245 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. Devoting efforts to accessibility might improve the built environment for disabled people, but devoting efforts to universal design improves the built environment for all people. Mace cites the example of the automatic garage door opener as a consumer product created with universal design principles: it is affordable; it appeals to and is useful to people both with and without disabilities.

      Any innovation is good innovation! Creating things to improve the built environment in the long run will help many kinds of people. I think about Siri and any intelligent personal assistant software and if their creators realized how awesome Siri could be for people who might be visually impaired. Were they thinking about them or just able bodied consumers? Whatever the case may be, that innovation ended serving a greater good than intended.

    2. The term “universal design” was invented by architect Ronald Mace, founder of North Carolina State University’s (NCSU) Center for Universal Design.

      I wanted to learn more about Mace and how he coined the term "universal design", and I found this website from the RL Mace Universal Design Institute that further explains the principles behind universal design. It was fascinating to see that universal design is meant for not only disabled people, but really, for everyone. Having right and left handed scissors available in classrooms would be considered universal design, and so does wheelchair accessibility in public buildings, which Williams talks about later in the reading; the use of curb cut outs were to allow people in wheelchairs to use sidewalks more easily but it was really helpful to delivery people, parents with strollers, and in reality, everyone.

      The goal of universal design and the principles behind it aren't just about people with disability but anyone that might one day have a hardship. That's why we should care about it because we all one day will need it.

    3. Digital knowledge tools that assume everyone approaches information with the same abilities and using the same methods risk excluding a large percentage of people.

      Forgetting who you are creating for and what the purpose is is a big "no no" for anyone who studies rhetoric. Excluding large parts of your audience can be detrimental in any scenario. That's why I think that identifying and considering your audience is the first priority when creating anything that could be accessible to the public.

    4. This situation would be much improved if more projects embraced the concept of universal design, the idea that we should always keep the largest possible audience in mind as we make design decisions, ensuring that our final product serves the needs of those with disabilities as well as those without.

      Inclusivity in creation and technology should be a goal in all creators' minds. The internet is for everyone! Technology is for everyone! Universal design and considering the largest possible audience is a great start to creating things that everyone can, and should be able to, use.

    5. As a result, many of the otherwise most valuable digital resources are useless for people who are—for example—deaf or hard of hearing, as well as for people who are blind, have low vision, or have difficulty distinguishing particular colors.

      While considering audience, it is important to consider that not everyone who could come across your work will be able bodied. I think that Williams is very correct in saying that the disabled are neglected by digital content creators. Possibly because we as a society neglect the disabled in many aspects of our day to day lives. The internet and technology in general should not be included as there are a necessity now in everyone's lives. We should strive to be inclusive as possible while creating any digital work.

    6. “Crowdsourcing” is a term coined by Jeff Howe in 2006 to describe online projects that make use of free or extremely inexpensive labor provided by “enthusiasts” around the world who are interested in donating their time to a project that interests them.

      Crowdsourcing is such an amazing development. There should be more people who can find the time to help people without being paid. There are good people like this everywhere.

    7. develop our own guidelines and tools for authoring and evaluating accessible resources.

      To grow as a society we have to uplift each other and that should mean including our disabled people. We should be able to provide for those people without much difficulty. There are many programs to help with that. People have to realize that anyone can become disabled and they would not be happy if they couldn't access a form of digital communication because they weren't considered.

    8. However, not all designers are aware of how their choices affect accessibility. Universal design is design that involves conscious decisions about accessibility for all, and it is a philosophy that should be adopted more widely by digital humanities scholars.

      Sometimes it is hard to accommodate everyone. When developing or selling products, you should have a target audience to create the best possible product and campaign for the audience you feel would buy the product. When the audience is broad or large, it's hard to appeal to everyone. I would feel that developing a website would be similar. I am sure it is difficult to ensure everyone can easily access your site without much difficulty. Especially because some people are more tech-saavy than others and people have different needs.

    9. All technology is assistive, in the end.

      People don't always understand that technology is really just creating easier ways for us to function in society. When there is something that we don't want to do or something that is repetitive or non-engaging we may develop a software or technology to do it for us or make it easier for us. We would basically be doing the same thing for disabled people in developing technology that helps them, so why not include them in the process.

