23 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. experience of social relations

      Ideology: culminated experience of social relations, which are enforced each day by new experiences of social relations

    2. guarantee to owners all offspring of slave women,however fathered, at the slight disadvantage of losing to them suchoffspring as might have been fathered on free women by slave men.

      Slaveowners could rape slave women, and father their children resulting in more slaves for the slaveowner.

    3. Each new increment of freedomthat the lower classes regarded as their due represented the provi-sional outcome of the last round in a continuing boxing-match andestablished the fighting weights of the contenders in the next round

      So basically what I'm gathering.... Is resistance here could be defined is fighting the injustices still faced by those of African descent because of the ideologies formed through due to greed and slavery implemented by the powers of Euro-Americans and Europeans. Fighting against this "Race" thing and just realizing we aren't different races, just a social construct. But the aftermath of making people see differences between races (that aren't even there), still needs to be rectified.

    4. Lamarckism

      passing useful genetic traits to offspring

    5. Nothing so well illustrates that impossibility as the conviction amongotherwise sensible scholars that race ‘explains’ historical phenomena

      race doesn't explain historical phenomena, because it doesnt explain why people of African descent have ben set apart. It doesn't make any sense. Race is a social construct.

    1. thecitizen, forever active, sweats, bustles about, constantly frets to seek ever morelaborious tasks: he works to death, he even runs toward it in order to be in aposition to live, or he renounces life in order to acquire immortality. He courtsthe great he hates and the rich he despises; he spares nothing to obtain the honorof serving them; he boasts proudly of his baseness and of their protection and,proud of his slavery, he speaks with contempt of those who do not have thehonor of sharing it.


    2. hat this state is theveritable youth of the world, and that all subsequent progress has been inappearance so many steps toward the perfection of the individual, and in facttoward the decrepitude of the species

      I've always had this idea that the human species is still developing (obviously) but basically we go through phases... until we can reach true enlightenment of all humans. Of the species. We're still in this "highschool" phase it seems. Arguing and putting each other down, instead of working together to come to a common solution. We just want to be right because pride still gets in the way.

    3. In riots, in streetfights, the populace assembles, the prudent man moves away. It is the rabble, itis the marketwomen, who separate the combatants and keep decent people fromslitting one another’s throat

      It is those who don't know too much who experience the natural human tendency of pity

    4. they needed to knowtheir properties and differences, they needed observations and definitions, that is,much more natural history and metaphysics than the men of that time could havehad

      I disagree. Animals can distinguish things that hurt them or help them. Some can identify plants safe for them to eat vs not safe for them. event insects can do this. A man without language could do this without definition

    5. The first difficulty that arises is to imagine how languagescould have become necessary, for since men have neither relations amongthemselves nor any need of them, neither the necessity of this invention nor itspossibility is conceivable unless it were indispensable

      SO this highlights how he says that humans are not a social. Otherwise language would be useless. They must socializ.e

    6. a female

      ew. stop. A mate. Male or female. A mate. and I interpret this entire thing as male or female not just "men"

    7. t would be sad for us to be forced to agreethat this distinctive and almost unlimited faculty is the source of all man’smisfortunes, that it is this faculty which, by dint of time, draws him out of thatoriginal condition in which he would pass tranquil and innocent days, that it isthis faculty which, over the centuries, by causing his enlightenment and hiserrors, his vices and his virtues, to bloom, makes him in the long run the tyrantof himself and of nature

      perfectability, and the ability to change over time, gain more knowledge and alter passions, he also destroys himself and that which connects him to nature. the man essentially results in causing his own misfortunes

    8. knowledge men do not naturally

      Interesting way of perceiving this. Is it natural? Did we follow a natural trajectory of the human race, which is still changing and evolving. What even is natural for the human race... we don't understand man fully, but all we can do is work to better our species together. It seems our passion is to gain more knowledge and more stability.

    9. . For it is no light undertaking to disentangle what is originalfrom what is artificial in the present nature of man, and to know correctly a statewhich no longer exists

      is it "artificial" though, if it is man in a state of a particular society. Perhaps it is actually natural, however, mentally challenging and results in greed... vices.

