38 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2018
    1. 46. Bhatt US et al. 2010 Circumpolar Arctic tundra vegetation change is linked to sea ice decline. Earth Interact. 14, 1 – 20. (doi:10.1175/ 2010EI315.1)

      Sea ice decline due to global warming is affecting plant productivity in arctic regions.

    2. 16. Chapin III FS, Shaver GR. 1985 Arctic. In Physiological ecology of North American plant communities (eds BF Chabot, HA Mooney), pp. 16– 40. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall.

      This paper explains the effects of low temperatures on the development of arctic plants.

    3. 15. Lambert AM, Miller-Rushing AJ, Inouye DW. 2010 Changes in snowmelt date and summer precipitation affect the flowering phenology of Erythronium grandiflorum (glacier lily; Liliaceae). Am. J. Bot. 97, 1431– 1437. (doi:10.3732/ajb. 1000095)

      This paper talks about the implications that alterations in the phenology of E. grandiflorum might have on its surrounding environment specially pollinators and herbivores.

    4. 11. Arft AM et al. 1999 Responses of tundra plants to experimental warming: meta-analysis of the International Tundra Experiment. Ecol. Monogr. 69, 491– 511.

      This source compiled the data from 13 ITEX sites and analyzed how the phenology, growth, and reproduction of plants in Tundra regions was affected by warming climate.

    5. 8. Xu L et al. In press. Temperature and vegetation seasonality diminishment over northern lands. Nat. Clim. Change. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1836)

      This paper adds on by going more in depth on how an increase in temperature near the poles is affecting the photosynthetic activity in the plants living in these regions.

    6. 3. Cleland EE, Chuine I, Menzel A, Mooney HA, Schwartz MD. 2007 Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22, 357– 365. (doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.04.003)

      Changes in plant phrenology prove that plants are being influenced by environmental changes.

    7. 1. Maxwell B. 1992 Arctic climate: potential for change under global warming. In Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate: an ecophysiological perspective (eds FS Chapin, RL Jefferies, JF Reynolds, GR Shaver, J Svoboda), pp. 11–34. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

      Maxwell builds on this data by presenting the different models used to study the effect of climate change in the Arctic ecosystems.

    8. [46]

      Sea ice decline due to global warming is affecting plant productivity in arctic regions.

    9. [12]

      Heat sums have increased over time for flowering and senescence. Warming induced early leaf bud bursts, growth, and reproduction but did not affect senescence. Study was performed in multiple sites in the arctic region over a course of four years.

    10. [11].

      Warming induced early leaf bud bursts, growth, and reproduction but did not affect senescence. Study was performed in multiple sites in the arctic region over a course of four years.

    1. 38. Ollerton J, Killick A, Lamborn E, Watts S, Whiston M. 2007. Multiple meanings and modes: on the many ways to be a generalist flower. Taxon 56:717–728. doi:10.2307/25065856

      The meaning of a generalist flower can mean different things to different people. This review aims to assess these different meanings in the context of the ecological processes such as pollination.

    2. 36. Ne'eman G, Jürgens A, Newstrom-Lloyd L, Potts SG, Dafni A. 2010. A framework for comparing pollinator performance: effectiveness and efficiency. Biological Reviews 85:435–451.

      Measuring pollinator performance is significant to conservation efforts. However, comparing pollinator performance among pollinator groups is difficult due to the differences in collection methods and the diversity of the pollinators. This review resolves vague concepts.

    3. 34. Moré M, Sérsic AN, Cocucci AA. 2007. Restriction of pollinator assemblage through flower length and width in three long-tongued hawkmoth–pollinated species of Mandevilla (Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 94:485–504. doi:10.3417/0026-6493(2007)94[485:ROPATF]2.0.CO;2

      The author studied the way the species of insects obtain the flowers nectar. Specifically, the flowers that have a greater length to their nectar. This research was to determine how specific insects can obtain nectar and what specific plants they have to go to gain what they are looking for.

    4. 27. Inouye DW. 1980. The effect of proboscis and corolla tube lengths on patterns and rates of flower visitation by bumblebees. Oecologia 45:197–201. doi:10.1007/BF00346460

      The Authore studied how length of mouth parts and tubes will affect the vistiation from bumble bees

    5. 22. Galetto L. 1997. Flower structure and nectar chemical composition in three Argentine Apocynaceae. Flora192:197–207.