    10. To those of us who are more or less comfortable with the existing dominant model of using computers, anything different, like a fast screen reader, seems alien, and the potential shortcomings of our familiar model of some combination of keyboard, mouse, and visual display remain invisible to us.

      Humans are not open to change. It takes a long time to incorporate a new technology in society. There are thousands of new developments and products being created, but because people may see them as unnecessary or unintelligible. If something is different we reject it and technology companies aren't inclined to put out different or new things because it will usually fail so they usually just improve what we already have.

    11. This scenario caused me to reevaluate my understanding of what it means to be disabled, as she clearly was using abilities that I did not—and still do not—have: I had not trained myself to be able to process auditory information as efficiently as she could.

      This is honestly my biggest pet peeve with society. I understand that there is usually a standard that we naturally follow as human beings, but I don't feel it is fair that we deem one way as the right way. Everyone is not the same; everyone thinks differently; everyone is raised differently so everyone shouldn't be expected to do things a certain way. In WIlliams' experience with the woman who can understand speech spoken at a much faster rate, he states that can't understand and has to ask the woman to slow the speech's speed, yet he is not labeled disabled.

    12. Disability, Universal Design, and the Digital Humanities

      This article is about the neglect towards towards disabled people in regards to communication with digital information. The author hopes to influence people to incorporate digital information to where a disabled person can easily access the internet just as an abled person would. Universal design means that a product is usable to the greatest extent possible by everyone and the author hopes that the internet will one day have a universal design that doesn't leave disabled people neglected. The author comes up with a few websites like Wordpress, Drupal, Omeka, MediaWiki and Joomla that have easily accessible tools for disabled people to use (CMS). There are generous people who dedicate their time to help with software, products and such, known as crowdsourcers. The government has some laws that force companies to insure that their buildings, streets, etc. are accessible to disabled people, but there is not any regulation for websites.

    13. And the growth of touch screens, primarily but not exclusively available on mobile devices, bring the possibility of a mouse-less future ever closer

      There are so many different technologies these days that are beneficial to society that people do not know about. Even the talk-to-text feature is something just now becoming popular, but it has been out for a long time. You can easily speak your message and your phone, tablet, or computer will type it out for you. It seems people are just now getting used to it to where it is becoming a social norm. This reminds me of when I was about 13 years old when wi-fi wasn't popular in homes (well maybe not for my age group) and my peers wouldn't understand the concept of wireless internet. When I would ask about wi-fi they wouldn't know what I was talking about and weren't open to the change. I've had many experiences like that because I am fairly up to date with technology.

    14. First, professionals who are certified braille translators may be hired to create well-formatted braille. Second, a number of commercial braille translation software applications may be used; the most reliable applications cost several hundred dollars and are cost prohibitive to low-income users and nonspecialized content creators

      In the text, Williams mentioned most disabled people are older, low income individuals, which makes it harder to accommodate those users because for one, there won't be very many using the tools because they are older and not so tech-saavy. Of course, there are chances that they may come across the site, but it won't be as frequently as abled people. And also, the fact that it is expensive to create software or even hire translators will discourage people to try to gather this technology for the disabled. It would be nice if we could help everyone, but sometimes the resources aren't there. Unfortunately, if there is not a huge demand for such services, people won't be persuaded to create special products for the disabled.

    15. Over the last several decades, scholars have developed standards for how best to create, organize, present, and preserve digital information so that future generations of teachers, students, scholars, and librarians may still use it. What has remained neglected for the most part, however, are the needs of people with disabilities.

      People with disabilities have been neglected for a long time. But I think that inventors are improving to make devices that are accessible to non-disabled people also accessible to disabled people. They made a huge improvement with wheelchairs. Before, it was people who were sitting on wheelchairs had to manually roll the wheels for the wheelchair to move. They still make this kind, but you are seeing less and less of these. Now with a press of just one button and the turning of a small cylinder-like stick, people can move when they want without having to move the wheels by themselves. I believe that if inventors keep trying to make these kind of improvements, then everyone will be very satisfied.

    16. Blind computer users, for example, have no use for a screen, and they most often use an interface that is either tactile, in the form of refreshable braille devices, or audible, in the form of screen-reading software or digital books.

