187 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2017
    1. וַיִּשְׁלָחֵ֨הוּ֙ wayyishlahehu and he sent him So he sent him out

      This example should be a phrase

    1. שֹׁרֵ֥שׁ shoresh they have taken root they have taken root JOB 9:15 לִ֝מְשֹׁפְטִ֗י limshofeti to my judge with my judge

      examples should be phrases

    1. גַּם־שֹׁרָ֔שׁוּ gam-shorashu also they took root and they took root

      example should be a phrase

    1. וַיֻּגַּ֥ד לְאַבְרָהָ֖ם wayyuggad le'avraham and it was reported to Abraham Abraham was told Stative EXO 26:1 שֵׁ֣שׁ מָשְׁזָ֗ר shesh moshzar linen twisted fine linen

      examples should be whole phrases

    1. מִסְתּוֹלֵל mistolel You are lifting up yourself You are lifting yourself up מִסְתּוֹלֵל comes from the root סלל PSA 143:4 יִשְׁתּוֹמֵם yishtomem It is overwhelmed It is overwhelmed

      examples should be whole phrases

    1. יִתְגֹּ֣עֲשׁוּ מָ֑יִם yithgo'ashu mayim they go back and forth waters waters will rise and fall

      example should be a whole phrase

    1. וְיִתְמַרְמַר֙ weyithmarmar And he will be very angry He will become very angry יִתְמַרְמַר comes from the root מרר PSA 119:16 אֶשְׁתַּעֲשָׁ֑ע 'eshta'asha' I will delight I will delight

      Should make the example a whole phrase.

    1. אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ 'erets zavath halav udevash a land flowing with milk and honey a land flowing with milk and honey

      all words here are absolute

    2. Construct chains express genitive relationships. They are often translated “of,” but context can allow other translations.

      were examples planned here?

    1. Real condition “if” 2KI 4:29 וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לְגֵיחֲזִ֜י חֲגֹ֣ר מָתְנֶ֗יךָ wayyomer legehazi hagor mothneykha Then Elisha said to Gehazi, "Dress for travel Then Elisha realized that something must have happened to her son. So he said to Gehazi, "Get ready to leave immediately.

      I'm not sure what to do here

    1. GEN 31:41 וַתַּחֲלֵ֥ף אֶת־מַשְׂכֻּרְתִּ֖י עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת מֹנִֽים׃ wattahalef 'eth-maskurti 'asereth monim you have changed my wages ten times. you have changed my wages ten times.

      Not sure this is a good example. The relevant words are parsed as nouns.

    2. שָׁם שָׁם means "there"

      Here it functoins like an adverb of location.

    1. Distinctive 1KI 18:39 יְהוָ֖ה ה֥וּא הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃ yhwh hu ha'elohim Yahweh he the God. Yahweh, he is God! Generic classes GEN 8:7 וַיְשַׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־הָֽעֹרֵ֑ב wayshallah 'eth-ha'orev He sent the raven He sent out a raven

      I'm not sure if these types are worth mentioning?

    2. Well known fact GEN 22:6 וַיִּקַּ֨ח אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֲצֵ֣י הָעֹלָ֗ה ... וַיִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָד֔וֹ אֶת־הָאֵ֖שׁ וְאֶת־הַֽמַּאֲכֶ֑לֶת wayyiqqah 'avraham 'eth-'atse ha'olah ... wayyiqqah beyado 'eth-ha'esh we'eth-hamma'akheleth And he took Abraham wood for the burnt offering ... and he took in his hand the fire and the knife Then Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering ... he took in his own hand the fire and the knife

      I think this is actually an example of "Already mentioned".

  2. Apr 2017
    1. אֶת אֶת is used to mark the direct object and make it definite.

      As I changed the direction of this article somewhat, this section may no longer be nencessary.

    1. אֵין/אַיִן אֵין/אַיִן for "there is not". DEU 28:29 וְאֵ֥ין מוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃ we'en moshia' and there will be no one to save you. and there will not be anyone to help you. JOS 6:1 אֵ֥ין יוֹצֵ֖א וְאֵ֥ין בָּֽא׃ 'en yotse we'en ba No one went out and no one came in. No one could go enter or leave the city.

