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  1. May 2019
    1. A 96-well microplate was coated overnight at 4°C with ovalbumin conjugated peptide in 100 mM carbonate buffer, pH 9.5 (2 /J-g/well). The plate was washed 3 times with PBST and blocked with PBS containing 2% BSA (200/J-l/well) at 37°C for 1 h. Serum samples (diluted in PBS) were added in duplicates (50 (/J-lIwell) at different dilutions (1: 1 00, 1: 1000, 1: 10,000) and the plate was incubated at 37°C for 1 h. The plate was washed and incubated with HRP-conjugated appropriate antibody (1: 1 0,000 dilution in PBS containing 2% BSA) at 37°C for 1 h. The plate was washed thoroughly with PBST and freshly prepared TMB substrate (100/J-lIwell) was added and the reaction was stopped with 2 N H2S04 (50 (/J-l/well) and the absorbance at 450 nm was recorded in an ELISA reader
    2. ELISA
    1. Nitric oxide (NO) generation within the macrophage was detected using the fluorescent NO-sensitive probe DAF-FM diacetate (7). THP-1 macrophages were harvested and resuspended in serum and phenol-red free RPMI-1640 medium and incubated at room temperature for 30 min in the presence of 1 llM DAF-FM diacetate dye. The cells were washed once with fresh medium to remove the excess probe and kinetic fluorescent measurements were performed on a spectrofluorimeter (BMG Fluostar Optima) at an excitation of 480 nm and emission of 520 nm. Time kinetic measurements were performed after appropriate treatment and the values were represented as arbitrary fluorescence units with the comparisons being made against the fluorescence of the control cells. SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine), a photoactivatable nitric oxide donor (8) was used as positive control in the assay.
    2. Measurement of intracellular nitric oxide (NO) generation
    1. The specific ribonucleolytic activity of restrictocin and its mutants was followed by detecting the release of the characteristic 400 nucleotide long a-fragment from 28S rRNA of eukaryotic ribosomes. All the reagents, water and glassware used during the experiment were treated with O.I% DEPC to get rid of contaminating ribonucJeases. Rabbit reticulocyte lysate (30 J.Ll) was incubated with different concentrations of the toxin in 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) containing 10 mM EDTA at 37 °C for 30 min. in a 50 J.Ll reaction volume. The control reaction did not contain an)' toxin. The reaction was stopped by adding 2 J.Ll of I 0% SDS and incubated at ambient temperature for 5 min. Total RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent. 200 J.LI of the reagent was added to the reaction mixture, mixed well and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. Subsequently, 50 J.LI chloroform was added to each tube, mixed thoroughly and incubated at ambient temperature for 2 min. followed by centrifugation at I2,000 rpm, at 4 °C, for I5 min. in a microfuge (Plastocraft). The aqueous phase was mixed with 125 J.Ll isopropanol to precipitate the RNA, allowed to stand at ambient temperature for I 0 min. and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm at 4 °C for I5 min. The RNA pellet was washed with 75% ethanol, dried in air, dissolved in 10 J.Ll of 0.5% SDS solution and electrophoresed on a 2% agarose gel after heating at 65°C for 2 min. The RNA was visualized by ethidium bromide staining and photographed using Polaroid camera. The photographs were scanned, printed using a laser printer to present as figures in this thesis.
    2. Specific Ribonucleolytic Activity Assay
    1. Lipofectin was kindly provided by Syntex, Inc., USA as an aqueous solution containing 1 mg I ml of 1 ipid ( DOTMA DOPE; 50 50 ). The procedure used was as described by Feigner et al., 1987 with appropriate I modifications as suggested in the user s notes. Lipofection was done with 0.5 x 106 cells seeded on a 60 mm plate. For each plasmid, the lipofection was performed in duplicate. The amount and quality of the plasmid DNA used ranged from 400 ng of crude DNA prepared by the mini prep method, to 5 ug of highly purified, cesium banded DNA. The appropriate amount of DNA was suspended in 1.5 ml of serum free DMEM. In another tube, 30 ug of lipofectin was suspended in 1.5 ml of serum free DMEM. The two solutions were mixed. The cells were washed twice with HBSS to totally wash off all traces of serum. The DNA 1 lipofectin mix was then applied to the cells and the cells incubated for 4 hours at 37°C. Next, 3 ml of media containing 10 % FCS was added and the incubation continued at 3 7°C for 16 hours. The culture supernate was then aspirated off and fresh medium added to the cells. The selection for stable clones was started after 48 hours by the procedure described below.
    2. Using lipofectin.
    3. PBS and then replenished with the complete medium. Two days following transfection, the cells were subcultured into the appropriate selective medium for selection of stable clones as described below.
