1,063 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2018
    1. It’s clear that neither of these two people were the shooter, as the shooter is a much taller Caucasian man. Thus, this is not a “lone gunman” massacre. There was coordination.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      It’s clear that neither of these two people were the shooter, as the shooter is a much taller Caucasian man. Thus, this is not a “lone gunman” massacre. There was coordination.

    2. One woman, who was at the Route 91 music event, claimed an unidentified woman had told other concert-goers they were “all going to die” after pushing her way to the front of the venue.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      One woman, who was at the Route 91 music event, claimed an unidentified woman had told other concert-goers they were “all going to die” after pushing her way to the front of the venue.

    3. If this shooting was carried out by multiple shooters, it would obviously indicate planning and coordination among a group of people who sought to carry out the shooting for a political purpose of some kind.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      If this shooting was carried out by multiple shooters, it would obviously indicate planning and coordination among a group of people who sought to carry out the shooting for a political purpose of some kind.

    4. multiple witnesses are openly reporting the presence of multiple shooters.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      multiple witnesses are openly reporting the presence of multiple shooters.

    5. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    6. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    7. It makes no sense at all.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      It makes no sense at all.

    8. it would obviously indicate

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      it would obviously indicate

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. Although some pre-1986 full auto weapons are available for sale, they require extensive ATF documentation, background checks and extremely long wait periods approaching one year. Plus, they tend to cost $25,000 or more, and they’re extremely rare.

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Although some pre-1986 full auto weapons are available for sale, they require extensive ATF documentation, background checks and extremely long wait periods approaching one year. Plus, they tend to cost $25,000 or more, and they’re extremely rare.

    15. This could reasonably be the result of confusion and chaos,

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      This could reasonably be the result of confusion and chaos,

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    17. Fox News,

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 4

      Highlight:

      Fox News,

    18. Clark County Sheriff in Vegas,

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 3

      Highlight:

      Clark County Sheriff in Vegas,

    19. UK Express:

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      UK Express:

    20. law enforcement

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      law enforcement

    21. caller named Russell Bleck, who survived the shooting,

      Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Other

      Highlight:

      caller named Russell Bleck, who survived the shooting,

    22. Numerous reports from witnesses

      Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Other

      Highlight:

      Numerous reports from witnesses

    23. multitude of videos that captured the event

      Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Other

      Highlight:

      multitude of videos that captured the event

    24. multiple witnesses are openly reporting the presence of multiple shooters.

      Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Other

      Highlight:

      multiple witnesses are openly reporting the presence of multiple shooters.

    25. unnamed witness, who was attending the event on her 21st birthday,

      Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Other

      Highlight:

      unnamed witness, who was attending the event on her 21st birthday,

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    27. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    28. just don’t add up about the Las Vegas mass shooting

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Hidden secret or trick (“Fitness Companies Hate Him...”, “Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret”)

      Highlight:

      just don’t add up about the Las Vegas mass shooting

    29. Five things

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Listicle (“6 Tips on …”)

      Highlight:

      Five things

    30. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Very much clickbaity

    31. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    32. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Not at All Convincing

    2. Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:No evidence given

    3. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    4. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    5. hypocrites!"

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      hypocrites!"

    6. Send the Republicans a message. Tell them "Repeal your own government-subsidized health care first,

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      Send the Republicans a message. Tell them "Repeal your own government-subsidized health care first,

    7. So they want to take away health care from millions, but still keep their own sweetheart deal? No way.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      So they want to take away health care from millions, but still keep their own sweetheart deal? No way.

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Not at all justified

    15. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:None

    16. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    17. hypocrites!

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (“...Shocking Result”, “...Leave You in Tears”)

      Highlight:

      hypocrites!

    18. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Somewhat clickbaity

    19. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    20. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Very low credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Fairly Convincing

    2. Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:No evidence given

    3. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    4. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    5. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    6. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    13. Åsmund Asdal at the Nordic Genetic Resource Centre, which operates the seed vault.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 3

      Highlight:

      Åsmund Asdal at the Nordic Genetic Resource Centre, which operates the seed vault.

    14. Ketil Isaksen, from Norway’s Meteorological Institute.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Ketil Isaksen, from Norway’s Meteorological Institute.

