- Dec 2015
An international mechanism to address loss and damage is hereby defined under this agreement/protocol and shall be bound by the principles and provisions of the Convention, in particular common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. The purpose of the mechanism shall be to promote and support the development and implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, inter alia, extreme events and slow onset events, in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The international mechanism on loss and damage shall draw upon, further develop and elaborate on the work of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage pursuant to relevant COP decisions, including the development of modalities and procedures for the mechanism’s operation and support. It can involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the Convention, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, and be informed by relevant precedents in international law.
In the Paris agreement, President Tommy Remengesau, Palau, called for inter alia: a regular review process that drives ambition; robust transparency rules; and a permanent loss and damage mechanism.
Calling for resolute action, President Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Mauritius, said the Paris agreement should, inter alia: respect and maintain the principles of equity and CBDR; and treat adaptation and loss and damage as separate components of the agreement, anchoring loss and damage in it as a permanent mechanism.
Prime Minister Enele Sosene Sopoaga, Tuvalu, called for a permanent mechanism for loss and damage to be anchored in the “treaty” and easy access to predictable finance.
Article 7 (technology development and transfer)
President Ali Bongo Ondimba, Gabon, urged parties to “act in order not to be responsible for something that we still can avoid,” and called for technology transfer in the areas of agriculture, forestry and clean energy, suggesting this is “the price of shared responsibility.”
The nationally determined [mitigation] [contribution] [commitment] shall be legally binding on that Party upon entry into force of this Agreement for that Party.]
President Vladimir Putin, Russian Federation, highlighted that it is possible to ensure economic development and take care of the environment, saying Russia stands ready to exchange energy efficiency solutions. He called for the new climate agreement to build on the principles of the UNFCCC, be legally-binding and include participation of developing countries.
Progression/ambition Each Party’s successive [NDMC*][INDC] [shall][should][will] represent a progression beyond the Party’s previous efforts and reflect its highest possible ambition [based on common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities [[and] in light of different national circumstances [and best available science]] [based on provision of finance, technology and capacity-building to developing countries].3
Noting that current INDCs are voluntary and thus far not ambitious enough to attain the 2°C temperature goal, a goal insufficient for small island nations, Chancellor Angela Merkel, Germany, called for a binding review mechanism with a five-year cycle to begin in 2020 to ensure credibility and increased ambition.
equitable distribution of a global carbon budget based on historical responsibilities and [climate] justice]
President Maithripala Sirisena, Sri Lanka, emphasized the necessity of deep cuts in global emissions, considering the principle of historical responsibility, and said that technology transfer will ensure adaptation and nationally suitable mitigation actions in developing countries.
[the integrity of Mother Earth
President Evo Morales, Bolivia, shared the outcome of the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, which took place in October 2015, in Cochabamba, Bolivia, and called on COP 21 to address capitalism, which he emphasized as the origin of the climate crisis.
[All Parties [shall] regularly prepare, communicate [and implement] [intended] nationally determined [contributions][components] [on [mitigation] and adaptation] [undertakings in adaptation planning] [and means of implementation]* [towards achieving the [purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2] [objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2],] [in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention] [in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement including the specific provisions related to mitigation and adaptation and means of implementation.]]
Saying that COP 21 builds on the “historic and bold decisions taken at COP 17,” President Jacob Zuma, South Africa, called for a legally-binding agreement based on equity and differentiation that will enable ambitious action through the provision of means of implementation (MOI).
[For the purpose of meeting a portion of its mitigation commitment under Article 3, any Party may elect to use certified units (CU) generated under the new market-based mechanism defined under decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 83, subject to the adoption by the CMA of modalities and procedures elaborating each of the elements in decision 1/CP.18 paragraph 51, and the adoption of eligibility rules for participation which promote fair and equitable access for all Parties. These modalities and procedures shall ensure that the design and operation of the mechanism delivers net global emission reductions, through the cancellation of a share of units generated, transferred, used or acquired from offsetting activities.]
President Park Geun-hye, Republic of Korea, underscored the importance of a global carbon market that brings together developed and developing countries.
The purpose of the REDD-plus mechanism shall be to incentivize the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and to promote conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries, while enhancing the non-carbon benefits derived as a result of the multiple functions of forests, including alleviating poverty and building ecosystem resilience.
President Juan Hernández, Honduras, called for, inter alia, making the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ and WIM binding, and stressed the global average temperature rise should not exceed 1.5°C above the pre-industrial era.
Prime Minister Erna Solberg, Norway, announced that her country would double its contribution to the GCF by 2020 in the context of verifiable emissions reductions from REDD+.
