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  1. May 2019
    1. Genomic DNA Preparation: Genomic DNA, used as a template for PCR, was isolated from approximately 20 wild-type flies. Flies were added to 125ul Homogenisation buffer (200mM sucrose, 100mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 50mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS) and ground using a pestle. The mixture wasthen incubated at 67°C for 10mins. Subsequently, 1.5M KAc was added and incubated on ice for 10mins, followed by DNA extraction using an equal volume of phenol chloroform. The mixture was centrifuged at 16,000g and the DNA precipitated using 0.3M NaAc andethanol. The DNA pellet was then resuspended in 25μl of TE with 25ug RNaseA. PCR:Unless otherwise stated, all PCR reactions were performed using Phusion High Fidelity DNA Polymerase (NEB). PCR reactions were carried out at either 20μl or 50μl with the following reaction setup: 1x GC or HF Buffer, 200μM dNTPs, 0.5 μM of both primers, 1 Unit of Phusion and a maximum of 200ng of DNA. Thermocycling conditions used were as per the manufacturers instructions with a minimum of 35 PCR cycles at an elongation rate of 30s/kb at 72°C. Elongation time was adjusted as appropriate for the PCR product. Where necessary Tm was optimised using gradient PCR. All PCR reactions were performed on a BIO-RAD T100 Thermal Cycler. Both PCR purification and Gel extraction were performed using the NucleoSpin Gel & PCR Clean up kit (Macherey-Nagel), as per the manufacturers instructions. Unless otherwise specified, all primers used in this thesis were designed using NCBI’s Primer-BLAST, selecting against any primers or primer pairs that would produce unspecific products (Ye et al., 2012).
    2. Molecular Biology Protocols
    3. Experimental Methods