      This is not an adverb. I've discussed this under particle_negative

    1. לֹא לֹא is used in verbal clauses, especially second person imperfect for permanent commands, cohortatives and jussives. It can objectively deny a fact. GEN 2:17 לֹ֥א תֹאכַ֖ל מִמֶּ֑נּוּ lo thokhal mimmennu not you eat from it you may not eat from it אַַל אַַל is used for second person imperfect for specific action. It can subjectively deny a wish. GEN 21:16 אַל־אֶרְאֶ֖ה בְּמ֣וֹת הַיָּ֑לֶד 'al-'er'eh bemoth hayyaled Not I will look in death of the child. Let me not look upon the death of the child. לבלבי / בלבי בלבי negates infinitive construct, especially with ל. GEN 3:11 צִוִּיתִ֛יךָ לְבִלְתִּ֥ יאֲכָל־מִמֶּ֖נּוּ tsiwwithikha levilti y'akhol-mimmennu I commanded you to not eat from it I commanded you to not eat from it rarely בלא or בלי or מבלי בלי is usually in poetry. PSA 19:3 (PSA 19:4 in Hebrew) בְּ֝לִ֗י נִשְׁמָ֥ע קוֹלָֽם beli nishma' qolam not is heard their voice their voice is not heard NUM 35:23 בְּלֹ֣א רְא֔וֹת belo re'oth without seeing without seeing

      I would remove these and put them in the adverb article

    1. This imput has been moved to particle_exhortation as I think it these words are better identified as such. נָא Exhortation “Please!" GEN 12:13 אִמְרִי־נָ֖א אֲחֹ֣תִי אָ֑תְּ 'imri-na 'ahothi 'at Say now my sister are you Say that you are my sister Unclear meaning Do not translate JON 1:14 אַל־נָ֣א נֹאבְדָ֗ה 'al-na novedah not now let us perish do not let us perish בִּי “Oh” or “hear me” JDG 13:8 וַיֶּעְתַּ֥ר מָנ֛וֹחַ אֶל־יְהוָ֖הוַיֹּאמַ֑ר בִּ֣י אֲדוֹנָ֔י wayye'tar manoah 'el-yehwohwayyomar bi 'adonay And he prayed Manoah to Yahweh and he said, "Oh, Lord" Then Manoah prayed to Yahweh and said, "Oh, Lord"

      See note: moved to exhortation

    1. , the participle is governed by the main verb of the sentence and have potential to be translated as past time, present time, or future time

      rephrase, perhaps: "the participle should be translated in the same time (past, present, or future) as the main verb of the sentence"

    2. prefix conjugation

      Imperfect / yiqtal?

    1. Determinative “The one of” JDG 5:5 הָרִ֥ים נָזְל֖וּ מִפְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה זֶ֣ה סִינַ֔י מִפְּנֵ֕י יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל harim nozlu mippene yehwah zeh sinay mippene yehwah 'elohe yisra'el The mountains quaked before the face of Yahweh, the one of Sinai, before the face of Yahweh, the God of Israel. The mountains quaked before the face of Yahweh; even Mount Sinai quaked before the face of Yahweh, the God of Israel. MIC 5:4 וְהָיָ֥ה זֶ֖ה שָׁל֑וֹם wehayah zeh shalom He will be the one of peace. He will be our peace.

      In these examples, "zeh" is often parsed as a demonstrative pronoun.

    2. ISA 25:9 הִנֵּ֨ה אֱלֹהֵ֥ינוּ זֶ֛ה קִוִּ֥ינוּ ל֖וֹ hinneh 'elohenu zeh qiwwinu lo Look, our God this, we waited for him Look, this is our God; we have waited for him

      "zeh" is actually a demonstrative pronoun here.

    3. Sometimes the pronoun referring to the subject of the relative phrase is repeated

      That doesn't seem to be the case in these examples...

    1. אֶ֤רֶץ מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לְפָנֶ֣יךָ הִ֔וא

      I think this is an example of the dem. pron. merely modifying "erets", but being put at the end of a whole phrase/clause.

    2. Explicative This/these

      Should put under master heading of "qualifies a noun", rename this heading as "predicative". Notice that if used predicatively, the dem. pron. usually precedes the noun. Remark: "the preceding demonstrative pronoun does not have the definite article, but the noun does".

    3. Enclitic

      Not sure what this means

    4. Suggest two master headings "D.P. stands for a person" (as in, even in the singular, kind of functions like a pers.pron.). And "D.P. qualifies a noun" (kind of like an adjective with both as attribute and as predicative).

