10 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2016
    1. Let us tie the "what" and the "how" of literacy pedagogy back to the large agenda with which we began this article: focusing on Situated Practices in the learning process involves the recognition that differences are critical in workplaces, civic spaces, and multilayered lifeworlds. Classroom teaching and curriculum have to engage with students' own experiences and discourses, which are increasingly defined by cultural and subcultural diversity and the different language backgrounds and practices that come with this diversity. Overt Instruction is not intended to tell - to empower students in relation to the "grammar" of one proper, standard, or powerful language form. It is meant to help students develop a metalanguage that accounts for Design differences. Critical Framing involves linking these Design differences to different cultural purposes. Transformed Practice involves moving from one cultural context to another; for example, redesigning meaning strategies so they can be transferred from one cultural situation to another.

      Literacy has the ability to take on many different forms depending on where you are and what you are doing. So often times, it can't always be tied back to school learning, so that is why the idea and ability to shift from situated practice to transformed practice is helpful in understanding literacy in a broader sense.

    2. Situated Practice: Immersion in experience and the utilization of available discourses, including those from the students' lifeworlds and simulations of the relationships to be found in workplaces and public spaces. Overt Instruction: Systematic, analytic, and conscious understanding. In the case of multiliteracies, this requires the introduction of explicit metalanguages, which describe and interpret the Design elements of different modes of meaning. Critical Framing: Interpreting the social and cultural context of particular Designs of meaning. This involves the students' standing back from what they are studying and viewing it critically in relation to its context. Transformed Practice: Transfer in meaning-making practice, which puts the transformed meaning to work in other contexts or cultural sites.

      The four major types of answering the "how" of the pedagogy of multiliteracies. After determining what we have to learn and what resources we have available, we can use that as well as the situation and environment to pick any of these forms to apply to the actual teaching process, or the transmission of the information from the teacher to the student(s).

    3. Available Designs Available Designs - the resources for Design - include the "grammars" of various semiotic systems: the grammars of languages, and the grammars of other semiotic systems such as film, photography, or gesture. Available Designs also include "orders of discourse" (Fairclough, 1995). An order of discourse is the structured set of conventions associated with semiotic activity (including use of language) in a given social space - a particular society, or a particular institution such as a school or a workplace, or more loosely structured spaces of ordinary life encapsulated in the notion of different lifeworlds. An order of discourse is a socially produced array of discourses, intermeshing and dynamically interacting. It is a particular configuration of Design elements. An order of discourse can be seen as a particular configuration of such elements. It may include a mixture of different semiotic systems - visual and aural semiotic systems in combination with language constitute the order of discourse of TV, for instance. It may involve the grammars of several languages - the orders of discourse of many schools, for example.

      The Available Designs in a particular setting is arguably the most vital portion of the process. It is worthy to be talked about, because in order to begin designing or come up with a finished product, one must first realize what is available. It could consist of grammars as well as a series of other aspects. In order to come to the conclusion of what is available, society, institution or workplace have to bet taken into effect. This likely varied in the diverse group that were in attendance to this group study.

    4. Designs of Meaning   Available Designs: Resources for meaning; Available Designs of meaning   Designing:  The work performed on/with Available Designs in the  semiotic process   The Redesigned:  The resources that are reproduced and transformed Dimensions of Meaning

      "Design", which is used to describe the "what" of pedagogy of multiliteracies, basically is the processes and environments for learning and applying these multiliteracies. Instead of seeing the teachers as all knowing and simply telling the student what to do, by thinking of it as a design helps to involve the student and allows them to actually gain knowledge from there learning. In order to efficiently study design (the "what"), one must first determine the Available Designs which are the resources, the process of actually Designing or putting the information into a way that can be learned, and finally we come across the Redesigned which is the final product or revised product. This product is what is being learned, this is why Design is important.

    5. Although this article was very detailed and served its purposes in answering the questions it posed at the beginning, it is crucial to acknowledge that this is only the start of an intense and in-depth research topic.. Because literacy can cross into various areas of study, this topic could never be condensed to just one article and the pedagogy of multiliteracies is an open-ended study.