      Blind people can't use any device with a screen. Since they can't see, a screen is basically useless to them. They would have to use devices that have a braille or audio transcribed in it. I think that digital inventors should start thinking of some way to improve devices with screens, so that blind people can start using them too. Blind people might also want to use touch screen. They want to fit in, and not want other people to think that they are different from anyone else. Blind people don't want to be judged just because they are blind.

    17. And the growth of touch screens, primarily but not exclusively available on mobile devices, bring the possibility of a mouse-less future ever closer. Both of these technologies are extremely useful for people who are disabled, but they are used for the most part by people who are not.

      Touch screens are bringing more of the possibility of people just having to use their finger to touch. Mouses are beginning to be useless. In this section, it says that touch screens help the disabled. But, what about people who are blind? How do they use touch screens? Blind people can't see the screen, so how can they use it. I believe that blind people would find the mouses more useful than touch screen. With mouses, the innovators can put braille on them so it would be easier for them to use it. Innovators can't really put braille on the touch screen. But, it think that digital inventors can start thinking about how they are going to put braille on touch screen. This will make it a whole lot easier for blind people to use. Therefore, I do not agree when this section says that, "Both of these technologies are extremely useful for people who are disabled..."(Williams).

    18. As we observe contemporary computing devices proliferate and diversify, we need to plan for a future in which our current digital resources continue to be not only useful but usable.

      I don't quite understand this section of the article. Don't useful and usable mean the same thing? If something is usable, should it not also be useful? Usable means something that is available or convenient while, useful means something that is helpful or of good effect. When inventing a device, we should focus on it being usable because, if it is usable then it should also be useful. Usable is for short term, while useful is for long term. Innovators should first think about making the device or tool usable, and then think about how to make it useful. Because, if the device is available or of convenience, then it should also be of advantageous or helpful.

    19. People with disabilities will benefit significantly if the digital humanities community pursues projects such as these and begins to take seriously the need to adopt universal design principles.

      I also agree that people with disabilities will be at great advantage if digital people continue to work on projects that take on the concept of universal design principles. Even though it might be time consuming and take a lot of hard work from the digital innovators, but people with disabilities really need this help. Working for disabled people, could also help the innovators rethink about invention whether it really helps everybody or just a particular audience. For example, how can tools in the kitchen be reinvented to help not only non-disabled people but also disabled people? Are there even tools in the kitchen that help disabled people who like to cook food? These are some questions that innovators might be thinking of to help the disabled people.

    20. The Center for History and New Media is currently developing a promising online tool named Scripto, which “will allow users to contribute transcriptions to online documentary projects” (“About,” Scripto).

      I feel like this online tool will be able to help a lot of disabled people. The users of this tool will be able to read aloud what is on the screen, while the people who have low vision or are blind can just listen to what is on the screen. People who are hard of hearing or are deaf can read the captions that people have transcribed using the tool. Scripto is a "user-friendly interface"(Williams) that allows people to contribute their own translations to an online source.

    21. Second, universal design is efficient

      This to me is one of the best reasons to apply Universal Design. Since the goal of Universal Design is to create design that can be used by as many people as possible, creating a website that can do that would be efficient.

      Since I am not in any of the tech industries quite yet, I can assume from experience with my wife and mother, designing for special needs communities doesn't seem to a common goal for a few companies. That is not to say these are bad places necessarily, but that aspect of design may not be a priority. But, what if in the near future, websites are required to be ADA compliant just like a building? In this case the website would need to be re-engineered to accommodate a new audience when that audience could have been accommodated for from the beginning.

      As tech writers if we apply Universal Design to our own work than we will be doing exactly what we have read about and discussed in class, reaching as many audiences as possible. Universal Design is also another reason to apply as many modes as possible to our content so that the information can be comprehended as efficiently as possible to some one who is blind, deaf or otherwise impaired. All of this improves efficiency for not only the company or non-profit creating the product or content, but the user as well.

    22. We would never use a proprietary format for preserving and sharing our work, in part because to do so would be to exclude those people who cannot afford or do not have access to the necessary software to use that format. However, few of us think twice about whether or not the format we have chosen and the design choices we have made exclude disabled people.