    5. Antithetical—contrast

      Wouldn't that be "reciprocal"? This could be under the master heading of a dem. pron. being a reference to a person.

    6. Anaphoric Refers to another word or phrase

      This may need some extra clarification

    7. Emphasis

      It seems to me this could be a heading, perhaps under "special uses"?

    8. Unconnected to a noun

      Was there an example planned here?

    9. Apposition adjective

      Should be a subsection of "attributive adjective" (see above), remark that "neither the noun nor the demonstrative pronoun have the definite article"

    10. Attributive adjective

      Would also move this under the heading "qualifies a noun" together with [see above]. Remark that "Both the noun and the demonstrative pronoun have the definite article".

    11. First / second mention זה is used for items when they are first mentioned. הוא is used for items that have already been mentioned.

      I'm not sure about this example

    1. השתחוה, to worship, to prostrate oneself

      Should turn into an example

    2. Proto-Semitic

      "a very early stage of the language"

    3. The primary evidence for this is from Ugaritic.

      Probably not for this grammar.

    4. causative morpheme ש and the infixed ת

      A little too technical.

  3. Mar 2017
    1. ADDED

      A noun is singular if there is only 1 of something or when a collection is described as a unit. Singular is the standard dictionary form of a noun.


      Maybe start with an introduction, like: "The Hebrew writing system did not have numbers, and letter only started representing a numerical value long after the completion of the Old Testament. So in the Bible, numbers were always spelled out."

    2. sixty (plural) and two (plural) year (singular)

      That is actually "two (feminine, dual) and sixty (masculine, plural) year (feminine, singular)"

    3. units

      Something else: the multiple of ten is the opposite gender, while the gender of the single digit matches the gender of the noun: GEN 11:16 אַרְבַּ֥ע וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֖ים‮‬ שָׁנָ֑ה four (singular, feminine?) and thirty (plural, masculine) year (singular, feminine).

    4. plural


    5. multiples of ten

      Need example(s) of multiples of 10. GEN 18:31 לֹ֣א אַשְׁחִ֔ית בַּעֲב֖וּר הָֽעֶשְׂרִֽים׃ I will not destroy it for the sake of the twenty.

    6. יום ,נפש ,איש .

      Which can continue to look like a singular, even if they are functioning like a plural. Example: GEN 7:4 אַרְבָּעִ֣ים יֹ֔ום וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים לָ֑יְלָה fourty day(s) and fourty night(s).

    7. 1-19 and multiples of ten usually precede the noun and are in apposition.

      Add: "the numbers 11-19 are formed by simply writing numbers 1-9 followed by 10. So 11 is one ten, and 17 is seven ten. They are sometimes connected with a horizontal line (maqqeef). Example: JOS 15:41 עָרִ֥ים שֵׁשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה sixteen cities"

    8. digit

      smaller digit

    9. Exceptions

      Is this a definitive list? If so we should make that explicit.

    10. usually

      Usually, but not always. Example of the exception: JOS 21:18: עָרִ֖ים אַרְבַּֽע׃ four cities.

    11. apposition

      I think we need to explain this term. As evidence for this I submit the fact that I had to google it myself ;)

    12. Otherwise, it can be in the absolute form in apposition to its noun.

      In which case it can follow the noun: 2CH 3:15 עַמּוּדִ֣ים שְׁנַ֔יִם two pillars.

    13. Missing: 100 (see GEN 5 and 11 for example),1.000 and 10,000. There is of course the discussion on if and if so where "eleph" should or could be translated as "unit" as opposed to "1.000" in the census of Numers, so maybe avoid those chapters when giving examples.

    14. They also appear to be singular even though their nouns are plural.

      Isn't that because, unless in a compound number, the plural is used for the ten-fold of the number?

    15. It matches the gender of its noun.

      Two is either always, or usually in the dual (havn't found out if there are non-dual forms of 2).

    16. two of them

      "both of them".

    17. Sometimes

      Since it says "sometimes", perhaps also give an example of echad with the article: GEN 2:11 שֵׁ֥ם הָֽאֶחָ֖ד פִּישֹׁ֑ון "the name of the one was Pishon".

