the point of entry. The virus then takes some of the host cell’s membrane to make its envelope allowing the virus to hide from the immune system. These infected T and B cells then migrate throughout the body thus infecting the whole body with the measles disease (156).

      Way too much molecular information for a broad overview. Keep this information for later. The only info in this part should be global and broad.

    9. n areas which are densely populated with low vaccination coverage the virus primarily affects infants and young children.

      you have a lot of ideas embedded in each sentence of your paragraph. I suggest you break them into smaller sentences with only one idea per sentence. maybe start with bullet points so you can arrange them easily.

    10. 153

      instead of the page, why not just refer to the paper...the pages are not that important.

    11. ancestral zoonotic

      what do you mean by this?


      Overall, I'd like you to break down your sentences into single ideas.<br> Reference every sentence that isn't your idea (yes, every sentence). Choose to include those things that are most about the disease and global implications of viral infection.

    2. s of January and M

      why during these months?

    3. outbreak,

      can you mention disease prevalence and mortality? give your audience some perspective

    4. Pteropus hypomelanus, P. vampyrus, Cynopterus brachyotis, Eonycteris spelaea, and an Insectivorous bat, Scotophilus kuhlii.

      how does knowing this help your audience understand the virus broadly?

    5. Pteropus

      do we need to know this for this broad overview or is fruit bat enough?

    6. e same genus

      why is this important to you? what are the confusing parts?

    7. es 3-14 days after infection

      I count six ideas in a single sentence. I suggest you break your sentences apart into single ideas first, then combine them into 2 ideas only.

    8. attention

      do you mean to say "name" here?

    9. 1999

      maybe start with something your audience can get into like what disease it causes and reference.

    1. patient receives

      you may want to chat briefly about vaccine development and use (since that's a hot topic right now). We rarely have medicine for these types of diseases. Our only hope is vaccines.

    2. 8 to 10 days

      you may want to include the symptoms that actually kill you. It's hard to imagine that folks will die from symptoms as tame as these.

    3. general malaise

      refs. also, you may want to bring up that most diseases in the tropics look like this

    4. showing symptoms

      or dead...don't forget dead people (presumably not showing symptoms other than death) are contagious.

    5. Ro

      Make sure you point out that the "o" is a zero, not an "o" because it is pronounced "R naught" or "R sub zero"

    6. sexual activity

      bring back the idea that all of these behaviors bring people in close contact with bodily fluids

    7. direct parental transmission

      don't know what that means and refs

    8. EVB

      what is EVB? compared to EBD? Make sure you differentiate between virus and the disease it causes

    9. contraction

      transmission is a better word here

    10. or their blood


    11. 70 percent of infected persons died from Ebola.

      out of how many? add numbers to add weight to your statement

    12. wild animals

      which wild animals?

  2. Apr 2017
    1. A curriculum without strong consensus makes no sense.”

      Radical change will be uncomfortable. If we don't push for change, we will spend another decade becoming less relevant.

    1. Review ARTICLE

      This is a reputable open source journal and the authors are at a reputable academic institution.

    2. similar molecular weight

      I wonder why the author thinks the molecular weight matters to the story here. Is there a clinical reason that the molecular weight would matter other than how the drug is prepared?

    3. compared to β-lactams, this slow activity is reflected also in the worse clinical outcomes of cases of MSSA bacteremia and pneumonia treated with vancomycin

      Why would slow activity be an issue for the patient?

    4. While vancomycin is bactericidal against all susceptible Gram-positive pathogens it exerts only bacteriostatic activity against enterococci and needs to be combined with another agent, usually an aminoglycoside, to achieve bactericidal activity.

      I am really interested in how the same compound could have differential effects on different organisms.

    5. bactericidal

      kills bacteria

    6. MIC

      Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (from Wikipedia with PICs)

    7. only a handful

      I wish there were numbers here to back this up....does a handful mean less than 5?

    8. trough serum levels

      what does this mean? I looked it up (wikipedia) and it is the dip in levels of Vanco in the blood. Dosing in Vanco treatment is timed to coincide with the dip so that the dosage stays high in the blood