    15. Hege Njaa Aschim, from the Norwegian government,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Hege Njaa Aschim, from the Norwegian government,

    16. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    17. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    18. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    19. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    20. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. So researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., recently conducted an experiment on the cells of 72 healthy but sedentary men and women who were 30 or younger or older than 64. After baseline measures were established for their aerobic fitness, their blood-sugar levels and the gene activity and mitochondrial health in their muscle cells, the volunteers were randomly assigned to a particular exercise regimen.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      So researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., recently conducted an experiment on the cells of 72 healthy but sedentary men and women who were 30 or younger or older than 64. After baseline measures were established for their aerobic fitness, their blood-sugar levels and the gene activity and mitochondrial health in their muscle cells, the volunteers were randomly assigned to a particular exercise regimen.

    3. the subjects who did the interval workouts showed increases in the number and health of their mitochondria

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      the subjects who did the interval workouts showed increases in the number and health of their mitochondria

    4. the subjects who did the interval workouts showed increases in the number and health of their mitochondria

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      the subjects who did the interval workouts showed increases in the number and health of their mitochondria

    5. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    6. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. Many of these affected genes, especially in the cells of the interval trainers, are believed to influence the ability of mitochondria to produce energy for muscle cells;

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Many of these affected genes, especially in the cells of the interval trainers, are believed to influence the ability of mitochondria to produce energy for muscle cells;

    13. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    14. Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:None

    15. So researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., recently conducted an experiment on the cells of 72 healthy but sedentary men and women who were 30 or younger or older than 64. After baseline measures were established for their aerobic fitness, their blood-sugar levels and the gene activity and mitochondrial health in their muscle cells, the volunteers were randomly assigned to a particular exercise regimen.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      So researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., recently conducted an experiment on the cells of 72 healthy but sedentary men and women who were 30 or younger or older than 64. After baseline measures were established for their aerobic fitness, their blood-sugar levels and the gene activity and mitochondrial health in their muscle cells, the volunteers were randomly assigned to a particular exercise regimen.

    16. Dr. Sreekumaran Nair, a professor of medicine and an endocrinologist at the Mayo Clinic and the study’s senior author.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Dr. Sreekumaran Nair, a professor of medicine and an endocrinologist at the Mayo Clinic and the study’s senior author.

    17. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    18. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    19. So researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., recently conducted an experiment on the cells of 72 healthy but sedentary men and women who were 30 or younger or older than 64. After baseline measures were established for their aerobic fitness, their blood-sugar levels and the gene activity and mitochondrial health in their muscle cells, the volunteers were randomly assigned to a particular exercise regimen.

      CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      So researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., recently conducted an experiment on the cells of 72 healthy but sedentary men and women who were 30 or younger or older than 64. After baseline measures were established for their aerobic fitness, their blood-sugar levels and the gene activity and mitochondrial health in their muscle cells, the volunteers were randomly assigned to a particular exercise regimen.

    20. The Best Exercise

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Hidden secret or trick (“Fitness Companies Hate Him...”, “Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret”)

      Highlight:

      The Best Exercise

    21. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    22. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    23. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Fairly Convincing

    2. Many other studies have also confirmed the link between smoking and Alzheimer’s

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Many other studies have also confirmed the link between smoking and Alzheimer’s

    3. In one study, researchers at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio recruited almost 100 older men and women, aged 65 to 89, some of whom had a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Half of these participants carried the carried the e4 gene, which substantially increased their risk of developing the disease (9).

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      In one study, researchers at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio recruited almost 100 older men and women, aged 65 to 89, some of whom had a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Half of these participants carried the carried the e4 gene, which substantially increased their risk of developing the disease (9).

    4. The e4-positive group who did not exercise underwent significant atrophy of their hippocampus in as little as 18 months. In fact, the cerebral structure had shrunk by 3% on average. The e4 group that exercised experienced no change in their hippocampus and neither did the e4-negative groups.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      The e4-positive group who did not exercise underwent significant atrophy of their hippocampus in as little as 18 months. In fact, the cerebral structure had shrunk by 3% on average. The e4 group that exercised experienced no change in their hippocampus and neither did the e4-negative groups.

    5. In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

    6. In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average.

    7. In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

    8. Many other studies have also confirmed the link between smoking and Alzheimer’s

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      Many other studies have also confirmed the link between smoking and Alzheimer’s

    9. Also, raised homocysteine levels actually initiate cognitive impairment and poor brain performance, increase your risk of dementia, and boost brain shrinkage (10).