    1. two ears אָזְנַ֖יִם is dual

      In standard example format: DEU 29:4 (DEU 29:3 in Hebrew) וְלֹֽא־נָתַן֩ יְהוָ֨ה לָכֶ֥ם ... עֵינַ֥יִם לִרְאֹ֖ות וְאָזְנַ֣יִם לִשְׁמֹ֑עַ And not has given Yahweh to you ... eyes to see and ears to hear. - Smooth: Yahweh has not given you ... eyes to see, or ears to hear.

    2. So, two men אֲנָשִׁ֑ים is plural

      This can be deleted.

    3. Dual does not just mean two. It means that the two usually come in pairs.

      Under the heading "function"

    4. Both masculine and feminine dual nouns have the same ending, יִִם ַ They have a pataq before the yod and a hireq under it.

      This under the heading "form"

    5. Dual nouns use plural adjectives.

      This can be mentioned under "form"

    1. Hebrew has three ways to number nouns. Dual means two, and it refers to things such as eyes that usually come in pairs.

      Dual (two, pair) refers to more than a group of items that happens to be two, but specifically to things that almost always come in pairs, like hands and eyes.

    1. Sections:

      Normal plurals - More than one of a thing. ECC 10:7 רָאִ֥יתִי עֲבָדִ֖ים‮‬ עַל־סוּסִ֑ים I have seen servants on horses.

      Plural of extension - Two of the most common examples are heaven and water, in some translations these are translated as "heavens" and "waters", while others opt for the singular "heaven" and "water". GEN 1:1 בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית‮‬ בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם In the beginning he created God the heaven(s). GEN 1:2 וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם׃ and the Spirit of God moving on the face of the water(s). - Smooth: The Spirit of God was moving on the surface of the waters.

      Abstract plurals - In English abstract pluras are often singular and have endings like -ness, -hood, and -ship. GEN 19:11 הִכּוּ֙ בַּסַּנְוֵרִ֔ים they hit [them] with the blindness - sooth: "they struck them with blindness". GEN 21:7 כִּֽי־יָלַ֥דְתִּי‮‬ בֵ֖ן לִזְקֻנָֽיו׃ yet I bore a son to his old age. - Smooth: yet I have borne him a son in his old age!

      Summing up different parts of an action. GEN 50:3 כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן יִמְלְא֖וּ יְמֵ֣י הַחֲנֻטִ֑ים for so are filled the days of embalming. - Smooth: for that was the full time for embalming. JER 13:27 נִֽאֻפַ֤יִךְ וּמִצְהֲלֹותַ֨יִךְ֙ ...‬ רָאִ֖יתִי Your adulteries and your neighings ... I have seen - Smooth: I have seen your adultery and neighing.

    2. Some nouns are collective.

      "Collectives are grammatically singular and are discussed there."

    3. Feminine plural nouns usually end in ות. Masculine plural nouns usually end in ים ִ with a hireq before the yod.

      This should be under the heading "form".

    4. אֱלֹהִ֑ים can mean god, gods, or even God.

      This is discussed under the singular.

    1. Examples:

      Normal singular:

      ISA 1:3 יָדַ֥ע שֹׁור֙ קֹנֵ֔הוּ וַחֲמֹ֖ור אֵב֣וּס בְּעָלָ֑יו He knows ox his owner and the donkey the manger of his master, - Smooth: The ox knows his owner, and the donkey his master's feeding trough,

      Proper nouns (names) are always singular, even if the referent is plural:

      OBA 1:1 חֲזֹ֖ון עֹֽבַדְיָ֑ה The vision of Obadiah. 1SA 29:1 וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל חֹנִ֔ים בַּעַ֖יִן‮a‬ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּיִזְרְעֶֽאל׃ and Israel camped at the spring which is in Jezreel. - Smooth: the Israelites camped by the spring that is in Jezreel.


      GEN 38:13 לָגֹ֥ז צֹאנֹֽו׃ to sheer his sheep.


      The word most commonly translated with "God" in English is אֱלֹהִים which looks like a plural, but every time God is the subject of a sentence, the verb is singular, and so are the adjectives that are connected with it.

      GEN 1:1 בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית‮‬ בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים In the beginning he created, God - Smooth: In the beginning God created.

