33 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. R. L. Christiansen, G. Foulger, J. R. Evans, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 114, 1245–1256 (2002)

      In this research paper, the author presents their data of helium isotope analysis of rock samples from the Yellowstone region. They conclude that the analysis shows no evidence of a deep mantle origin of the collected samples.

    2. M. Broadley et al., Geochem. Perspect. Lett. 8, 26–30 (2018)

      In this research, the authors investigate the geochemical processes involving diamond formation within the Siberian cratonic lithosphere. They particularly study the halogen and noble gas geochemistry of fluids trapped in diamonds sampled from this region.

    3. J. C. VanDecar, D. E. James, M. Assumpção, Nature 378, 25–31 (1995)

      The author reports a seismic study of old parts of southeast Brazil and provides no concrete evidence of metamorphic rocks which are commonly found in regions occupied by subducted oceanic plates.

    4. F. Kaminsky, Earth Sci. Rev. 110, 127–147 (2012)

      There are several existing models of the Earth's formation. In this research, the author points out the discrepancies in the preconceived models and highlights the fact that the chemical compositions of the upper and lower mantle are different.

    5. M. D. Kurz, J. J. Gurney, W. J. Jenkins, D. E. Lott III, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 86, 57–68 (1987)

      In this paper, the authors have performed a series of experiments on diamond samples in order to ascertain the chemical composition and isotope variability of diamonds from the Orapa kimberlite.

    6. D. L. Anderson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 4822–4827 (1998)

      This research article debunks the popular outcomes of previous geological models of Earth's interior. The author shows data to disprove the previous hypothesis of correlating high R in basalts with excess of helium-3 and existence of primitive gas-rich chemical reservoirs.

    7. H. M. Gonnermann, S. Mukhopadhyay, Nature 449, 1037–1040 (2007)

      It has long been debated that He, one of the most volatile element, remains trapped in Earth, relative to other volatile elements, like the chondrites. This is also known as the "Helium Concentration Paradox". This paper aims at self-consistently explain the paradox by measuring the carbon dioxide in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs).

    8. M. J. Walter et al., Science 334, 54–57 (2011)

      There has been a lot of debate regarding the exact location of the chemical reservoirs containing superdeep diamonds. In this research, the authors have done carbon isotope analysis on these diamonds and concluded that the most likely origin is in the lower mantle of Earth.

    9. M. G. Jackson, J. G. Konter, T. W. Becker, Nature 542, 340–343 (2017)

      In this paper, the authors have shown that only the hottest hotspots with the slowest wave velocity draw from the ancient reservoirs formed during the early days of planet Earth.

    10. T. Hanyu, I. Kaneoka, Nature 390, 273–276 (1997)

      This article reports the helium isotope data from ancient basalts located in three islands in the southern pacific ocean. The HIMU sample collected from this area shows a relatively low and stable helium-3 to helium-4 ratio. While, other enriched samples show a variation in this isotope ratio.

  2. Dec 2017
    1. J. E. K. Byrnes, L. Gamfeldt, F. Isbell, J. S. Lefcheck, J. N. Griffin, A. Hector, B. J. Cardinale, D. U. Hooper, L. E. Dee, J. E. Duffy, Investigating the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality: Challenges and solutions. Methods Ecol. Evol. 5, 111–124 (2014).

      Byrne's review focuses on the impacts of assemblage diversity on ecosystem functions.

      This study acknowledges the impact of diversity on resource utilization and thus productivity, however the focus is on the characterization of multi-functionality.

    2. C. Fissore, J. Espeleta, E. A. Nater, S. E. Hobbie, P. B. Reich, Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset fossil-fuel emissions in the upper midwestern US. Front. Ecol. Environ. 8, 409–413 (2010).

      Fissore's review argues that carbon sequester by forests in the mid-west can not off set fossil fuel based carbon dioxide emissions. The study compares hypothetical scenarios necessary to offset significant proportions of the carbon dioxide emissions by converting landscapes into carbon sequestering species.

    3. R. F. Follett, Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil Tillage Res. 61, 77–92 (2001).

      Follett discusses the role organic soils play in the movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the soil. This review characterizes terrestrial soils as carbon sinks which is important for crop management.

    4. P. B. Reich, D. Tilman, S. Naeem, D. S. Ellsworth, J. Knops, J. Craine, D. Wedin, J. Trost, Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 10101–10106 (2004).

      Reich compares the role of CO2 and N on species richness and functional group diversity.

      This study compares the roles of functional group diversity and species richness has on biomass accumulation in an elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen environment.

    5. R. Sedjo, B. Sohngen, Carbon sequestration in forests and soils, in Annual Review of Resource Economics, G. C. Rausser, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 2012), vol. 4, pp. 126–143

      Sejo discusses the role species richness plays in effecting economic value.

      This review puts emphasis on the role of biodiversity on marginal economic value represented as carbon storage for conservation efforts.

