34 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2021
    1. This tier is essentially everything else. These types of sources—especially Wikipedia—can be helpful in identifying interesting topics, positions within a debate, keywords to search, and, sometimes, higher-tier sources on the topic. They often play a critically important role in the early part of the research process, but they generally aren’t (and shouldn’t be) cited in the final paper.

      I found this section by the author pretty interesting. I believe that this was interesting because the author talked about sources that we could possibly get information from but aren't good enough to put in a final paper. I personally have come across many sources like this. I believe you can still get valuable information from these type of sources but you should not rely on them.

    2. Third, there are some great books from non-academic presses that cite their sources; they’re often written by journalists. All three of these sources are generally well researched descriptions of an event or state of the world, undertaken by credentialed experts who generally seek to be even-handed. It is still up to you to judge their credibility. Your instructors, librarians, or writing center consultants can advise you on which sources in this category have the most credibility.

      The author begins to speak about the sources that come with writing. citing sources and sources overall, are very important parts in writing. By citing sourceless it allows us to show our intended audience that are work and quotes are from credible and reliable resources. This also keeps everyone's work from having plagiarism within it.

    3. Scholarly articles appear in academic journals, which are published multiple times a year to share the latest research findings with scholars in the field. They’re usually sponsored by an academic society. To be published, these articles and books had to earn favorable anonymous evaluations by qualified scholars. Who are the experts writing, reviewing, and editing these scholarly publications? Your professors. We describe this process below. Learning how to read and use these sources is a fundamental part of being a college student.

      Here the author is showing us the audience many things. We all can learn the import steps and percautions of becoming a well-rounded college student. The author talks about how there is a process to the things that we are doing. I think that we all can learn a thing or two from this becaseu it tells us that we can break our issues into parts and try to improve

    1. This kind of thesis-first approach to research becomes harmful, however, when we assume that it is the only or the most valuable way to conduct research. Evidence of this widespread assumption is easy to find. A simple search for the research process on Google will yield multiple hits hosted by academic institutions that suggest a researcher needs a thesis early in the research process. For instance, the University of Maryland University College’s Online Guide to Writing and Research suggests that a thesis should be developed as soon as source collec-tion gets underway, though that thesis may change over time. In the book, A Writing Process, author Vinetta Bell suggests that the thesis-writing process begins during the “preliminary research” stage. This strategy is endorsed by multiple research library websites, such as the University of Minnesota.

      Emily A. Wierszewski is trying to tell her audience that there can be harm to writing and researching in a particular way. I believe that Emily A. Wierszewski's whole goal is to help everyone change their ways of researching and writing so they can better themselves. Everyone can learn a thing or two from Emily A. Wierszewski.

    2. Research can be productively used in this way to verify assump-tions and arguments. Sometimes what we need is just a little support for an idea, a confirmation of the best approach to a prob-lem, or the answer to simple questions. For example, we might believe the new iPhone is the best smartphone on the market, and use research on the phone’s specs to prove we’re right.

      Here the author talks about how we can all start use research in different ways. I think that this is something that is very is very important to share to other people because it can possibly help someone to better their writing skills. A person can use this advice and apply to any class they may be in.

    3. Our collective belief in the importance of definite answers impacts many areas of our lives, including how we understand the process and purpose of research. Specifically, it leads to a thesis-first research model in which research is only used to verify our existing ideas or theses. (Alison Witte discusses this bad idea in a previous chapter.) In this model, there is no room for doubt or ambiguity. We assume we need to know the answers to our problems or ques-tions before the process gets underway, before we consult and eval-uate what others have said.

      This passage is more about how the thesis statement is very important part to conducting research. Emily A. Wierszewski makes an emphasis on truly understanding process and purpose of research. The author is making a strong case for research being a very important part of writing that should be improved upon.

    4. Perhaps some of the confusion over the role of research in writ-ing, and the writing process, comes from the structure of classical argument that is often included as part of the organizational pattern for the research paper. When argument is taught, it’s frequently connected to the historical practices of Greek and Roman rheto-ric. Rhetoric, the study of the ways to use language to persuade a listener, was one of the core subjects of formalized education in Greek and Roman times and was seen as a necessary compo-nent of democratic citizenship. The study of rhetoric focused on argument as an oral practice of making clear

      Alison C. Witte is talking about reasons as to why there are many people who are confused on how to properly conduct research. This is a very helpful part of the passage because it clearly shows the audience on how they can change their way of thinking and their methods to better their researching skills.