      This section caught my attention in that it is outlining how in the academic world, many professors might balk at using a proprietary software to share their work, but may not give a second thought as to how the format or design of their content could exclude others (current professor not included...) all the same.

      This grabbed my attention since I'm not sure I would think that way at first as well. In my opinion, the academic world is a perfect place to begin implementing universal design elements where possible. Looking at my own blog, I'm very confident that there was no thought into how someone with a disability or someone who is unable to access a computer could process the information I have assembled. To go off the first part of this article, I have a "free" blog because I have paid my tuition. So technically it is a proprietary format as well.

      One step I could begin within my own blog is to simply try to access and use it from my cell phone. Is there another theme that makes the content easier to scroll through? Could my fonts be bigger or bolder? Would it be possible to add pertinent videos that have subtitles? I think trying to add elements of universal design will be good training to get my mind rolling in that direction when thinking about my own work in the future. This will only make me more employable as well.

    23. We might consider, however, that there is no “natural” way to interact with the 1’s and 0’s that make up the data we are interested in creating, transmitting, receiving, and using; there is only the model we have chosen to think of as natural. All technology is assistive, in the end.

      I find this to be a great summation of technology, "All technology is assistive, in the end". Whether it's the first wheel or the first calculator, technology in the end is advanced by the need to assist humans. The first robot I ever saw was built for the purpose of assisting humans within the home. To someone with a disability this could change their life.

      When we think about technology, there is no reason why it shouldn't be used to help those who are blind read a book or a website homepage. In the end Williams mentions, "...there is no "natural" way to interact with the 1's and 0's that make up the data we are interested in creating...". This too goes back to our job as tech writers and information architects. In some cases we are making a world that is full of 1's and 0's more accessible to as many people as possible. If technology's primary goal is to assist humans, than it is our goal to assist them with their interactions with that technology. Whether that includes web design or content management, in the case of my own service learning project, we are adapting a piece of technology to a larger audience by making the website easier to use.

      It would then make sense that we would use technology to assist those who need the most assistance. By adapting technology to meet the needs of the disabled, we are fulfilling the mission of technological innovation itself, to create an easier world for humans.

    24. Digital knowledge tools that assume everyone approaches information with the same abilities and using the same methods risk excluding a large percentage of people. In fact, such tools actually do the work of disabling people by preventing them from using digital resources altogether

      When different forms of media exclude approaches that could cater to those with disabilities they lose out on reaching an audience that has traditionally been marginalized in media. As Williams points out, "...using the same methods risk excluding a large percentage of people". In business, especially when that business is centered around media and it's different forms, reaching as many people as possible is imperative. Content drives viewership and viewership drives advertising. By creating content that can be used by not only those without disabilities but by those with them, the potential audience for the content can increase greatly. This is what makes the idea of Universal Design so interesting. While many seem to argue that true Universal Design may be unattainable, the effort to create content that is close, is a step in the right direction.

      When we go out into the real world, we may be writing to an audience that is older, blind, deaf or even autistic. Our content needs to apply the ideals of Universal Design to make content that can reach as many of these different audiences as possible. Again, it may not be attainable. However, we need to try. Plus, 3 out of 4 from the list above isn't bad either. That number may fluctuate, but as we write we should be thinking somewhere in our brains, "what if a deaf person had to use this?" "if they wanted to, could they?". This type of thinking drives innovation in regards to how we cater to populations with disabilities.

    25. This image would be invisible to sighted users, but those listening to the page with screen-reading software—which reads aloud the alt attributes of images embedded in an HTML page—could use that GIF as their cue to jump past what they did not need to hear in order to get to the information that they did want to hear.

      This passage from Williams blows my mind. To think that a gif that is so small and basically invisible to me, a sighted person, is seen so clearly to a blind person is fascinating. This is a great example of how technology within in literature is changing the industry but also bringing in an audience that has been left behind. This aspect of Universal Design to me is fascinating because this is an actual application of Universal Design in a tangible way. To someone who can see, this is a normal website. But by adding small elements like a gif, someone who can't see is now able to skip ahead of content the way most of us skip immediately with our eyes. On top of that, the content can be read so quickly that even those of us who can hear, would find the content unintelligible.