      The author researched the floral structure and what components are in their nectar in three different "Apocynaceae" species. Reviewing these components can verify the similarities each plant may have with each other.

    6. 10. Campbell DR, Waser NM, Price MV. 1996. Mechanisms of hummingbird-mediated selection for flower width in Ipomopsis aggregata. Ecology 77:1463–1472. doi:10.2307/2265543

      The author studied how hummingbirds pollinate flowers

    7. 7. Barrios B, Koptur S. 2011. Floral biology and breeding system of Angadenia berteroi (Apocynaceae): why do flowers of the pineland golden trumpet produce few fruits? International Journal of Plant Sciences172:378–385. doi:10.1086/658153

      The author studied the biology of flower plant "Angadenia berteroi" and how they breed.

    8. 4. Arbulo N, Santos E, Salvarrey S, Invernizzi C. 2011. Proboscis length and resource utilization in two Uruguayan bumblebees: Bombus atratus Franklin and Bombus bellicosus Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Neotropical Entomology 40:72–77. doi:10.1590/S1519-566X2011000100010 

      Arbulo et. al. studies the proboscis length of two Uruguayan bumblebees in relation to the depth of the floral tube. The study found both species of bumblebees used the cultivated species of flowers. However, they did so in different amounts.

    9. 2. Alexandersson R, Johnson SD. 2002. Pollinator–mediated selection on flower–tube length in a hawkmoth–pollinated Gladiolus (Iridaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269:631–636. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1928 

      How tube length will determine the type of pollination

    10. 1. Adrienne B, Venables B, Barrows EM. 1985. Skippers: pollinators or nectar thieves? Journal of the Lepidopterist's Society 39:299–312.

      The author researched other articles based on pollinators and nectary reward

  2. Feb 2018
    1. P. Manrique et al., Context matters: Improving the uses of big data for forecasting civil unrest: Emerging phenomena and big data. IEEE Intelligence and Security Informatics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 169–172. J. Matheny, Test and evaluation in ACE and OSI IARPA (2013); available online at http://semanticommunity.info/@api/deki/ files/21696/3-ACE_and_OSI_NIST_Brief.pdf.

      Several co-authors of this paper participated in a recent IARPA project to help build a reliable database of civil unrest events across countries in Latin America.

    2. We fit the trend in the creation dates of new online aggregates (Fig. 2, A and B) to a well-known organizational development curve (19)

      The curve mentioned here is the progress curve analysis of organizational development. Using the formula for this curve, the time interval between the creation of the n-th and (n + 1)-th aggregate is given by:

      $$\tau_n = \tau_1 n^{-b}$$

      If b is zero in the formula above, then the creation of aggregates would depend only on the previous number of aggregates. However, in the authors' experiments, b is different from zero, which indicates that there is some perturbation (escalations and de-escalations) to the process of aggregates creation.

    3. Q. Zhao, M. Erdogdu, H. He, A. Rajaraman, J. Leskovec, SEISMIC: A self-exciting point process model for predicting tweet popularity, ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD), Sydney, 10 to 13 August 2015.

      The authors propose a way of predicting the final number of reshares of a given post on social networks.

    4. D. Koutra, D. Jin, Y. Ning, C. Faloutsos, Perseus: An interactive large-scale graph mining and visualization tool (DEMO), VLDB 2015, Kohala Coast, Hawaii, 31 August to 4 September 2015.

      The authors propose a tool, called Perseus, that makes it easy for the user to analyze large graphs by supporting the coupled summarization of graph properties and structures, guiding attention to outliers, and allowing the user to interactively explore normal and anomalous node behaviors.

    5. The escalation parameter b diverges at these real-world onsets (Fig. 2, C and D) and follows the same mathematical dependence (Tc – t)–1 as a wide class of physical phase transitions (20), with the divergence date Tc matching the actual onset almost exactly (SM).

      A phase transition is an abrupt, discontinuous change in the properties of a system. It happens, for instance, when a liquid turns into a gas. The equation describing such transition is the one shown here in the paper:

      $$(T_c - t)^{-1}$$

      In the context of the paper, the authors model the onset of an event as a phase transition using the formula above. They also argue that this formula can be used to predict the future time for an onset of a real-world outburst.