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      Also, raised homocysteine levels actually initiate cognitive impairment and poor brain performance, increase your risk of dementia, and boost brain shrinkage (10).

    10. Thiamine deficiency is linked to Korsakoff Syndrome, a chronic memory disorder part of the dementia umbrella (11).

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      Thiamine deficiency is linked to Korsakoff Syndrome, a chronic memory disorder part of the dementia umbrella (11).

    11. “…those who were severely deficient in vitamin D were more than twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s and dementia than those who had adequate levels,” writes Alzheimer’s.net on the study (12).

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      “…those who were severely deficient in vitamin D were more than twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s and dementia than those who had adequate levels,” writes Alzheimer’s.net on the study (12).

    12. Some head injuries can actually increase your risk of developing dementia later in life, especially if it causes 30 minutes to 24 hours of unconsciousness after initial injury (14).

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      Some head injuries can actually increase your risk of developing dementia later in life, especially if it causes 30 minutes to 24 hours of unconsciousness after initial injury (14).

    13. Your risk of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia also go up with excessive drinking (16).

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      Your risk of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia also go up with excessive drinking (16).

    14. “Feeling lonely rather than being alone is associated with an increased risk of clinical dementia in later life and can be considered a major risk factor that, independently of vascular disease, depression, and other confounding factors,”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      “Feeling lonely rather than being alone is associated with an increased risk of clinical dementia in later life and can be considered a major risk factor that, independently of vascular disease, depression, and other confounding factors,”

    15. “Feeling lonely rather than being alone is associated with an increased risk of clinical dementia in later life and can be considered a major risk factor that, independently of vascular disease, depression, and other confounding factors,”

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      “Feeling lonely rather than being alone is associated with an increased risk of clinical dementia in later life and can be considered a major risk factor that, independently of vascular disease, depression, and other confounding factors,”

    16. Alcohol-related brain damage, caused by years of alcohol abuse can contribute towards Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and alcoholic dementia,

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Alcohol-related brain damage, caused by years of alcohol abuse can contribute towards Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and alcoholic dementia,

    17. Some head injuries can actually increase your risk of developing dementia later in life, especially if it causes 30 minutes to 24 hours of unconsciousness after initial injury (14).

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Some head injuries can actually increase your risk of developing dementia later in life, especially if it causes 30 minutes to 24 hours of unconsciousness after initial injury (14).

    18. In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average.

    19. In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

    20. Also, raised homocysteine levels actually initiate cognitive impairment and poor brain performance, increase your risk of dementia, and boost brain shrinkage (10).

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Also, raised homocysteine levels actually initiate cognitive impairment and poor brain performance, increase your risk of dementia, and boost brain shrinkage (10).

    21. The e4-positive group who did not exercise underwent significant atrophy of their hippocampus in as little as 18 months. In fact, the cerebral structure had shrunk by 3% on average. The e4 group that exercised experienced no change in their hippocampus and neither did the e4-negative groups.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The e4-positive group who did not exercise underwent significant atrophy of their hippocampus in as little as 18 months. In fact, the cerebral structure had shrunk by 3% on average. The e4 group that exercised experienced no change in their hippocampus and neither did the e4-negative groups.

    22. Many other studies have also confirmed the link between smoking and Alzheimer’s

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Many other studies have also confirmed the link between smoking and Alzheimer’s

    23. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    24. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    25. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    26. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    27. Preventing Alzheimer’s is straightforward, you just have to put in the work!

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Preventing Alzheimer’s is straightforward, you just have to put in the work!

    28. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    29. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    30. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    31. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    32. Researchers at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina examined 548 veterans with a head injury and 1228 without head injury to yield these results (15).

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      Researchers at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina examined 548 veterans with a head injury and 1228 without head injury to yield these results (15).

    33. In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average. For other varieties of dementia, the onset was delayed by 3 years on average.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      In fact, a Canadian study found that being bilingual supports cognitive function and even delays the onset of dementia in patients with probable Alzheimer’s Disease by 4 years on average. For other varieties of dementia, the onset was delayed by 3 years on average.