    10. his precious freedom, which is maintained by large nations onlythrough exorbitant taxes, costs you almost nothing to preserve

      wait so freedom is paid for by large taxes for the community, that basically cost nothing? I suppose what is the money value of happiness? Can it be quantified? would people be willing to give up their own power and control (money) to the greater good in pursuit of happiness?? Many people are very selfish... Perhaps those with money only want to use their money to explore their passions and not share with those they feel haven't earned it. BUt how can we say one individual has earned more than another when we are born in different situations. When the climb is much longer and steeper for those born into poverty, than those born into wealth. For the impoverished, how can one flourish when they're focused on staying alive? For the wealthy, how can one flourish when they're preoccupied with all their wealth and access to all the material pleasures of the world?

    11. people soon scorns those laws which it seeschange daily, and that by becoming accustomed to neglect ancient practices onthe pretext of doing better, great evils are often introduced to correct lesser ones

      I'm confused by this meaning

    12. For freedomis like those hearty and succulent foods or those full-bodied wines which are fitfor nourishing and fortifying robust temperaments which are accustomed tothem, but which overwhelm, ruin, and intoxicate those weak and delicatetemperaments which are not up to them.

      poetic mf

    13. were not only free, but worthy of being so

      SO hes saying some people aren't worthy of being free. That could be taken strangely, but I think hes trying to mean the whole "with freedom comes responsibility" thing. Which i think makes sense. With freedom does come responsibility, because without responsibility your freedom could be taken by someone else who wants power. BY someone else who could be a tyrant. Dont want a reckless freedom, only reasonable

    14. I would have chosen a society of a sizelimited by the extent of human faculties—that is, by the possibility of being wellgoverned—and where, each person being up to his task, no one was compelledto entrust others with the functions with which he was charged; a state where, allindividuals knowing one another, neither the obscure maneuvers of vice nor themodesty of virtue could be hidden from the public’s notice and judgment, andwhere that sweet habit of seeing and knowing one another made love of thefatherland a love of the citizens rather than love of the soi

      Basically imagining a society where everyone works together for the greater good of each other. Where we aren't just putting our trust (AND POWER) in the hands of others. Where we know each other well enough that we aren't separated by our power. Where no wrongdoing can be hidden from public notice or judgement because we all understand whats going on. Love for one another,not just the soil we live on. NO BOURGOIS

    15. For regardless of what the constitution of agovernment may be, if there is a single man5 who is not subject to the law, all theothers are necessarily at his discretion (I


    16. was going to see Diderot, at that time a prisoner in Vincennes; I had in my pocket a Mercury of Francewhich I began to leaf through along the way. I fell across the question of the Academy of Dijon whichgave rise to my first writing. If anything has ever resembled a sudden inspiration, it is the motion that wascaused in me by that reading; suddenly I felt my mind dazzled by a thousand lights; crowds of livelyideas presented themselves at the same time with a strength and a confusion that threw me into aninexpressible perturbation; I feel my head seized by a dizziness similar to drunkenness. . . . Oh Sir, if Ihad ever been able to write a quarter of what I saw and felt under that tree, how clearly I would havemade all the contradictions of the social system seen, with what strength I would have exposed all theabuses of our institutions, with what simplicity I would have demonstrated that man is naturally good andthat it is from these institutions alone that men become wicked

      !!!!!!!! Yes

    17. If so, wouldn’t human nature therefore be shaped to a greatextent by historical, environmental, and social forces instead of having auniversal and unvarying form

      saying a certain thought or mindset is human nature is wrong. Think of evolution, over time a species adapts and changes to its environment. Assuming human consciousness is different literally goes against what we know of physical evolution. If passion and desire drive our reasoning, and passion and desire changes through evolution of the human consciousness then our reasoning should also be considered to evolve. Human nature does not stay the same, and neither can our systems put in place.

    18. reason is the servan

      reason is the servant of the passions rather than the master- one way rousseau agrees with hobbes and locke and challenges classical philosophical tradition