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  1. May 2019
    1. hours. The NC filters having bound DNA liberated from bacterial colonies, were set up for hybridisation with radioactive probes as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ). The filters were washed thoroughly with a solution containing 50 mM Tris.Cl, pH 8.0, 1 M NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 % SDS, at 42°C, for 1 hour, to wash off any residual bacterial debris and agar etc. Prehybridisation and hybridisation was performed in aqueous solution without formamide in 5 X SSPE. The filters were washed up to a stringency of 0.2 X sse at 65°e.
    2. Colonies bound to nitrocellulose filter ( NC ) were lysed to liberate the DNA which was hybridised as described by Maniatis et al., 1982 ) . To obtain sharper autoradiography signals, the nitrocellulose filter bearing colonies was first overlaid on a 3 MM Whatman paper impregnated with 10 % SDS till the NC wetted evenly. The NC was peeled off and overlaid on another 3 MM paper impregnated with the denaturing solution. In this manner, the NC was successively treated with denaturing and neutralising solutions. Finally, the NC filter was air dried, sandwiched between two sheets of 3 MM paper and baked at 80°C for two
    3. Colony hybridisation.
    1. 492 run with 620 nm as the reference filter. The antibody response generated was represented as the geometric mean of the absorbance of individual mice sera in a group of immunized animals. b1 addition, the antibody titer against r-dZP3 was also determined by ELISA. The assay was carried out as described above except that 100 ~l of doubling dilutions of the serum samples (dilutions made in PBST supplemented with 0.1% BSA) were added per well in duplicate. For each serum sample tested, a reciprocal of dilution giving an absorbance of 1.0 was calculated by regression analysis and represented as antibody units (AU).
    2. Microtitration plates were coated with optimized concentration of r-bmZP1 (250 ng/well), r-dZP3 (400 ng/well) or r-rG (500 ng/well) in 50 mM PBS, pH 7.4, at 37°C for 1 h and then at 4°C, 0/N. The plates were washed once with PBS and incubated with 1% BSA, (200 Jll/ well) in PBS for 2 h at 37°C for blocking the non-specific sites. All subsequent incubations were carried out for 1 h at 37°C and each incubation was followed by three washings with PBS containing 0.05% Tween-20 (PBST). Post-blocking, the plates were incubated with 1 :50 dilution of either the preimmune or the immune serum samples obtained from mice immunized with the respective plasmid DNA. Antibodies bound tor-bmZP 1, r-dZP3 and r-rG were revealed with 1:2000 dilution of goat anti-mouse IgG (whole molecule) HRPO (Dako). Estimation of the enzymatic activity was carried out with 0.05% OPD in 50 mM citrate phosphate buffer, pH 5.0, containing 0.06% H202 as the substrate. The reaction was stopped with 50 Jll of 5 N H2S04 and the absorbance read at
    3. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA)
    4. Inbred male BALB/c.T mice (6-8 week, Small Experimental Animal Facility, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India) were immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) with 100 J.lg of respective plasmid DNA or VR1020 vector in 100 J.ll saline (0.9% NaCl) in the anterior tibialis muscle in the hind limbs (each receiving 50 J.ll). Two booster injections of 100 J.lg DNA in saline were given on day 21 and 35. On day 45, mice in each group received i.m. injection of E. coli expressed recombinant protein (20 J.lg/mouse in saline). Mice were anesthetized and bled retro-orbitally on days 0, 45 and 52 for analysis of respective antibody responses.
    5. Plasmid DNA administered in saline
    6. The proteins were purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The cell pellet ( ~ 1 g) of each clone was solubilized in 5 ml ofbuffer A (6 M guanidine hydrochloride, 0.1 M NaH2P04, 0.01 M Tris, pH 8.0). The suspension was centrifuged at 8000 X g for 15 min at 4°C and the supernatant containing the recombinant protein was mixed with Ni-NT A resin (Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid equilibrated with buffer A) and kept for gentle end-to-end shaking for 1 hat RT. The resin was loaded on a column and washed with 10 bed-volumes of buffer A. The column was subsequently washed with 5 bed-volumes each of buffers B, and C, which contained 8 M urea, 0.1 M NaH2P04 and 0.01 M Tris and had successively reducing pH values of 8.0 and 6.3 respectively. The protein was eluted with buffers D and E (composition same as buffer B) in which the pH was further reduced to 5.9 and 4.5 respectively. Five fractions of 4 ml each were collected during elution with buffer D and buffer E respectively. The eluted proteins were analysed by 0.1% SDS-1 0% PAGE (gels stained with Coomassie blue) and Western blot. The fractions showing the purified recombinant protein were pooled and concentrated in an Amicon concentrator using a YM30 membrane and dialyzed against 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 4 M urea. The concentration of each purified protein was estimated by bicinchoninic acid (BCA).
    7. Purification in denatured form