    2. Exceptions--Some nouns such as אם (mother) and ארץ (earth) have no feminine ending. function submitDeleteForm() { var message = prompt("delete_confirm_message\n\ndelete_commit_summary", "Delete ''"); if (message != null) { $("#delete-message").val(message); $("#delete-file-form").submit() } }

      This is discussed under "gender_feminine", not sure it needs to be here too.

    3. Masculine singular nouns have no special endings. Feminine singular nouns usually end in either ה or ת.

      This should be under the section "form".

    1. Hebrew has three ways to number nouns. Plural means two or more.

      In Hebrew, a noun is plural if there are two or more of something, or if it refers to something really big.

    1. Common nouns are nouns that are not names. For example, "man" אִ֖ישׁ is a common noun but "Moses" מֹשֶׁ֗ה is not.

      Suggestion for rephrase:

      "In this grammar we distinguish between three types of nouns: proper nouns (names), gentilic nouns (ethnicities), and common nouns (everything else)."

      Note: delete the reference to gentilic nouns if the article gets scrapped.

    2. For example,

      Probalby should put it in the example format in 02.md file

    1. Hebrew does not have capital letters to differentiate proper nouns from common nouns.

      This should also go to 02.md under the heading "form".

    2. משה


    3. For example, "Moses" משה is a proper name but "man" איש is not.

      Examples in example format in 02.md

    1. In most systems, gentilic nouns not identified as such in the Hebrew, but only in Aramaic. See the gentilic adjective.

      Q: did we tag any Hebrew nouns as "gentilic" in our parsing system? If not, should we delete this entry?

    1. Add: Nouns are either masculine or feminine, and the form of the noun often, but not always indicates which one it is.

      Every noun also has a number (singular, plural, or dual), and a state (construct or absolute), the dictionary form is singular absolute. They can also take a variety of prefixes and suffixes that give extra information.

      Sometimes an adjective or a verb (especially infinitives and participles) can function like a noun.

      In Hebrew, nouns do not change their form based on the function (or case) they have in a sentence (subject/nominative, direct object/accusative, etc.).

    1. כ

      Example: 1KI 1:21 כִּשְׁכַ֥ב אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֑יו Literal: "like sleeping my lord the king with his fathers" smooth ULB: "when my master the king sleeps with his fathers"

    2. The clause often begins with

      Either the clause begins with bet or kaf, or the bet or kaf is prefixed to the infinitive construct.

    3. For example, in JER 2:17 עזבך את-יהוה the pronoun is doing the action, “your abandoning YHWH.” But in RUT 1:16 לעזבל לשוב מאחריך the pronoun is receiving the action, “to abandon you, to turn from following you.”

      These two examples should be under the heading of "With pronominal suffixes".

      First example: pronominal suffix functions as subject (is doing the action). Second example: pronominal suffix functions as object (is receiving the action).

      Also, need vocalized text.

    4. Form: The form of the infinitive absolute is identical to that of the masculine singular imperative.

      The infinitive construct does change its form depending on stem (Qal, Niphal, Piel, etc.), but it does not change its form for masculine or feminine, singular or plural, or first, second, or third person.

    5. אֲכָלְךָ֥

      This is also an example with a pronominal suffix.

    6. when

      Literally: "in day"

    7. (this is rare)

      relative frequency not in the title

    8. לְהַכְעִיסֽוֹ

      a phrase?

    9. describing an event which is about to happen, following ל

      "Near future"

      The Lamed is prefixed to Babel, not the infinitive.

    10. obeying is better than sacrifice (literally, to obey than sacrifice good)

      Literal: "Obeying than sacrifice good" smooth (ULB): "Obedience is better than sacrifice".

    11. following ל

      "With prefix Lamed" should be a master-heading with all the different nuances as subheadings.

    12. Verbal noun


    1. Heading: Form

      The infinitive absolute has no prefixes, other than sometimes the copula waw+shewa, or the interrogative he+hatef patah, and it also has no suffixes.

      A typical infinitive absolute has a qamets under the first consonant, and holem on the second or inserts a holem-waw between the second and third consonant.

      The infinitive absolute does change its form depending on stem (Qal, Niphal, Piel, etc.), but it does not change its form for masculine or feminine, singular or plural, or first, second, or third person.

    2. Describing action that happens at the same time as finite verb

      Better: "As a finite verb" First subheading: "After a finite verb, an infinitive absolute can continue the narrative as if it were a finite verb."

