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  1. May 2021
    1. T

      Then, in order to get a better understanding of which actions can be considered voluntary, Ar. begins to delineate those actions which are forced or counter-voluntary. His view is that actions are involuntary if forced or performed in ignorance, and actions are forced if the cause or impetus of the action began external to the agent and if the agent contributes nothing to the action. Thus, in so-called mixed cases where agents willingly perform actions which seem counter to their desire, the action is ultimately voluntary, since the origin of the action is in the agent. Furthermore, we often praise and blame appropriately in these situations, recognizing the difficulty of the circumstances while still considering the actions of the agent to be voluntary. Lastly, the pursuit of pleasure and fine things does not force us, as we are free to judge for ourselves whether we do a thing, and because that judgment comes from us, we are not forced to purse pleasure.

      1110a1- 1110b15 The counter-voluntary... for shameful ones.