    34. In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      In fact, in a 6-year study examining 1,600 seniors, found that vitamin D deficiency was linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

    35. In one study, researchers at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio recruited almost 100 older men and women, aged 65 to 89, some of whom had a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Half of these participants carried the carried the e4 gene, which substantially increased their risk of developing the disease (9).

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      In one study, researchers at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio recruited almost 100 older men and women, aged 65 to 89, some of whom had a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Half of these participants carried the carried the e4 gene, which substantially increased their risk of developing the disease (9).

    36. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    37. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    38. 9 Diet & Lifestyle Habit Changes

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Listicle (“6 Tips on …”)

      Highlight:

      9 Diet & Lifestyle Habit Changes

    39. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    40. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    41. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Not at All Convincing

    2. The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:They present facts regarding the Basa fish and its cultivation strategies.

      Highlight:

      The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

    3. In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:They present facts regarding the Basa fish and its cultivation strategies.

      Highlight:

      In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

    4. The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:They present facts regarding the Basa fish and its cultivation strategies.

      Highlight:

      The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

    5. The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

    6. In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

    7. The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      The Basa fish ( Pangasius Fillets) is cultivated near the Mekong River in Vietnam, one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The fish is cultivated in sewage pools which contain high levels of toxins and bacteria that end up in the meat.

    8. The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

    9. Besides this, the meat has been found to contains heavy metals, chlorate, isomers, hexachlorobenzene and other harmful compounds.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Besides this, the meat has been found to contains heavy metals, chlorate, isomers, hexachlorobenzene and other harmful compounds.

    10. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    11. Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

    12. Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Be a keen observer and be very careful of what you buy in a super market, some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

    13. In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      In nature, the fish grows 4 times faster, but the Basa fish sold in our markets is injected with antibiotics and hormones that are supposed to make the fish bigger.

    14. The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      The fish is very nutritionally deficient and doesn’t contain omega-3 oils or other essential nutrients found in natural fish.

    15. The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The meat was found to contain hormones that accelerate the growth and reproduction of the fish, and is then sold in partnership with big companies that have no regard for human health.

    16. danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      danger.Newly

    17. some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      some items will just put your life and your families life to danger.Newly

    18. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    19. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    20. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    21. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    22. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Not at all justified

    23. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:None

    24. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    25. DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Inducing fear (“Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?”)

      Highlight:

      DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

    26. DO NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (“...Shocking Result”, “...Leave You in Tears”)

      Highlight:

      DO NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH!

    27. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Very much clickbaity

    28. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    29. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Very low credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Cause precedes effect

      Highlight:

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    3. These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    4. To assess this, the exercise routines given to the volunteers differed. The traditional fitness training program conducted mainly repetitive exercises, such as cycling or Nordic walking, but the dance group were challenged with something new each week. Dr Rehfeld explains, "We tried to provide our seniors in the dance group with constantly changing dance routines of different genres (Jazz, Square, Latin-American and Line Dance). Steps, arm-patterns, formations, speed and rhythms were changed every second week to keep them in a constant learning process. The most challenging aspect for them was to recall the routines under the pressure of time and without any cues from the instructor." These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      To assess this, the exercise routines given to the volunteers differed. The traditional fitness training program conducted mainly repetitive exercises, such as cycling or Nordic walking, but the dance group were challenged with something new each week. Dr Rehfeld explains, "We tried to provide our seniors in the dance group with constantly changing dance routines of different genres (Jazz, Square, Latin-American and Line Dance). Steps, arm-patterns, formations, speed and rhythms were changed every second week to keep them in a constant learning process. The most challenging aspect for them was to recall the routines under the pressure of time and without any cues from the instructor."

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    5. Elderly volunteers, with an average age of 68, were recruited to the study and assigned either an eighteen-month weekly course of learning dance routines, or endurance and flexibility training.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Elderly volunteers, with an average age of 68, were recruited to the study and assigned either an eighteen-month weekly course of learning dance routines, or endurance and flexibility training.

    6. These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      These extra challenges are thought to account for the noticeable difference in balance displayed by those participants in dancing group.

    7. Both groups showed an increase in the hippocampus region of the brain.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Both groups showed an increase in the hippocampus region of the brain.

    8. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    17. While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:1

      Highlight:

      While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

    18. "In this study, we show that two different types of physical exercise (dancing and endurance training) both increase the area of the brain that declines with age. In comparison, it was only dancing that lead to noticeable behavioral changes in terms of improved balance."

