20 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2022
    1. Thus have been briefly noticed the results obtained by research in the Leipsic laboratory during the past seven years. They prove conclusively that it is possible to apply experimental methods to the study of mind. The positive results are, besides, not insignificant, and will compare favourably with what has been accomplished during the same period in many chemical, physical and physiological laboratories. An increased interest is everywhere being taken in experimental psychology, and we may hope that we shall some day have as accurate and complete knowledge of mind as of the physical world.

      As experimental psychology was being pushed to evolve into new science through development of experimentation, observation, appliance of external stimuli and reaction of the psyche; the results produced equate to the ones in other scientific fields. The importance of having psychology be a natural science is to understand how an individual's psychology functions in response to the stimuli. Experimentation would allow better understanding of conscious beings. The experiments discussed provide value to adapting psychology as an experimental science that would benefit students and provide equality to psychology in comparison to a field like chemistry.

    2. . Lange found the intervals between the [p. 51] maxima of intensity in sensation to be constant, and that a similar alteration in distinctness takes place in the case of images. This interval, two to three seconds, does not seem due to fatigue in the sense-organ or nerve, but apparently represents a natural rhythm in consciousness or attention

      Lange's experiments dealt with attention, noticing that we notice faint stimuli sometimes, and sometimes we don't. Things like the ticking of a watch, or a flickering light. Lange found the intervals between of around 2-3 seconds of for these stimuli don't seem to fatigue the nerves, and may be a natural rhythm in consciousness/attention.

    3. There seems to be an upper and a lower limit to consciousness or attention.

      As the concept of consciousness was taking a scientific approach, e.g., Wundt's new psychology discussing immediate conscious; it came into light the leveled limits of consciousness or attention here.

    4. Thus Glass made all his experiments on himself, and the same interval was estimated 100 times in succession

      It was common in early experimental psychology to test self in studies, taking turns between experimenter and subject, as Cattell did too during his time at Leipzig examining "effects of stimulus intensity on reaction time" (Goodwin, 2015, p. 94)

    5. If, however, our physiological movements and mental processes should take place at the same rate as now, while our objective measures of time should move twice as fast, the days of our years would become seven score years, instead of three score years and ten, but we should not for this reason live any the longer or be any the older. If, on the other hand, we should live as many years as at present, but the rate of our physiological and mental motions be doubled, we should live twice as long and become twice as old as now. It would, consequently, be of immense theoretical and, perhaps, practical importance to learn whether in the course of evolution the molecular arrangement of the nervous system becomes more delicately balanced, so that the physical changes corresponding to our thinking pass more quickly-whether as thoughts become broader, feelings more intense and will stronger, the time they take up becomes less

      Cattell is providing an example of the differences of mental processes for simple and complex tasks executed with time objectivity and physiological/mental reactivity.

    6. It is thus an interesting branch of research to determine the time required for the simpler and more complex mental processes, and to study the variation in persons of different race, sex, age, education, occupation, &c.

      Simply put, it's researching the contrast of how long it takes to accomplish a simple task versus a complex task, and compare it with the demographic.

    7. The department of research which we have just been considering, that concerned with the relation between the psychical state and the physical stimulus, has been aptly called psychophysic

      Psychophysics deals with quantitative method of studying mental events with physical events, psychological sensations that are studied with the relations shown from the physical stimuli

    8. The loudness of sound has not been satisfactorily measured objectively; so it was found necessary at Leipsic to set up some standard of sound before its intensity could be brought into relation to the sensation. Tischer[3] was the first to attempt to make such determinations; he found that the noise made by a falling ball was not proportional to the weight of the ball multiplied by the height from which it falls, but increases more slowly. Later experiments made by Starke[4] and by Merkel[5] seem, however, to show that

      Importance of a laboratory and experimentation is shown here - with the work put out, it allows for other students to experiment and analyze the information further until a solid and repetitive answer is accumulated.

    9. We have, however, more especially to do with the experiments made in the Leipsic laboratory

      Weber's work showed relation of mental and physical events which would be influential in physiology but also expanded to psychology

    10. Weber first called attention to the fact that, when weights are laid on the supported hand, each must be increased by about 1/3 of its original weight before any change is noticed. Since then many experiments have been made on the several senses, and it has been found approximately to hold that the least noticeable change in the intensity of a sensation is occasioned by a chnnge in the stimulus directly proportional to the amount of the stimulus.