      In today's world of digital media and online content, writers need to write in a way that is respectful of the reader's time. As a sighted person, I can just scan a website for the information that I find pertinent. By adding this small gif, a blind person can now do the exact same thing and skip to the information they find pertinent. Many websites are not built this way, which means according to Williams, they have to sit through the content on a particular website as their screen reading software gives them a word for word description of a home page. Most people hate waiting for the different options when listening to an automated phone system, they probably haven't had to sit through a screen read of an older, text heavy website.

      Technology is closing the gap between those who are disabled and those who are not. Our journey will be to continue to improve their lives by thinking of them when we are creating content and trying to reach for the largest audience bases we can.

    26. Another frequently cited example of universal design is the sidewalk curb cut; initially created to allow people in wheelchairs to cross the street more easily, curb cuts became recognized as useful also to other people such as someone making a delivery with a dolly, a traveler pulling luggage on wheels, a parent pushing a child in a stroller, or a person walking beside their bicycle.

      This passage in the article details the benefits of Universal Design with a great, but simple example. Williams explains how the creation of a simple "curb cut" in a side walk that was created to assist people in wheel chairs could also have unintended benefits unknown to the creator.

      Williams writes that curb cuts could also be used when, "making a delivery with a dolly...pulling luggage on wheels...pushing a child in a stroller". By trying to solve one problem, the curb cut actually solved numerous problems. Another example would be using captions and an accompanying transcription for a video. While the captions and transcriptions help the deaf watch the video, they also increase search optimization as well as helping non-disabled users understand the content even better.

      So while we can solve one problem by applying universal design, we may also be able solve problems we didn't even think about just by being open to trying something new and different. As technical writers we should keep this open minded approach and try to see what we do from the point of view of the user.

    27. While professionals working in educational technology and commercial web design have made significant progress in meeting the needs of such users, the humanities scholars creating digital projects all too often fail to take these needs into account.

      I find this passage intriguing on a few levels. The first is that the improvements in how those with disabilities interact with different forms of media has come from the business world. That shouldn't be too surprising since they are in the business of making money and in this specific case, helping to improve the lives of those who may not be able to hear or see. Making "significant progress in meeting the needs of such users" is in their best interest. This opens up their companies' products to new audiences that had not been catered to previously. This connects with the article by Goddard and Hsy as they seem to be making a connection between the advancement in technology and the advancement Universal Design. By making an article (this one is a great example) interactive and as user friendly to as many audiences as possible, they are creating a path for more profit.

      The second is the notion that scholars involved in the humanities are lagging behind in the creation of or application of digital products that could help those affected by a disability. To me, I would expect this group to be leading the charge of advancement. Of course, there could be many reasons for this. One is funding. A University is not quite a business (that line is blurred) and does not operate necessarily like a business. Departments have budgets and the professors do what they can with what they have. I would assume many tech forward (rich) universities have made an effort to cater to groups with disabilities. However, there other universities that may not have the same budget and are thus forced to use the technology they have handy, which may be a textbook and a power point presentation.

      For both groups, their work needs to reach as many people and audiences as possible for it have the best possible results. Whether that is research about the hearing impaired or a physical product to help the blind read the same article, the more audiences they can include, especially with disabilities, the better.

    28. Third, applying universal design principles to digital resources will make those resources more likely to be compatible with multiple devices

      As technology advances further, I believe we will see content being shared on more devices than ever. I believe that Williams is right in his assertion that "...applying universal design principles to digital resources will make those resources more compatible..." I found this interesting since much of my own writing on the subject thus far has been focused on how universal design can help different special needs communities. However, what I have been missing all together is how universal design can help make content more accessible to other groups as well.

      Smith points out later that, "...those more likely to use a mobile device for online access include African Americans, Hispanics, and individuals from lower income households." When we are applying universal design to our content and strategy we need to be thinking about other devices than just a laptop or desktop computer. A cellphone may be someones only connection to the internet and the content needs to be accessible to them as well.