      Other example: JDG 7:19 וַֽיִּתְקְעוּ֙ בַּשֹּׁ֣ופָרֹ֔ות וְנָפֹ֥וץ הַכַּדִּ֖ים "and they blew in the horns and broke the jars".

      Second subheading: "Independently"

      Example: ISA 20:2 וַיַּ֣עַשׂ כֵּ֔ן הָלֹ֖ךְ עָרֹ֥ום וְיָחֵֽף׃ "and he did so: walking naked and barefoot"

    3. Simultaneous, when two infinitive absolutes are used

      Change heading to: "Adverbial".

      1SA 3:12 אָקִ֣ים אֶל־עֵלִ֔י אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־בֵּיתֹ֑ו הָחֵ֖ל וְכַלֵּֽה׃ "I will carry out toward Eli all that I have spoken toward his house beginning and finishing" smooth: "I will carry out against Eli everything I have said about his house, from beginning to end."

    4. JDG 14:9

      This example has two infinitives, the first should be under the first heading, of an inf. abs. repeating the finite verb and being placed after it. The emphasis is then identical as if it were before it, or (as is the case here) to highlight the nuance of the continuance or prevalence of it.

      The second infinitive is an example of an inf. abs. functioning like a finite verb, see the example above of ISA 22:13 as well.

    5. ISA 22:13 הָרֹ֤ג ׀ בָּקָר֙ וְשָׁחֹ֣ט צֹ֔אן slaying cattle and slaughtering sheep

      This is an example of the inf. abs. functioning like a finite verb. This should be under another, new heading.

    6. object

      Should be a separate subheading.

      Example: ISA 42:24 וְלֹֽא־אָב֤וּ בִדְרָכָיו֙ הָלֹ֔וךְ "and not they wanted in his ways to walk".

    7. subject

      Should be a separate subheading.

      Example: JER 10:5 וְגַם־הֵיטֵ֖יב אֵ֥ין אֹותָֽם‮‬׃ "and also doing good is not in them"

    8. The infinitive absolute rarely has a suffixed pronoun.

      This information should be somewhere else with an example.

    9. Verbal noun


    10. preceding a finite verb of same root.

      This can be on the line below.

    11. הולך often means the verb is continuing

      This point can be made with the previous example too?

      Also, in this case it is in a way a strengthening of the wayyiqtol of the same root before it.

      Here the inf. abs. follows the finite verb of the same root (as opposed to preceding it under the first subheading).

      Other example(s): JOS 6:9 הָל֖וֹךְ וְתָק֥וֹעַ בַּשּׁוֹפָרֽוֹת׃ continually blowing the horns.

    12. Imperative

      I suggest using "command", since the imperative is a different form.

      This meaning is quite common if the infinitive absolute occurs alone, without other verbs.

    13. you will certainly die

      Literally: "dying you will die"

    14. meaning


    15. along eating

      Literally "walking and eating"

    1. Hebrew has three verbal nouns: infinitive construct, infinitive absolute, and participles.

      Not sure how useful this is here.

    1. intensity.

      intensity or function like a finite verb.

    2. Hebrew has three verbal nouns: infinitive construct, infinitive absolute, and participles.

      Not sure how helpful it is to group infinitives and participles like this, without explaining what a verbal noun is.

      Besides, both participles and infinitives often overlap in function with finite verbs.

    1. Compare 3 or more nouns

      or: Superlative RESOLVED

    2. Compare 2 nouns

      or: comparative RESOLVED

    3. connected to a noun

      sometimes called a "predicate adjective" or "verbal adjective"

    4. attribute

      sometimes called "attributive"

    5. Perhaps add a little section on כל (all, whole, etc.), which in English (and several other languages as well), is an adjective, but in Hebrew is technically a noun.

    6. adjective Article

      I think this article is a good place to make a brief reference to ordinal and cardinal numbers (so they can be linked).

    7. Divine epithet

      Should add brief explanation, like "sometimes the word "God" (in Hebrew: Elohim) can be used as an adjective to add more emphasis"

      Also, move below מאד so the two "very"s are closer together, going from normal very to very very.

    8. מן כל

      "Constructions with מן כל" Also, move under 5. as a subset of the superlative.

    9. but מן כל compares

      Add: "often, like here, shortened to מִכֹּל֙"

    10. It can mean “more.”

      I'm not sure what this means.