    5. So, what does it really mean to do research? Research is a three-stage process: (1) seeking information that is new to the researcher, (2) interpreting, evaluating, and organizing that information, and (3) reporting that information to others to affect some action. Richard Larson emphasizes that the nature of research is active. The researcher—whether student, academic, or professional—takes an active role in seeking. Seeking is not limited to locating what exists, but also extends to creating new data or information in service of answering a question or solving a problem.

      This section here is really about what research is actually about. Alison C. Witte tries to explain to us how we should all try to structure our research. Alison C. Witte believes that this way of researching can make things a lot easier for all of us. The way Alison C. Witte wants us to conduct our research is broken up into three sections. by putting the process into sections, it really makes things a lot easier for people to follow.

    6. The research paper has become a rite of passage where students choose a topic (or are assigned one) about which they present a claim, and then look for ways to confirm it with evidence located through some ambiguous thing or process called research. One of the primary problems with the research paper is that it teaches students that to do research is to look things up—to use the library or the Internet. Skills for locating information are essential to being a successful researcher, as is familiarity with the library and the rich variety of sources available, but it represents only a small part of the research process.

      In this section here, I believe that the author Alison C. Witte is aiming towards the problems that may occur when it comes to writing a research paper. The author talks about how there are many problems with students writing their research papers because they are relying on resources that will nit help them in the long-run.

    7. Unfortunately, the labor involved in researching and using the Internet for research tends to be ignored. Instructors may underestimate the nuances of popular databases and overesti-mate students’ frequent use of databases as competency. However, Internet research really is a lot of work. Researching “the research paper” via Google, Google News, and Google Scholar retrieves almost 19,000,000 results. Unaccompanied by quotes, the number of results exceeds one billion. Without awareness of the impor-tance of Boolean logic, or operators that affect the scale of results, a researcher may find herself drowning in data. When plugged into proprietary databases available to most college and university students such as Proquest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, and Academic Search Complete, the research paper displays several thousands of sources per database.

      Alexandria Lockett talks about how the amount of labor that comes from researching with technology is being ignored. The author is telling us that writing a research paper with the internet can be daunting task as well as writing a research paper in the library. overall there could be downsides to both ways of writing a research paper.

    8. Typically, a first-year college student’s research paper assign-ment might require 5–10 sources, whereas advanced students are probably asked to cite no more than 30 sources. These figures may stem from research concerns that emerged during an entirely different technological history

      Here the author speaks more about how the "normal" research paper should kind of look like and how it should be structured. The author talks about things like sources and citing your sources. Alexandria Lockett talks about how the amount of sources cited required can can differ when it comes to the student.

    9. To understand the research paper and its contemporary signif-icance, we must acknowledge how the Internet makes the process of research and of writing research much more complex. A vast majority of Internet users use the web and social media multi-ple times per day. Long gone are the days when one major func-tion of the research paper was to bring students into contact with libraries. Today’s students need to also know how to navigate the Internet—a vast digital source of information whose system archi-tecture affects the work of teaching and research.

      In this section the author speaks about how the traditional way of writing a research paper has generally been lost in time. The author believes that technology has changed the way that people write their research papers. The author believes that internet has taken away many aspects of writing the traditional research paper.

    10. The five-paragraph essay (5PE) doesn’t have many vocal defenders in Departments of English in higher education, but for some instructors, the 5PE remains a useful tool in the pedagogi-cal kit. Most college writing instructors have eschewed the 5PE, contending that it limits what writing can be, constricts writers’ roles, and even arbitrarily shapes writers’ thoughts. Yet, defenders of the 5PE counter that beginning writers need the guidance and structure that it affords. It works, they say, and it gives writers a place from which to start.

      In this section the author talks about how there are not many people who are speaking out about the 5PE format. The author is trying to say that the 5PE is a useful tool and it is not being appreciated enough. I believe that the authors goal is to spread the message that the 5PE format should be used more.

    11. The 5PE may sound familiar. In its most basic form, it is an introduction, three points, and a conclusion. Students are often given a topic to discuss, a passage to respond to, or a question to answer.