    6. In relation to the new environment of literacy pedagogy, we need to reopen two fundamental questions: the "what" of literacy pedagogy, or what it is that students need to learn; and the "how" of literacy pedagogy, or the range of appropriate learning relationships.

      This is an important sentence of the overall article. Here, we shift from simply discussing multiliteracies to tackling the real subject at end: the pedagogy of literacies/mulitliteracies. Schools and education seem to be at the forefront of the conversation of what is happening to literacy. The first thing that must be determined is what questions to ask to when discussing this. "What" we are being taught and "How" we are being taught are particularly important to figure the whole thing out. I would even expand the argument as to ask "why" these things are being taught just as justification or reasoning.

    7. In responding to the radical changes in working life that are currently underway, we need to tread a careful path that provides students the opportunity to develop skills for access to new forms of work through learning the new language of work. But at the same time, as teachers, our role is not simply to be technocrats. Our job is not to produce docile, compliant workers. Students need to develop the capacity to speak up, to negotiate, and to be able to engage critically with the conditions of their working lives.

      Engagement with the literacies is just as important as the way we get them across. It is not enough to be a technical writer and use writing tools and techniques properly and efficiently if you lack the knowledge of the actual topic or are unable to produce the information without aid. It is important not to get lost in technology and also be able to preserve your actual memory of subjects.

    8. Second, we decided to use the term "multiliteracies" as a way to focus on the realities of increasing local diversity and global connectedness. Dealing with linguistic differences and cultural differences has now become central to the pragmatics of our working, civic, and private lives. Effective citizenship and productive work now require that we interact effectively using multiple languages, multiple Englishes, and communication patterns that more frequently cross cultural, community, and national boundaries.

      With the world we live in today, especially without pouring use of fast media, such as social networks, it is important for us to understand "multiliteracies" as well as make them applicable in everyday situations. And this may not even pertain to different countries or different languages but could change from different work forces, like in the way we get our thoughts across using general English, but a law firm may use Legal English (Legalese) in their exchange.

    9. The first relates to the increasing multiplicity and integration of significant modes of meaning-making, where the textual is also related to the visual, the audio, the spatial, the behavioral, and so on.

      To have these several modes of rhetoric to portray information is key because their usefulness depends on the situation. Whereas some situations may cause for one type, other circumstances may need a different or a combination of two or more. Having these different ways to express literacy are essential for it to be used in society.

    10.    Being ten distinctly different people, we brought to this discussion a great variety of national, life, and professional experiences. Courtney Cazden from the United States has spent a long and highly influential career working on classroom discourse, on language learning in multilingual contexts, and, most recently, on literacy pedagogy. Bill Cope, from Australia, has written curricula addressing cultural diversity in schools, and has researched literacy pedagogy and the changing cultures and discourses of workplaces. From Great Britain, Norman Fairclough is a theorist of language and social meaning, and is particularly interested in linguistic and discursive change as part of social and cultural change. James Gee, from the United States, is a leading researcher and theorist on language and mind, and on the language and learning demands of the latest "fast capitalist" workplaces. Mary Kalantzis, an Australian, has been involved in experimental social education and literacy curriculum projects, and is particularly interested in citizenship education. Gunther Kress, from Great Britain, is best known for his work on language and learning, semiotics, visual literacy, and the multimodal literacies that are increasingly important to all communication, particularly the mass media. Allan Luke, from Australia, is a researcher and theorist of critical literacy who has brought sociological analysis to bear on the teaching of reading and writing. Carmen Luke, also from Australia, has written extensively on feminist pedagogy. Sarah Michaels, from the United States, has had extensive experience in developing and researching programs of classroom learning in urban settings. Martin Nakata, an Australian, has researched and written on the issue of literacy in indigenous communities.

      This was an important and diverse quality to have. These different groups of people had the ability to share their various experiences with literacy based on there demographic location as well as their particular field of study. Because multiplicity was a key discussion in this article, it is important to realize that literacy is defined, learned, and practiced differently in different cultures, as well as different parts of the world. It is also taken on in a different perspective in this article by not only being discussed in an academic or essay-writing realm, but also a social aspect, too.