      In our own service learning project, we saw that the functionality and design of Center Civic Innovation's website was a bit clunky. However, just for fun we decided to see what the site looked like on a cell phone. To our surprise, the functionality was better! So after reading this article, that makes sense and in our work for the Center for Civic Innovation in the future we will need to be cognizant as to how our content functions on other devices.

    29. To embrace accessibility is to focus design efforts on people who are disabled, ensuring that all barriers have been removed. To embrace universal design, by contrast, is to focus “not specifically on people with disabilities, but all people” (Mace).

      Universal Design as mentioned in the article is a concept centered around the idea of designing all products and environments to be usable to as many people as possible. Universal Design is also a theme that runs through the Goddard and Hsy article as well. From these two articles, when finding ways to improve access to technology for people with disabilities, Universal Design has to be a part of the discussion.

      Audiences are the most important aspect of creating content. We need to know who we are writing for and make sure our content can be easily accessed by that audience. As we have learned, we want to reach as many different audiences as possible so that our writing can be as effective as possible. We have also discussed how adding as many modes as possible to our work can increase the effectiveness of our work. All of these elements lend perfectly to assisting those with disabilities.

      If we are increasing accessibility we should be planning on how we could potentially help those with special needs. They are a part of "all people" as mentioned in the article. I would think being able to reach special needs audiences could make a writer very marketable since many writers may think of audience in terms of race, age, sex and education.

    30. Blind people who use the web are in need of a digital humanities project that either extends Anthologize or creates a similar tool so that RSS feeds may be converted easily and automatically into XML formats that work with digital talking book devices or with braille output devices.

      So, does the anthologize tool help the blind people? If so, how? I don't quite understand what this anthologize tool does. According to a previous section in this article, anthologize "transforms WordPress 3.0 into a platform for publishing electronic texts"(Williams). So, it converts texts into readable versions? Anthologize can transfer texts into a format called XML that "work with digital talking book devices or with braille output devices"(Williams). This tool makes it easier for blind people read a book or text. But, what is an XML format?http://www.w3schools.com/xml/xml_whatis.asp This link shows what is an XML format, what is does, and how it does it. XML is a software and hardware tool that is used for storing and transporting data. It stands for Extensible Markup Language. XML simplifies a lot of things like data sharing, data transport, platform changes, and data availability.

    31. This situation would be much improved if more projects embraced the concept of universal design, the idea that we should always keep the largest possible audience in mind as we make design decisions, ensuring that our final product serves the needs of those with disabilities as well as those without.

      I agree with this statement. I believe that people who are thinking about innovating new things that they should always think about everyone instead of just focusing about a particular audience. For example when making new phones, the inventors should think about the people who are semi-blind or fully blind and make phones where both the screen and the words on the screen are big enough for those people to see them. We should always refer to the biggest audience possible in our minds when we are making new designs on new objects. This is one way that we can improve the world, so that people with or without disabilities can live in harmony.

    32. According to the NCSU College of Design, the term “describe[s] the concept of designing all products and the built environment to be aesthetic and usable to the greatest extent possible by everyone, regardless of their age, ability, or status in life” (“Ronald L. Mace”).

      This is a definition for universal design. Universal design is the idea of designing all products for people despite their age, ability, or status in life. I believe that we need to focus a lot on this concept. Everyone should be able to have access on a product without having to worry about what their age is, what they are able to do, or how wealthy they are. Innovators should develop more products that are accessible to everyone instead of just a particular audience.

    33. Something created to assist a person with a disability—to make their environment more accessible in some way—might not be affordable or aesthetically pleasing even if it is usable and helpful. Something created using universal design principles, on the other hand, is designed “for a very broad definition of user that encourages attractive, marketable products that are more usable by everyone” (Mace).

      This section of the article is very interesting. It is saying that something that is created to assist a disabled person to make their life easier may not be pleasing or may not help people who are not disabled. And something that has a universal design, is made for everyone. Everyone can use a universal design, but the design that is made for disabled people might only be usable for them and not for everyone. This part of the article is stating the difference for a design that is specifically made for the disabled and a design that is made for everyone.