    4. Calcium phosphate mediated stable transfections were performed by the method of Graham and Van der Eb ( 1973 with modifications as described by Gorman ( 1986 ). For each plasmid, two petri dishes each containing 0. 5 x 106 CHO-K1 cells were used, with 10 ug of cesium purified DNA for each transfection. A mock transfection which did not contain any DNA, was performed simultaneously as negative control. Precipitation of the DNA was done with great care to ensure the obtention of a fine, translucent precipitate rather than a dense and opaque precipitate. The calcium phosphate I DNA precipitate was added in 4 ml medium to the cells and the cells incubated for 3 hours at 37°C. At this stage, the cells were examined under the microscope and a fine precipitate appeared as small grains all over the cells. The cells were washed once with serum free medium and a glycerol shock given for 3 minutes at 37°C. The cells were washed twice again with
    5. Using calcium phosphate.
    6. Stable transfection was performed into CHO-K1 cells by the following procedures
    7. stable transfection.
    8. rinsed twice with serum free medium and replenished with 4 ml of DMEM containing 10 % FCS and 100 uM chloroquine. The incubation was continued for another 3 hours at the cells were washed and fed with the normal growth medium containing 10 % FCS. As in the case of FWIL cells, the supernate was collected after 72 hours of transfection and assayed for BhCG activity by RIA.
    9. ayed for BhCG activity by RIA. In case of the other five monolayer forming cell lines, a slightly different protocol was used. Only 1.8 ug plasmid DNA was used for each transfection using 0.5 x 106 cells, and 70 uM chloroquine was included in the DNA 1 DEAE-dextran mixture. Cells were fed 3 hours prior to transfection and washed twice with serum free medium just before exposure to DNA. Cells were exposed to DNA 1 DEAE-dextran mix for approximately 3 hours at 37°C. Following this, the cells were
    10. 1 - 5 ug of plasmid DNA using the DEAE -dextran procedure. DEAE dextran M.Wt. 500,000 was used to perform transient transfection by the method of Luthman and Magnusson 1983 ) , with modifications as described by Gorman ( 1986 ) . Six cell lines ( described above ) with two petri dishes ( 60 mm ) for each cell line were used. In case of FWIL, 5. 4 ug plasmid DNA was used to transfect approximately 5 x 106 cells. No exposure to chloroquine was given. The cells were treated with the DNA 1 DEAE -dextran mixture for 20 minutes at 37°C in a tightly capped tube, mixed gently and reincubated at 37°C for 10 minutes. The sample was then diluted with 3 ml of IMDM supplemented with 10 % FCS, centrifuged and the pellet washed once with normal growth medium. Finally, the pellet was resuspended in 4 ml of growth medium and transferred to a T-25 flask. After incubating for 24 hours at 37°C, 3 ml of fresh medium was added to the cells. The cells were harvested after 72 hours post transfection and the culture supernate was ass
    11. Transient expression of the cloned gene product was studied by transfection performed with
    12. Transient expression.
    13. Transfection.
    1. Turku, Finland). Data were expressed as mean counts per minute (cpm) ± SE of triplicate cultures.
    2. Single cell suspensions of splenocytes in RPMI-1640 medium were prepared from plasmid DNA immunized mice, on day 45, by mechanical disruption of the spleen. Red blood cells were lysed by exposing the cell pellet to 1 OX concentration of 50 mM PBS and immediately bringing the concentration to IX PBS by addition of water. Cells were diluted to a final concentration of 3 x 106 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with l 0% FCS. A 100 J.ll aliquot of splenocytes was added to each well of a 96-well microtitration plate containing serial dilutions of refolded recombinant proteins (r-bmZP1, r-dZP3 orr-rG), diluted in the same medium, as a source of antigen. All assays were carried out in . triplicates. Three days after the addition of the cells, culture were pulsed with 1 J.lCi/well of eH] thymidine (NEN, Life Science Products, Boston, MA) for 16 h. Cells were lysed and harvested onto glass fibre filaments for liquid scintillation counting (Betaplate; Wallac,
    1. Thegillandmuscleswereisolatedfromcontrolandeffluentexposed(7%)fishes.Physiologicalsalinesolution(0.75%NaCl)wasusedtorinseandcleanthetissues.Theywerethenimmediatelystudiedandphotographed.
    2. Aftertheperiodofexposure,thecaudalfinwasseveredtogetthebloodforsmearing.BufferedLeishman'sstainofpH6.8gaveexcellentresults.Theworkreportedhereisbasedontheanalysisofslidesoffishestreatedwith7%effluentconcentrationsastheobservedchangesaremaximuminthesefishes.