President Juan Carlos Varela, Panama, proposed setting up an international center for facilitating a network of public and private actors to combat deforestation, promote sustainable forestry and reduce carbon emissions.
Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;
President Abdel Fattah El Sisi, Egypt, said the new agreement should: not harm African countries’ efforts to eradicate poverty, or their right to develop; be based on the principle of CBDR; include a commitment that global average temperature increase not exceed 1.5°C; and include a global target on adaptation.
President Christopher Loeak, the Marshall Islands, underscored that current contributions are not enough to limit warming to 1.5°C, saying nations should reset their targets every five years.
President Uhuru Kenyatta, Kenya, supported a long-term global goal of a maximum 1.5°C temperature increase and continuing the Convention’s financial mechanism and the WIM.
President Issoufou Mahamadou, Niger, stressed the need for: increased resilience of peoples and ecosystems; ambitious global efforts to limit global temperature rise to below 1.5°C; balancing mitigation and adaptation finance; and developed countries to take the lead according to the polluter pays principle.
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell, Grenada called for, inter alia: a protocol based on the principles of the Convention and with a goal of maintaining global temperature rise below 1.5°C; ambitious mitigation efforts to be reviewed as of 2018 and renewed every five years; and anchoring loss and damage in the agreement.
[Article 3ter] (mechanism to support sustainable development)
President Filip Vujanović, Montenegro, emphasized the links between the expected Paris agreement with the Sustainable Development Goals and the outcome of the Financing for Development Summit.
President Xi Jinping, China, stressed that the Paris agreement should: follow the principles and focus on the full implementation of the UNFCCC; create institutional arrangements that compel concerted efforts; respect differences in countries’ economic structures and capacities; and not deny the legitimate needs of developing countries to improve living standards and develop economically.
Option 1: [The mobilization of climate finance [shall][should][other] be scaled up [in a predictable and transparent manner] [beyond previous efforts] [from USD 100 billion per year] from 2020[, recognizing the important role of the Green Climate Fund in the scaling up of financial resources for the implementation of this agreement, as well as other multilateral mechanisms and other efforts].] Option 2: [The provision and mobilization of financial resources by developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall represent a progression beyond their previous efforts towards achieving short-term collective quantified goals for the post 2020 period to be periodically established and reviewed. Financial resources shall be scaled up from a floor of US$100 billion per year, including a clear burden-sharing formula [among them], and in line with needs and priorities identified by developing country Parties [including Parties whose special circumstances were recognized by COP decisions] in the context of contributing to the achievement of the [objective][purpose] (Article 2/XX) of this Agreement.
Noting that the Paris agreement must reflect equity and fairness, President Joko Widodo, Indonesia, called for progress on the mobilization of US$100 billion, noting that the commitment should be increased going forward.
President Simonetta Sommaruga, Switzerland, advocated a new climate agreement that is legally-binding, ambitious and based on the same obligations and rules for all parties. She announced a 75% increase in Switzerland’s annual contribution to the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).
King Norodom Sihamoni, Cambodia, called for: maintaining the impetus provided by the initial capitalization of the GCF; funding for LDCs; and stimulating private investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency.
An International Tribunal of Climate Justice is hereby established to address cases of non-compliance with the commitments of developed country Parties on mitigation, adaptation, provision of finance, technology development and transfer, capacity-building, and transparency of action and support, including through the development of an indicative list of consequences, taking into account the cause, type, degree and frequency of non-compliance.
President Rafael Correa Delgado, Ecuador, called for free access to mitigation technologies and the creation of an international court for environmental justice.
Option 1: communication to 5 year time period Every 5 years, harmonised [NDMC*][INDC] Each Party shall [[communicate its [successive] [new]] [update its] [NDMC][INDC] by [year x]   and every five years thereafter on a [synchronized][common] basis, [or resubmit an existing [NDMC][INDC]] [for the subsequent five-year time frame], taking into account the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 10.
In the Paris agreement, President Sauli Niinistö, Finland called for: a clear goal; common rules on transparency and accountability; and stocktaking every five years.
In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 2, of the Convention, developed country Parties and other Parties included in Annex I shall undertake quantified economy-wide absolute emission reduction and limitation commitments/targets, which are comparable, measurable, reportable and verifiable, cover all greenhouse gases and are implemented domestically without any conditions. 3bis. In accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7, of the Convention, developing country Parties should undertake diversified enhanced mitigation actions/efforts in a measurable, reportable, and verifiable manner, in the context of sustainable development and supported and enabled by the provision of adequate finance, technology and capacity-building by developed country Parties.
In the morning, President Ollanta Humala, Peru, urged leaders to empower their negotiators to produce an ambitious and equitable agreement with, inter alia, verifiable and progressive mitigation actions.