    34. Second, universal design is efficient.

      I agree with this statement. Universal design is not only efficient to those people who are disabled; it is efficient for everyone to use. An example of an universal design mentioned in a previous section of this article would be the automatic garage door. It is affordable and easily accessible for people with or without disabilities. With a click of just one button, the garage door will close by itself. You don't have to walk up to the garage door and use your hands to push it down. The automatic garage door is efficient is that it closes your garage door for you without you having to waste any of your energy. It's productive without you having to do anything for it.

    35. Third, applying universal design principles to digital resources will make those resources more likely to be compatible with multiple devices. To create an online resource that only works with a desktop or laptop computer is to exclude people who would prefer to access the resource with a smart phone, a tablet, or some other mobile device.

      This reason states that applying universal design principles also helps digital resources more suited with multiple devices. Some online resources in the world only work on a desktop or laptop computer. Universal design principles can make online resources compatible with not only your computer, but with a phone, tablet, or any other mobile device. This way you can go to the online resource without having to bring a laptop. You can just search it on your phone or tablet.

    1. Gordon (2005) explained that color blindness ‘‘maintainsthat race does not exist as a meaningful category and posits that the benefitsaccrued to White people are earned by (gifted) individuals rather than sys-temically conferred’’

      Here's an interesting comic dealing with this idea: http://www.gradientlair.com/post/102200016923/white-privilege-cartoon

    2. inequities in health, wealth, and education.

      One criticism I have heard of the focus on race in the US recently is that we do not talk about class enough. Maybe this is true, but of course like this part of the article suggests race and class are tied together in a lot of ways.

    3. nfortunately, there was still little research in this area in 2004

      It is interesting how that was not that long ago. I wonder if there has been a lot more research done on the topic.

    4. Beyond Compliance: Participatory Translation ofSafety Communication for Latino Construction Workers,’

      Again, another example of the importance of Spanish in the US and therefore in technical communication in the US.

    5. Writing New Mexico White: A Critical Analysis of Early Representationsof New Mexico in Technical Writing

      This would be an interesting read, because as a country we often forget that half of the US was originally a part of Mexico and there are still ties in those states to the country (if only in the names, e.g. New Mexico) so it is worrying to hear about them erasing this past and replacing it with WEA culture.

    6. ‘‘Instructions, Visuals, and the English-Speaking Bias of Technical Commu-nication’’ address the representation of Latinos in U.S. technical communica-tion.

      This ties into what I wrote earlier that the US has the second biggest number of Spanish speakers out of all the countries in the world. In general in the US we should opt to have technical documentation available in different languages, however in my opinion due to the large presence of Spanish in the US we should definitely have more technical communication in Spanish and try to embrace the language more as a culture and as part of our identity as a nation.

    7. We acknowledge, though, that many, inside and outside of our field,believe that race is not a relevant concept in our society or field. Some arguethat we live in a nonracist society, and thus the need to acknowledge colorno longer exists

      I like how this (short) comic explains white privilege: http://everydayfeminism.com/2014/09/white-privilege-explained/ Also, if you are interested in feminism/social justice this is a really neat site.

    8. 50.5 million people, making Hispanics the largest minority group in theUnited States.

      -I want to preface this by noting that not all Hispanic people in the US can speak Spanish.- Anyway, this is important because at least according to the study mentioned in this CNN article: http://www.cnn.com/2015/07/01/us/spanish-speakers-united-states-spain/ the US has the second highest population of Spanish speakers in the world, second only to Mexico. Meaning there are more people that speak Spanish in the US than in Spain.

    9. Through a careful, criticaldeconstruction of the 2010 census form and census data reports, Pimenteland Balzhiser propose a ‘‘double occupancy of Hispanics’’ whereby theHispanic-origin and race questions simultaneously encourage the U.S. soci-ety to keep a tab on Hispanic growth and inflate the white count

      This is important because a lot of people confuse being Hispanic with being a race, when it is really an ethnicity (at least it is considered so in the US). And since being Hispanic is an ethnicity and being white is a race, it is possible to be a white Hispanic. Spanish-speaking countries are extremely diverse (for a large part consisting of black, white,indigenous and multiracial populations). So it'd be interesting to see how the race and ethnicity questions affect census findings.I also would like to know what they mean by double occupancy.

    10. monographs

      according to Wikipedia a monograph is "a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works)[1] on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, usually by a single author."