    3. Bloodandorganstudies
    1. otal RNA was isolated from cell lines after 48 hrs of transfection using trizol (Invitrogen, U.S.A.). 32p labeled antisense HBx mRNA was in vitro transcribed using T7 RNA Polymerase and Riboprobe kit (Promega, U.S.A.), as described earlier. For generating antisense HBx probe, plasmid DNA was linearized with Bam HI and subjected to transcription. Total RNA was quantitated and equal concentration (15-20 pg) was loaded after adding loading dye (50%glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.25% bromophenol blue, 0.25% xylene cyanol FF) on 1% formaldehyde-agarose gel and 1X MOPS was used as the running buffer. The gel was then run at 5 V /em length of the gel. The gel was then treated with 2.5% HCl for 15 min for depurination, 0.4N NaOH for another 15 min and then in 3 M sodium acetate for 15 min, before the transfer was set. Also the nylon membrane prior to transfer was first treated with distilled water for 5 min and then in 0.4 N NaOH for 20 min. The overnight transfer was set up using 20X sse buffer as the transfer buffer at room temperature. Thereafter, the membrane was cross-linked by uv and then dipped in 2X sse for 20 min. For pre-hybridization the membrane was soaked in Rapid hybridization buffer (Amersham Biosciences, U.K.) for 2 hr at 65oC in the hybridizing oven. The probe was then added and further incubation for 4 hrs was carried out. Post hybridization the membrane was washed thrice with 6X sse at 37oC on a shaker. The membrane was then dried on a filter paper and wrapped in a saran wrap. The membrane was then analyzed by autoradiography. For ensuring the equal loading, the formaldehyde-agarose gel was also stained with EtBr for 23s and 18s rRNA
    2. Northern Blot Analysis
    1. Chromatography is the technique of separation of compounds on the basis of their distribution/ partition between two phases. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a solid-liquid form of chromatography where the stationary phase is normally polar absorbent and the liquid phase is the mobile phase made up of a single or combination of solvents depending on the solutes to be separated. The sterol isolated by method described in 3.2.C.14, were also run on a Thin Layer Chromatogram. Standard ergosterol dilutions and samples from wild-type and half knock out parasites were spotted on a Silica Gel G plate. The sterols were resolved using a binary solvent [hexane/ ethyl acetate (75/25)]. The sterols were visualized using Mo' s stain (12.5g Ammonium molybdate (VI) tetrahydrate, 5.0g Ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate, 50mL concentrated sulphuric acid, water upto 500mL
    2. hin Layer Chromatography of ergosterol
    3. thoroughly by inverting the tube 4-6 times before keeping at RT for 5 min. 4mL of chilled Buffer P3 was added and mixed immediately and thoroughly by inverting the tube 4-6 times. A cartridge was capped and the entire contents were poured into it and allowed to settle for 10 min at RT. In the meantime, a Qiagen tip was equilibrated with 20mL of buffer QBT (750mM NaCl; SOmM MOPS, pH 7.0; 15%v /v isopropanol and 0.15% triton X-100). After the 10 min incubation, using a plunger, the contents of the cartridge were transferred into the equilibrated tip and allowed to drain by gravity. The tip was then washed with lOmL of Buffer QC (1M NaCl; SOmM MOPS, pH 7.0 and 15%v /v Isopropanol). The DNA was then eluted using SmL Buffer QF (125mM NaCl; SOmM Tris-Cl, pH 8.5 and 15%v /v Isopropanol) into a corex (glass) tube by gravity flow. 3.5mL of isopropanol was added to the eluted DNA and incubated at RT for 30 min. The DNA was then precipitated at 16000 x g at 4°C for 30 min. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was washed in 2mL 70% ethanol at 16000 x g at 4°C for 10 min. The supernatant was gently decanted; the pellet was dried to remove any traces of alcohol. Then the DNA was resuspended in ~200]lL of Buffer EB (10mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.5) provided with the kit, or alternatively with nuclease-free water. The concentration of the obtained DNA was estimated by measuring the absorbance at 260nm (A26o) and using the known formula: DNA concentration = A260 X SOX dilution factor. Purity of DNA was monitored by looking at the A26o/ A2so ratio (should be above 1.6)
    4. Plasmid DNA was isolated in large scale using QIAprep Midiprep kit according to manufacturer's protocol. Briefly, 100mL for a high copy number plasmid and 200mL for a low copy number plasmid was cultured overnight followed by centrifugation at 4629 x g for 15 min at 4°C. The pellet was washed once with PBS and then resuspended well in 4mL Buffer P1 by vortexing. To this, 4mL of Buffer P2 was added an
    5. MidiPrep for large scale isolation of plasmids