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  1. Nov 2017
    1. The acronym TORCH was initially proposed by Andres Nahmias in 1971 to represent 4 congenital infections with a similar clinical presentation, including a rash and ocular findings in neonates: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Over the next few years, the acronym was changed to TORCHES to include syphilis.

      The “other” category now includes:

      *Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)

      *Parvovirus B19


      *Varicella-zoster virus

      *Epstein-Barr virus

      *Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

      *West Nile virus, and

      • Zika virus (ZIKV).

      The most complex events in embryogenesis involving the sensory organs take place during the first few weeks of pregnancy, making the eyes and ears particularly vulnerable. The fetus does not have the immunologic mechanisms needed to eliminate the organism, leading to immunologic tolerance and chronic infection.

      The most common eye finding of congenital infections is a chorioretinal scar. Congenital cataracts, optic nerve atrophy, or hypoplasia may also be found.