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      "In this study, we show that two different types of physical exercise (dancing and endurance training) both increase the area of the brain that declines with age. In comparison, it was only dancing that lead to noticeable behavioral changes in terms of improved balance."

    19. While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      While previous research has shown that physical exercise can combat age-related brain decline, it is not known if one type of exercise can be better than another.

    20. Dr Kathrin Rehfeld, lead author of the study, based at the German center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg, Germany.

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Dr Kathrin Rehfeld, lead author of the study, based at the German center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg, Germany.

    21. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    22. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    23. A new study, published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, shows that older people who routinely partake in physical exercise can reverse the signs of aging in the brain, and dancing has the most profound effect.

      CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      A new study, published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, shows that older people who routinely partake in physical exercise can reverse the signs of aging in the brain, and dancing has the most profound effect.

    24. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Not at all clickbaity

    25. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    26. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. So, Anthony Mawson, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the School of Public Health, Jackson State University, along with colleagues Azad Bhuiyan and Binu Jacob, collaborated with Brian D. Ray, president of the National Home Education Research Institute in Salem, OR, to engage and enrol homeschooling families to participate in the study. In this way, homeschoolers were compared to homeschoolers (apples to apples), but with the added advantage that homeschoolers as a population match the profiles of American families at large. The families who responded to the anonymous online survey were recruited through homeschooling associations in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Oregon.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      So, Anthony Mawson, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the School of Public Health, Jackson State University, along with colleagues Azad Bhuiyan and Binu Jacob, collaborated with Brian D. Ray, president of the National Home Education Research Institute in Salem, OR, to engage and enrol homeschooling families to participate in the study. In this way, homeschoolers were compared to homeschoolers (apples to apples), but with the added advantage that homeschoolers as a population match the profiles of American families at large. The families who responded to the anonymous online survey were recruited through homeschooling associations in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Oregon.

    3. *Vaccinated children were over four-fold more likely to be diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum (OR 4.3) *Vaccinated children were 30-fold more likely to be diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) than non-vaccinated children * Vaccinated children were 22-fold more likely to require an allergy medication than unvaccinated children *Vaccinated children were over five-fold more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability than unvaccinated children (OR 5.2) *Vaccinated children were 340 percent more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder than unvaccinated children (OR 4.3) * Vaccinated children were 5.9-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia than unvaccinated children *Vaccinated children were 3.8-fold more likely to be diagnosed with middle ear infection (otitis media) than unvaccinated children (OR 3.8) *Vaccinated children were 700 percent more likely to have had surgery to insert ear drainage tubes than unvaccinated children (OR 8.1) * Vaccinated children were 2.4-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with any chronic illness than unvaccinated children

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      *Vaccinated children were over four-fold more likely to be diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum (OR 4.3)

      *Vaccinated children were 30-fold more likely to be diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) than non-vaccinated children

      • Vaccinated children were 22-fold more likely to require an allergy medication than unvaccinated children

      *Vaccinated children were over five-fold more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability than unvaccinated children (OR 5.2)

      *Vaccinated children were 340 percent more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder than unvaccinated children (OR 4.3)

      • Vaccinated children were 5.9-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia than unvaccinated children

      *Vaccinated children were 3.8-fold more likely to be diagnosed with middle ear infection (otitis media) than unvaccinated children (OR 3.8)

      *Vaccinated children were 700 percent more likely to have had surgery to insert ear drainage tubes than unvaccinated children (OR 8.1)

      • Vaccinated children were 2.4-fold more likely to have been diagnosed with any chronic illness than unvaccinated children
    4. In the homeschooler study, the risk of being diagnosed on the autism spectrum was over four-fold higher among vaccinated children than unvaccinated children (OR 4.2).

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      In the homeschooler study, the risk of being diagnosed on the autism spectrum was over four-fold higher among vaccinated children than unvaccinated children (OR 4.2).

    5. What it found about increases in immune-mediated diseases like allergies and neurodevelopmental diseases including autism, should make all parents think twice before they ever vaccinate again:

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      What it found about increases in immune-mediated diseases like allergies and neurodevelopmental diseases including autism, should make all parents think twice before they ever vaccinate again:

    6. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No