29 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. M. E. Power, W. J. Matthews, A. J. Stewart, Ecology 66, 1448 (1985)

      This seminal paper on the indirect effects of predation in freshwater rivers demonstrated that the trophic cascades previously seen in marine and terrestrial systems also held true for river ecosystems.

  2. Jun 2018
    1. N. G. Hairston, F. E. Smith, L. B. Slobodkin, Am. Nat. 94, 421 (1960)

      The authors highlight lines of reasoning to underscore the importance of predators as top-down controls: 1) the rate of planetary fossil fuel accumulation over time has not been minuscule as compared to the rate of photosynthesis in the same systems; 2) given this, decomposers must be food-limited otherwise fossil fuels would build up at higher rates; 3) in terrestrial systems, plants are typically not herbivore-controlled nor are they regularly destroyed by weather but are controlled by bottom-up factors such as light, water, and nutrients; 4) terrestrial herbivores are therefore typically not limited by their food supply, even in areas where the primary consumers are overabundant; 5) herbivore populations are therefore controlled by predators.

    2. J. Terborgh et al., Science 294, 1923 (2001)

      In this natural experiment, a result of a hydroelectric dam flooding a rainforest in Venezuela, researchers were able to measure the results of predator removal in isolated communities. Top-down regulation of these communities were discovered with drastic trophic cascades observed.

    3. R. T. Paine, J. Anim. Ecol. 49, 667 (1980)

      A discussion of food webs, trophic relationships, species connectedness, and whether community structure and stability could be modeled based on these ideas.

    4. J. A. Estes, D. O. Duggins, Ecol. Monogr. 65, 75 (1995).

      In this observational study of 153 sites, over the course of 3-15 years, the importance of sea otters to the community structure of the kelp forests of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska. Without sea otters, the kelp forests collapsed due to overgrazing by urchins and other herbivores, leading to implications for numerous other organisms in the system. With sea otter predation on urchins, the kelp system was stable and supported a much higher diversity of organisms at all trophic levels (Fig 3).

    5. R. T. Paine, Am. Nat. 103, 91 (1969)

      In this letter, Paine notes the importance of predators to community stability not only to the system that he studied (the intertidal of the Pacific Northwest) but also that of other simple or complex systems worldwide.

  3. Dec 2017
    1. J. E. K. Byrnes, L. Gamfeldt, F. Isbell, J. S. Lefcheck, J. N. Griffin, A. Hector, B. J. Cardinale, D. U. Hooper, L. E. Dee, J. E. Duffy, Investigating the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality: Challenges and solutions. Methods Ecol. Evol. 5, 111–124 (2014).

      Byrne's review focuses on the impacts of assemblage diversity on ecosystem functions.

      This study acknowledges the impact of diversity on resource utilization and thus productivity, however the focus is on the characterization of multi-functionality.

    2. C. Fissore, J. Espeleta, E. A. Nater, S. E. Hobbie, P. B. Reich, Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset fossil-fuel emissions in the upper midwestern US. Front. Ecol. Environ. 8, 409–413 (2010).

      Fissore's review argues that carbon sequester by forests in the mid-west can not off set fossil fuel based carbon dioxide emissions. The study compares hypothetical scenarios necessary to offset significant proportions of the carbon dioxide emissions by converting landscapes into carbon sequestering species.

    3. R. F. Follett, Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil Tillage Res. 61, 77–92 (2001).

      Follett discusses the role organic soils play in the movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the soil. This review characterizes terrestrial soils as carbon sinks which is important for crop management.

    4. P. B. Reich, D. Tilman, S. Naeem, D. S. Ellsworth, J. Knops, J. Craine, D. Wedin, J. Trost, Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 10101–10106 (2004).

      Reich compares the role of CO2 and N on species richness and functional group diversity.

      This study compares the roles of functional group diversity and species richness has on biomass accumulation in an elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen environment.

    5. R. Sedjo, B. Sohngen, Carbon sequestration in forests and soils, in Annual Review of Resource Economics, G. C. Rausser, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 2012), vol. 4, pp. 126–143

      Sejo discusses the role species richness plays in effecting economic value.

      This review puts emphasis on the role of biodiversity on marginal economic value represented as carbon storage for conservation efforts.

    6. D. A. Fornara, D. Tilman, Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. J. Ecol. 96, 314–322 (2008).

      Fornara reviews the mechanisms that control carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils.

      The review covers the relationships between biodiversity and carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils, with an emphasis on the c3 and c4 grasses.

    7. T. L. Daniels, Integrating forest carbon sequestration into a cap-and-trade program to reduce net CO2 emissions. J. Am. Plann. Assoc. 76, 463–475 (2010).