      Here the author talks about the different parts of the 5PE. The author lists the introduction, three points, and the conclusion. This is something that I and most other students are familiar with because we learn about it when we were young writers. I believe that following this structure is very beneficial to young writers.

    12. Here is the thing, though: When writers (and critics) talk about the 5PE, they’re not really talking about five paragraphs any more than critics or proponents of fast-food restaurants are talking about McDonald’s. Most defenders of the 5PE will either explic-itly or implicitly see the sentence, the paragraph, and the essay as reflections of each other. Just as an essay has a thesis, a paragraph has a topic sentence; just as a paper has evidence to support it, a paragraph has detail.

      Here the author talks about exactly what the 5PE is. the author is kind of telling us how things come together and how they are connected. We can understand this when the author talks about how certain things reflect each other. overall how everything flows with each-other. The walkthrough is what the author is talking about.

  2. Sep 2021
    1. One sphere of writing is marked off as creative while others are de-valued.

      Cydney Alexis is telling us here that we all can be creative no matter what type of writing we are doing. This can help young writers out a lot because it shows them that they can be more creative no matter what they are wring. this can encourage more people to be creative and make their wring a lot better.

    2. The problem is that one image of writing dominates the popu-lar imagination and is weighted with value more heavily than all others: creative writing, which is treated as if it’s interchangeable with fiction and poetry. Over the years, I’ve come to understand a few pervasive problems that stem from the view of creativity as tied to fiction and poetry, from the public’s lack of awareness of what academics and other workplace writers do, from problematic attitudes held within the so-called field of creative writing itself

      Here cyndey Alexis os telling us that many people are writing in the same way. SHe is saying that any people fall into the same form of writing, she is encouraging writers to try new things to better their wring. Here audience is all writers across the world. she is trying to help

    3. To many, if not most, the phrase creative writing marks a genre. It’s as simple as breakfast. A man writes in a garret, his pages lit by the faint glow of a lamp. Ideas are spilling madly from his cerebral cortex to the page. He probably has a cup of coffee next to him. Or a dog. And he is writing a story—perhaps about a road trip.

      Cydney Alexis is telling us that many people when it comes to wring, lack creativity. she is saying that she see lots of writing that doesn't step outside of the box. She tells us here that creative writing is a process and it can be beneficial. there are good things that come with it.

    4. Mostly they keep silent on the topic of teaching humorous yet legitimately academic, persuasive writ-ing, and let the Western tradition’s tendency to privilege tragedy carry the big stick.

      Here Micheal Theune talks about how some people keep silent on the topic. He is making this message to encourage more people to speak up on the topic. He want this issue to be handled and no one else wants to speak up about it. Micheal Thenune is showing us that there are more ways to do things.

    5. But those who think academic writing must exclude the come-dic are serious. (And a writing teacher should NOT call them Shirley. That is, not if that teacher wants to keep her job.)

      Here Michael Theune talks about how some teachers may be enforcing this particular mindset when it comes to writing in schools. He is telling us that some teachers may be making things a little to serious without giving the freedom to the children. The children are learning from the teacher that is only right to be serious at all times.

    6. Surely, you can’t be serious! After all, very smart people have been slaying ignorance while slaying audiences by delivering intel-ligent ideas with comedy’s passion, edge, urgency, and punch for quite some time: Samantha Bee. John Oliver. Key and Peele.

      Michael Theune Is telling us exactly what is wrong with certain peoples mindsets when it comes to writing. He is telling us that all writing dose not have to be serious. His target audience is to all writers. He is showing us certain things to make us all better writers.

    7. Effective revising isn’t making changes for the sake of change, but instead making smarter changes.

      In this sentence right here Laura Giovanelli is breaking down exactly what the act of revision actually is. She is telling us that revision is for us to better our writing. We should be revising our work to get better at writing not to just do it for no particular reason.

    8. BreidenbachThe fantasy that good writers summon forth beautiful, lean, yet intricate sentences onto a page without sweating is an unhealthy fiction, and it is wrong.

      This sentence by Laura Giovanelli shows us a lot about writing. She is telling us that even the best writers in this world aren't perfect. Laura Giovanelli is telling us that there are people who believe that they are perfect and she is here to tell us that they are not. Revision is what makes the writing good is the statement she is trying to make to us.

