9 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2017
    1. A present-day example of architectural exclusion comes in the form of decisions about where to place transit stops. Throughout the United States, many moderate- and high-income individuals travel—to their jobs, to events, to see friends, and to shop—in a private vehicle.120 In contrast, although people of all socioeconomic groups use public transit—buses, subways, and light rail—in larger metropolitan areas, low-income people and people of color often rely more heavily on public transportation than people from other groups.121 Those individuals therefore have a hard time reaching areas that are underserved by transit.

      I also believe that transit stops throughout the city and entire country plays significant role on architectural exclusion in our country. Good example of this would be, a MARTA bus doesn't in the white wealthy neighborhood, and there is no stops no where near it, and if it is , then it could on the opposite site from the neighborhood.

    2. Another divider was an approximately ten-foot-high, 1,500-foot-long fence that separated the racially diverse (though predominantly white) suburb of Hamden, Connecticut, from the primarily black public housing projects in New Haven.97 Although the fence was finally removed in May 2014, while it was in place, residents in the public housing were extremely isolated from the surrounding community.98 In order “to buy groceries at a Hamden shopping center three miles away,” the public housing residents would “have to travel into New Haven to get around the fence, a 7.7-mile trip that takes two buses and up to two hours to complete.”99 The fence was originally erected by the city of Hamden in the 1950s to keep crime in the New Haven projects out of Hamden.100 As recently as 2012, calls to remove the fence were met with resistance from Hamden residents who “described the robberies and traffic overflow they said would result from opening the fence.”101 Hamden agreed to remove the fence only after the New Haven Housing Authority threatened to “sue Hamden on civil rights grounds.”102 A similar eight-foot-tall spiked fence was installed in 1998 around a public housing project in Hollander Ridge in Baltimore.103 This fence, which was constructed by the local housing authority with funding from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), blocked access to and through Rosedale, a contiguous, mostly white neighborhood.104 The Rosedale residents wanted the fence to keep out crime and keep their property values up, and “there was a not insubstantial vocal segment of the Rosedale whose racist views were made readily apparent.”105

      Racial segregation still exists today. White wealthy communities living up north in our city, while poor blacks and other minorities live in the south, and design of the city prevents poor minorities from entering the neighborhoods up north.

    3. A municipality that lacks sufficient connections between different parts of the community is often exclusionary because residents are deterred from traveling. For example, sidewalks make walking easier and safer, in large part by reducing the risk of pedestrian and vehicle collisions.85 However, many communities lack sidewalks and crosswalks, making it difficult to cross the street or walk through a neighborhood. Sometimes this is intentional.86 For example, in his book detailing continuing racism and intentionally white communities in the United States, James Loewen describes architectural exclusion in some towns where “[s]idewalks and bike paths are rare and do not connect to those in other communities inhabited by residents of lower social and racial status.”87 If someone wanted to walk or bike to another area, then, it might have to be along the shoulder of a busy road or on the road itself.

      I live outside of the city and I don't have a car to get around, I wish there were side walks, long but sidewalks, because it is so hard to get around when don't live in the city. Even in the here in Atlanta isn't that many sidewalks, we have to rely on public transportation instead. This decisions by developers of city design aren't good, because they limit people's ability to get around city, if they don't have a car.

    4. The architecture of the built environment directs both physical movement through and access to places. This Part details a number of ways that states and municipalities—through actions by their residents, police force, planning staff, engineers, or local elected officials—have created infrastructure and designed their built environs to restrict passage through and access to other areas of the community. A number of specific exclusionary techniques have been used to keep people out, including physical barriers to access, the siting of transit and transportation infrastructure, and the organization of residential neighborhoods. While some of these designs expressly serve to exclude those who are unwanted, others have that effect indirectly. This Part will examine a number of these methods of exclusion. A. Physical Barriers to Access

      Reading this part I realized that architectural exclusion is everywhere, whether it's apartments, highways, parks, or even sidewalks, everything was design to the smallest detail, to prevent people access restricted areas.

    5. Although regulation through architecture is just as powerful as law, it is less identifiable and less visible to courts, legislators, and potential plaintiffs.77 While this observation suggests that decision makers should be even more diligent in analyzing the impact of architecture, research demonstrates that they often fail to take it seriously.78 To be clear, officials may understand that an architectural decision could have an exclusionary effect—they might even intend that result—but they generally do not see their decisions as a form of regulation that should be analyzed and patrolled in the same way that a law with the same effect would be. Exclusion through architecture should be subject to scrutiny that is equal to that afforded to other methods of exclusion by law.79

      I think we should not have exclusion in architecture towards minorities, it is unethical and not right, because with public transit unable to reach ends of the city, specifically our city of Atlanta, job opportunities become unreachable for those people, not everyone can afford buying a car.

    6. they understand that traditional architects of the built environment influence our experience of the built environment.55 Traditional architecture is not just a useful metaphor for exposing hidden regulatory systems. It is regulation. Consequently, it makes even more sense to apply the concept of regulation through architecture to the built environment than it does to apply it to the Internet or structuring decisions.56 Although this may appear to be a banal observation, few in the legal community have discussed architecture itself as a regulatory tool.

      I personally believe that set regulations on where the new business will be build and what type of business will it be can have a huge impact on communities around it, companies responsible for this businesses should discuss terms and conditions with communities so both can benefit from it.

    7. For example, a cafeteria manager who places healthier food items in a more visible and accessible location than junk food in order to nudge people toward healthier choices is guiding actions through architectural decisions. These architectural decisions create architectural constraints: features of the built environment that function to control human behavior or hinder access—the embodiment of architectural exclusion.

      Great example of human behavior, putting healthier foods on more visible place than junk food, so people can make healthier choices, I think we can say that about modern Architecture in the city as well. Not letting homeless people sleep on benches, apartment corners, not letting skate guys skate on the ledges by installing things throughout city, forcing people to make better choices not necessarily for them but for others.

    8. That a highway divides two neighborhoods limits the extent to which the neighborhoods integrate. That a town has a square, easily accessible with a diversity of shops, increases the integration of residents in that town. That Paris has large boulevards limits the ability of revolutionaries to protest. That the Constitutional Court in Germany is in Karlsruhe, while the capital is in Berlin, limits the influence of one branch of government over the other. These constraints function in a way that shapes behavior. In this way, they too regulate.50

      We never pay attention to the layout of our cities until we start studying vernacular or any architecture, then it surprises us, just like it did me. I never thought that Paris would have small boulevards on purpose, (to prevent big protests). That is a very clever idea. Now can see that in our city as well, wealthy neighborhoods have limited access for public transportation and so on.

    9. We often experience our physical environment without giving its features much thought. For example, one might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people—often homeless people—from lying down and taking naps.27 Similarly, upon seeing a bridge, or a one-way street, or a street sign, many people tend to think that these are just features of a place—innocuous and normal.

      Here we can see that, some people my think that Architecture of modern city, such as benches in particular, made to not give homeless people ability to sleep on them, by adding hands on them, but I personally think that it could also means, having your own seat, just like classrooms, be individual.