      Daniels reviews the role forests play in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. His focus however is primarily advocating for including carbon sequester by forests into management plans or a cap-and-trade program.

    8. A. D. Barnosky, N. Matzke, S. Tomiya, G. O. U. Wogan, B. Swartz, T. B. Quental, C. Marshall, J. L. McGuire, E. L. Lindsey, K. C. Maguire, B. Mersey, E. A. Ferrer, Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471, 51–57 (2011).

      Barnosky discusses the events known as mass extinctions and compares the rates of extinction for these events to modern rates of extinction. PB

    9. Increasing species richness from 1 to 10 had twice the economic value of increasing species richness from 1 to 2.

      Each additional degree of species richness is worth less than the previous degree of richness in terms of economic value. Therefore, the economic value does not increase in direct proportion with the species richness, although they are correlated.


    10. B. J. Cardinale, K. L. Matulich, D. U. Hooper, J. E. Byrnes, E. Duffy, L. Gamfeldt, P. Balvanera, M. I. O'Connor, A. Gonzalez, The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. Am. J. Bot. 98, 572–592 (2011).

      Cardinale reviews the roles of primary producer biodiversity with respect to ecological processes critical to the functionality and health of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. PB

    1. predicted secondary structure

      Villordo and peers (2015) studied the cycle of how mosquito viruses could quickly adapt to different human host environments. The changes in RNA structures were examined in the dengue virus during host adaptation. The researchers discovered that the 3’UTR of RNA is modified during host adaptation, such as duplicating the structure to accommodate for beneficial mutations.

    2. Musashi-1

      Sakakibara and peers studied the Musashi-1 protein within a mouse and associated the protein with neural development. Musashi-1 was found to be highly enriched within the central nervous system of mammalian cells, regulate stem cell translation, and can differentiate into neurons through regulation.

    3. interferes specifically with fetal brain development

      Li and others (2016) hypothesized that ZIKV can infect not only developing neuronal stem cells, but also adult brain cells. The results seen were that adults can be affected by the ZIKV. The adult would need to be triply deficient in the regulatory factor for interferon to allow the virus to take hold of the stem cells in the brain.

    4. interferes specifically with fetal brain development

      Li and others (2016) hypothesized that ZIKV can infect not only developing neuronal stem cells, but also adult brain cells. The results seen were that adults can be affected by the ZIKV. The adult would need to be triply deficient in the regulatory factor for interferon to allow the virus to take hold of the stem cells in the brain.

    5. effect on fetal neurodevelopment

      Cugola et al., (2016) found that ZIKV infects fetuses, causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and causes signs of microcephaly in mice. Data demonstrated that the infection of ZIKV into human brain organoids reduced proliferation and disrupted cortical layers. This indicates that ZIKV is able to cross the placenta and cause microcephaly by inducing apoptosis in cortical progenitor cells.

  4. Nov 2017
    1. it in-creases hyperexcitability in Abprecursor protein(APP) transgenic mice

      Side effects of phosphorylation

    2. n-hibition of p38aand p38bimproves Ab-induced

      inhibition may have a short term positive effect

    3. Accordingly, the depletion of tau prevents Abtoxicity in AD models (7–9). Ab-induced neuronalnetwork and synaptic dysfunction is associatedwith aberrant glutamatergic synaptic transmis-sion (10).N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–typeglutamatergic receptors (NRs) drive glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity (11)andmediateAbtoxicity by downstream responses that pro-mote neuronal dysfunction (12

      The steps that tau tangles interfere with in the transmittance of signals in the brain.

    4. Aberrant tau phosphorylation is the firststep in a cascade leading to its deposition and tocognitive dysfunction (4,5). Abis thought to trig-ger toxic events, including tau phosphorylation

      steps and relevance to Alzheimer's disea

  5. Oct 2017
    1. McCauley, D.J., Young, H.S., Dunbar, R.B., Estes, J.A., Semmens, B.X., and Micheli, F. (2012). Assessing the effects of large mobile predators on ecosystem connectivity. Ecol. Appl. 22, 1711–1717.

      This study states that sharks in the Palmyra Atoll find food in other habitats.


    2. Heithaus, M.R., Frid, A., Wirsing, A.J., and Worm, B. (2008). Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23, 202–210.

      The study explains how the effects of a high cost/ low reward way of life may affect an ecosystem -M.A.S

  6. Sep 2017
    1. Brown, J.H., Gillooly, J.F., Allen, A.P., Savage, V.M., and West, G.B. (2004). Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85, 1771–1789.

      Explains the metabolic equation used in the study -M.A.S.