    6. D. A. Fornara, D. Tilman, Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. J. Ecol. 96, 314–322 (2008).

      Fornara reviews the mechanisms that control carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils.

      The review covers the relationships between biodiversity and carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils, with an emphasis on the c3 and c4 grasses.

    7. T. L. Daniels, Integrating forest carbon sequestration into a cap-and-trade program to reduce net CO2 emissions. J. Am. Plann. Assoc. 76, 463–475 (2010).

      Daniels reviews the role forests play in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. His focus however is primarily advocating for including carbon sequester by forests into management plans or a cap-and-trade program.

    8. A. D. Barnosky, N. Matzke, S. Tomiya, G. O. U. Wogan, B. Swartz, T. B. Quental, C. Marshall, J. L. McGuire, E. L. Lindsey, K. C. Maguire, B. Mersey, E. A. Ferrer, Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471, 51–57 (2011).

      Barnosky discusses the events known as mass extinctions and compares the rates of extinction for these events to modern rates of extinction. PB

    9. Increasing species richness from 1 to 10 had twice the economic value of increasing species richness from 1 to 2.

      Each additional degree of species richness is worth less than the previous degree of richness in terms of economic value. Therefore, the economic value does not increase in direct proportion with the species richness, although they are correlated.

      SC

    10. B. J. Cardinale, K. L. Matulich, D. U. Hooper, J. E. Byrnes, E. Duffy, L. Gamfeldt, P. Balvanera, M. I. O'Connor, A. Gonzalez, The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. Am. J. Bot. 98, 572–592 (2011).

      Cardinale reviews the roles of primary producer biodiversity with respect to ecological processes critical to the functionality and health of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. PB

    1. predicted secondary structure

      Villordo and peers (2015) studied the cycle of how mosquito viruses could quickly adapt to different human host environments. The changes in RNA structures were examined in the dengue virus during host adaptation. The researchers discovered that the 3’UTR of RNA is modified during host adaptation, such as duplicating the structure to accommodate for beneficial mutations.

    2. Musashi-1

      Sakakibara and peers studied the Musashi-1 protein within a mouse and associated the protein with neural development. Musashi-1 was found to be highly enriched within the central nervous system of mammalian cells, regulate stem cell translation, and can differentiate into neurons through regulation.

    3. interferes specifically with fetal brain development

      Li and others (2016) hypothesized that ZIKV can infect not only developing neuronal stem cells, but also adult brain cells. The results seen were that adults can be affected by the ZIKV. The adult would need to be triply deficient in the regulatory factor for interferon to allow the virus to take hold of the stem cells in the brain.

    4. interferes specifically with fetal brain development

      Li and others (2016) hypothesized that ZIKV can infect not only developing neuronal stem cells, but also adult brain cells. The results seen were that adults can be affected by the ZIKV. The adult would need to be triply deficient in the regulatory factor for interferon to allow the virus to take hold of the stem cells in the brain.

    5. effect on fetal neurodevelopment

      Cugola et al., (2016) found that ZIKV infects fetuses, causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and causes signs of microcephaly in mice. Data demonstrated that the infection of ZIKV into human brain organoids reduced proliferation and disrupted cortical layers. This indicates that ZIKV is able to cross the placenta and cause microcephaly by inducing apoptosis in cortical progenitor cells.

  3. Nov 2017
    1. it in-creases hyperexcitability in Abprecursor protein(APP) transgenic mice

      Side effects of phosphorylation

    2. n-hibition of p38aand p38bimproves Ab-induced

      inhibition may have a short term positive effect

    3. Accordingly, the depletion of tau prevents Abtoxicity in AD models (7–9). Ab-induced neuronalnetwork and synaptic dysfunction is associatedwith aberrant glutamatergic synaptic transmis-sion (10).N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–typeglutamatergic receptors (NRs) drive glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity (11)andmediateAbtoxicity by downstream responses that pro-mote neuronal dysfunction (12

      The steps that tau tangles interfere with in the transmittance of signals in the brain.

    4. Aberrant tau phosphorylation is the firststep in a cascade leading to its deposition and tocognitive dysfunction (4,5). Abis thought to trig-ger toxic events, including tau phosphorylation

      steps and relevance to Alzheimer's disea

  4. Oct 2017
    1. McCauley, D.J., Young, H.S., Dunbar, R.B., Estes, J.A., Semmens, B.X., and Micheli, F. (2012). Assessing the effects of large mobile predators on ecosystem connectivity. Ecol. Appl. 22, 1711–1717.

      This study states that sharks in the Palmyra Atoll find food in other habitats.

      -RKL

    2. Heithaus, M.R., Frid, A., Wirsing, A.J., and Worm, B. (2008). Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23, 202–210.

      The study explains how the effects of a high cost/ low reward way of life may affect an ecosystem -M.A.S

  5. Sep 2017
    1. Brown, J.H., Gillooly, J.F., Allen, A.P., Savage, V.M., and West, G.B. (2004). Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85, 1771–1789.

      Explains the metabolic equation used in the study -M.A.S.