    9. The standard perception that revision is something that happens at the end of the writing process is a good place to start revising ideas about revision.”

      The author Laura Giovanelli puts the quote "The standard perception that revision is something that happens at the end of the writing process is a good place to start revising ideas about revision" by Cathleen Breidenbach. It is saying that most people believe that the revision should come at the end rather than doing it during the writing.

    1. Many people bemoan the large amount of packaging that supermarkets use, particularly for fruit and vegetables, most of which have their own natural protection. Nonetheless, a major reason that supermarkets use so much packaging is to protect food and prevent waste—particularly with fresh food. Removing plastic entirely from our food supply may not be the best solution when it comes to protecting the environment and conserving valuable resources.

      In this section the author is showing that audience one of the factors that goes in to waste. When we are educated on the reasons behind the issues that are going on in our communities, we can better prepare ourselves to make the right decision when time calls for it.

    2. Simply removing plastic from food packaging is not as sustainable as one might think. There are lots of cases where plastic packaging can be beneficial at reducing waste. But food sellers need to think of ways to reduce and reuse the plastic where possible.

      When authors show solutions, It often encourages the reader to make a change for the better.

    3. More than 50% of food waste takes place in households and nearly 20% is wasted during processing. Plastic packaging may be a necessary evil to reduce this high level of waste in both areas. A number of factors must be taken into account when determining how useful plastic packaging is in the food supply chain, as it has the potential to preserve food and prevent its wastage

      The author is giving statistics about waste which can start to persuade his audience

    1. This week a new report will be released on behalf of Champions 12.3 – a group of public and private sector leaders who have made a commitment to help halve global food waste per capita by 2030, in line with Target 12.3 of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. It sets out the economic arguments for reducing food waste.

      The author also shows that his message has an intended audience. Dave lewis is trying to reach out tp the CEO's of the world.

    2. In other words, reducing waste offers real business opportunities. So, we need to put food waste on the boardroom agenda. CEOs rely on hard numbers. Until now, there hasn’t been a clear set of data and financial analysis that business leaders can point to on food waste. Our ambition with this report is to change that and make sure food waste gets the focus from business that it deserves.

      In this section the author is trying to show us that there is a possible solution to the current waste problem. Dave Lewis also gives the audience a reason which can be persuasive

    3. Imagine a land mass greater than China. Now imagine that land is only used to produce food. Then suppose all the crops and produce from those 2.5 billion acres are not eaten. Imagine all of that – and you have grasped the amount of food the world wastes every year.

      Dave Lewis first shows the audience a urgent issue that the world is currently going through. Letting the audience know the topic early on can help them make connections the father they read.

  3. Aug 2021
    1. Every year a third of the world’s food is wasted. In terms of weight, it adds up to around 1.3bn tonnes. In the UK alone, we waste over 10m tonnes of food in a year.

      This shows us that waste is an urgent problem in todays society.

    1. Numerous writing studies scholars have documented how attitudes toward students, learning, and writing itself have influenced writing instruction.

      I believe that attitudes play a big part in the overall learning experience. Having a positive attitude towards the students makes them excited and motivated to learn. A negative attitude could prevent students from wanting to engage in the class which could lead to students being confused on certain topics.

    2. As teachers understandably grew fearful about losing their jobs because of low test scores, they devoted class time to preparing students for the tests rather than developing prac-tices that would have helped students improve as readers and writ-ers. Standardized tests often rely on multiple-choice responses that neither allow for complexity of thought nor invite students to draw connections between the text under consideration and their own experiences.

      Many times in different schools, the structure of the learning would be more geared towards teaching the students to pass the tests rather than actually learning the material thoroughly. This is hurting all of the students later on down the line because they will be missing the core information that they will need when they advance.

    3. This often manifests itself in teaching only surface-level reading strategies in K–12 such as skimming and reading for the gist, and in cries of, “They should know this stuff before they get here!” at the university level.

      I agree with Julie Barger's statement when she spoke about teachers failing to realize that there are some students who may not have a strong grasp on the concepts that are "simple" or "easy". For teachers to go into new school years expecting every student understands every single concept can very likely be detrimental to a students learning progression and experience.