  3. Dec 2017
    1. Z. Arany et al., Nature 451, 1008 (2008).

      This paper explains how the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alhpa regulates the transcription of VEGF necessary for angiogenesis.

    2. M. J. Percy et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 654 (2006).

      This paper explains that the number of red blood cells is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms in the kidney. Low levels of oxygen results in anemia or low numbers of red blood cells, which induces erythropoietin production. As erythropoietin is produced, HIF is regulated which regulated genes for angiogenesis.

    3. W. Zundel et al., Genes Dev. 14, 391 (2000).

      The loss of the PTEN gene activates the expression of HIF-1a. PTEN normally inhibits the response of Akt to hypoxic conditions. When not inhibited by PTEN Akt activates HIF-1a and HIF-1a is a transcription factors which aids in multiple mechanisms for tumor growth and progression (such as blood vessel formation). This paper discusses how the loss of PTEN is a mechanism tumors use to aid in progression by constitutively activating HIF-1a.

    4. K. D. Pruitt, T. Tatusova, D. R. Maglott, Nucleic Acids Res. 33, D501 (2005).

      The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database provides a collection of sequences that represents transcripts and proteins, which are used for research.

    5. J. K. Pickrell et al., Genome Res. 19, 826 (2009).

      This paper explains how genome-wide scans have been used to detect positive selection within a species, which gives great insight to the human population.

    6. P. C. Sabeti et al., Nature 449, 913 (2007).

      This paper explains how long-range haplotype methods can be used in correlation with genome wide scans to detect positive natural selection.

    7. E. P. Vargas, H. Spielvogel, High Alt. Med. Biol. 7, 138 (2006).

      This paper explains how chronic mountain sickness associated with high altitudes is a major health issue.

    8. O. M. Mejía, J. T. Prchal, F. León-Velarde, A. Hurtado,W. Stockton, Haematologica 90, 13 (2005).

      Researchers conducted a study to exploit a possible population to determine the effects of erythropoietic responses and chronic mountain sickness. The results concluded that there was no associated polymorphisms linked to candidate genes.

    9. T. Wu et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 598 (2005).

      This paper discusses the effect of gender on hemoglobin levels in Han Chinese and Tibetan Plateau inhabitants as a mechanism for high altitude adaptation. In Han populations a correlation was seen between increased altitude and increased hemoglobin levels (men having higher hemoglobin concentration than women), this correlation was not see in Tibetan highland inhabitants, or between genders of Tibetan highland individuals. The data suggests that the difference in hemoglobin concentrations between Han and Tibetan populations is dependent on gender.

    10. C. M. Beall, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 8655 (2007).

      This paper shows that the Tibetan and Andean populations have adapted to the high altitude through multiple physiological traits. Researchers assessed the basal and maximal oxygen consumption between the two populations and found that Tibetan and Andean populations had a higher oxygen consumption than low altitude populations. The results also revealed genetic variance in the Tibetan population, which suggested the potential for natural selection. Such genetic variance was higher in women as oxygen saturation of hemoglobin was higher.

  4. Sep 2016
    1. J. M. Musser, G. P. Wagner, R. O. Prum, Nuclear b-catenin localization supports homology of feathers, avian scutate scales, and alligator scales in early development. Evol. Dev. 17, 185–194 (2015).

      The relationship of feathers and scales are explored in this research paper.

      The location and amount of a morphogen ( a chemical which causes/allows for development of traits), Beta-catenin is visualised during development, showing very similar patterns. This led the author to conclude that they both evolved from the same thing.

    2. P. F. A. Maderson, When? Why? and How?: Some speculations on evolution of vertebrate integument. Am. Zool. 12, 159–171 (1972)

      Review from the 1970’s discussing the formation of integuments (hard protective layer covering the body), scales, hair. The age of this review gives an insight into previous hypotheses and the historical research on this matter.

      The different hypothesis of the time are explored including; scales being a precursor to non scaled animals, ossified (boney) scales being a precursor to scales found on current reptiles and the evolution of hair from sensory appendages.

    3. A. M. Turing, The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 237, 37–72 (1952).

      Turing's landmark paper where he put forward the reaction diffusion theory to explain morphogenesis.

      This theory states that two evenly distributed chemicals interact with each other, and by inhibiting and activating each other, then rearrange to form chemical gradients which can then form patterns.