      Weber noted the difference as "just noticeable difference" and it depends on proportional relationship rather than absolute difference (Goodwin, 2015, p. 85). Weber was essentially using three points in his law: sensations, measurement and math formulation (Goodwin, 2015, p. 85).

    11. Wundt established not only the laboratory, but also a journal or " Archiv," the Philosophische Studien, for the publication of the methods and results of psychological research, and for the scientific discussion of questions in psychology, logic aid theory of knowledge

      As Cattell noted earlier with how pathology came into light through repeated results and medical journal entries, here Wundt's hard work can equate to the idea that Cattell put in the example.

    12. Psychological laboratories have been established or are being planned at Berlin, Bonn, Göttingen; in America, at Johns Hopkins, Harvard, Pennsylvania and Princeton; in England at Cambridge; also at Copenhagen and elsewhere.

      Americans, for example, took inspiration from Wundt and his lab but also were enticed by the scientific proposition Wundt held towards psychology (Goodwin, 2015, p. 99). They create their own distinctive psychology but the motivation and influences were seen from Wundt's (Goodwin, 2015, p. 99).

    13. In 1879 rooms for the laboratory were set apart in the university buildings: the authorities also granted a, yearly appropriation for the purchase of apparatus, and more recently a demonstrator with a salary has been appointed

      His laboratory became so popular that it attracted pupils from America and Europe

    14. Wundt directed toward one centre the divergent lines, and persuaded men of science on the one and hand [sic] students of philosophy on the other to accept the new science.

      Wundt established new psychology - "examination of immediate conscious...and study of higher mental processes" (Goodwin, 2015, p. 91) as he believed few aspects of psychology could be scientific, gathered apparatus for personal research and demonstration for students - which led to the Leipzig university provided a small area which came to be the first lab of experimental psychology (Goodwin, 2015, pp. 89, 90). The laboratory was used to conduct new and original research by students (Goodwin, 2015, p.90)., so it was seen to expand into experimental psychology by students than just for his demonstration.

    15. it will be found that in psychology, as elsewhere in science, experiment gives the most trustworthy and accurate results

      Cattell highlights the importance of experimentation because it gives an allowance of experimenting and testing in order to retrieve repetitive and trustworthy results. He also equates psychology to the other scientific fields instead of proposing it should be equated.

    16. Experiment is not meant to take the place of introspection, but is, meant to make scientific introspection possible

      Introspection is a self-observation philosophical tool that allows an individual to reflect on experiences and this tool creates inadequate scientific results, which is why it was questioned and believed for consciousness to not be considered. Wundt ostracized naive introspection. Internal perception was a narrower process that dealt with self-observation but under controlled settings. Even with that, there were residing issues of memory and bias (Goodwin, 2015, p. 91).

    17. It was only after exact methods of analysis and measurement had been introduced that astronomy and chemistry became possible, and apparently isolated facts were brought together under the law of gravitation. So long as the phenomena with which a science has to deal cannot be repeated for accurate study, there is but little hope of attaining exact knowledge. The progress of pathology, for example, has been slow, and it has only become a science since laboratories have been established and hospitals and medical journals have made it possible to study repetitions of the same symptoms.

      For psychology to become a natural science, it had to create experiments with the same repeated results to prove factual analysis. Education is the main purpose, so the repeated results are required in order to be studied. The objectivity needs to be constant and identified.

    18. It may be that the problems opened by experiment to the: student of psychology are not less interesting or important than such as can be solved in chemical, physical or physiological laboratories.

      Developing psychology as a science makes it an equal to other scientific fields, not better nor worse. Equality is the key.

    19. The student of philosophy, subject to special temptation and danger, requires even more than others the training coming from natural science and the immediate contact with facts

      As psychology was creating itself as natural science, it was imperative for its pupils to approach psychology not as a philosophy but as natural science. The allowance of psychological labs would testify psychology as a natural science. Knowledge gained in laboratories is important for students to gain experience.

    20. University laboratories have the same ends as the University itself, the education of students and the advancement of knowledge. For both of these purposes psychological laboratories are urgently needed

      Knowledge is expanded and advanced through education and the purpose of a laboratory supplies the ability to conduct experiments for research and educational purposes, so the purpose is parallel. As Cattell studied under Wundt and developed interest in psychology, he studied sensory perceptions like reaction time through experimental psychology.