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  1. Sep 2017
    1. Transparency advocatesoften claim that by reviewing a program’s disclosed source code, an analyst will be able to determine how a program behaves.47Indeed, the very idea that transparency allows outsiders to understand how a system functions is predicated on the usefulness of static analysis. But this claim is belied by the extraordinary difficulty of identifying even genuinely malicious code (“malware”), a task which has spawned a multibillion-dollar industry based largely on the careful review of code samples collected acrossthe internet.

      Limits of transparency - use of static analyses will have limited utility