    11. linking verb

      Should briefly describe what a linking verb is. "A linking verb is a verb that links two nouns or a noun and an adjective. The verb "to be" is the most used linking verb, like in this example. The linking verb is almost never present in the Hebrew, but must be supplied in English."

    12. Therefore, if the adjective is indefinite and comes after the noun, it is not clear if it describes and attribute or is connected to a noun with a linking verb.

      Suggest rephrasing: "In this example the noun is definite, if both the noun and the adjective are indefinite, the adjective could either describe an attribute (see: above), or is connected with a linking verb."

    1. The most common conjunction is ו. It has many translations.

      Unlike the other conjunctions, the ו cannot "stand alone", but has to be connected to another word as a prefix. This can be a noun, a verb, a pronoun, or a particle.

      In front of a direct object marker: 1SA 25:11 וְלָקַחְתִּ֤י אֶת־לַחְמִי֙ וְאֶת־מֵימַ֔י‮a‬ וְאֵת֙ טִבְחָתִ֔י I will take my bread and my water and my meat. (note: when describing a list, Hebrew often adds the conjunction between every item on the list. In English this does not always have to be translated).

      In front of a noun: 2KI 7:8 כֶּ֤סֶף וְזָהָב֙ silver and gold.

      In front of a participle: ZEC 3:3 וְעֹמֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י הַמַּלְאָֽךְ‬ and he was standing in front of the angel.

      In front of an infinitive absolute: GEN 41:43 וְנָתֹ֣ון אֹתֹ֔ו עַ֖ל כָּל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃ and he set him over the whole land of Egypt.

      In front of a personal pronoun: ISA 49:4 וַאֲנִ֤י אָמַ֨רְתִּי֙ and I said.

      Take note: most verbs that have a ו prefix are not conjunctions, but form a consecutive form of the perfect or imperfect.

    2. ו

      Also, Hebrew sentences often start with a ו. Usually this does not need to be translated.

    3. Missing: אַף and פֶּן, and the combination כִּ֤י אִם

      אַף "also" GEN 40:16 אַף־אֲנִי֙ בַּחֲלֹומִ֔י I also in dream / I also had a dream.

      פֶּן "lest" "so that not" "not to" GEN 31:24 הִשָּׁ֧מֶר לְךָ֛ פֶּן־תְּדַבֵּ֥ר עִֽם־יַעֲקֹ֖ב be careful not to speak with Jacob / guard yourself lest you say anything to Jacob.

      כִּ֛י אִם "but" "but if" "except" 2KI 23:9 כִּ֛י אִם־אָכְל֥וּ מַצֹּ֖ות בְּתֹ֥וךְ אֲחֵיהֶֽם׃ but they ate bread among their brothers.

    4. Circumstantial

      This should be under the heading of "subordinal conjunctions", as it joins an independent with a subordinate clause.

    5. “and”

      This should be under the heading of "copulative" or "additive" conjuction.

    6. Co-ordinative

      Co-ordinative conjunctions are broader than just "and", they include all types of conjuctions that function to join two equal and indpendent parts. This would include the "copulative", "disjunctive", the "adversative", the "alternative", and the "explicative" use.

    1. The masculine (singular, absolute) form of an adjective is the form you can find in a dictionary.

    2. It shows abstract ideas using masculine plural

      This item should be in a short list of "nouns that are typically or often masculine"

    3. an innatimate object


    4. three


    5. the yod.

      There are also some exceptions. You can recognize exceptions in one of the following ways: 1) memorize which words are the exceptions 2) look up the word in a dictionary 3) look at the surrounding adjectives and verbs that refer to this noun and see if they are masculine or feminine.

    6. Masculine nouns are masculine either because they refer to a male person, or because they are an object that is "grammatically masculine". If your language does not have grammatical genders, or the gender of a noun in your language is different from the gender of the Hebrew noun you are translating, you should follow the rules of your language.

      Adjectives agree with the gender of the noun they refer to.

      The gender of a finite verb (imperfect, perfect, imperative, etc.) is works as follows: The gender of the verb agrees with the subject, namely the person or object that does the action or the person or object whose state is described by the verb if the verb is active. If the verb is passive the gender of the verb agrees with the person or the object that undergoes or receives the action (the direct object).

    7. nouns

      Adjectives follow a similar pattern in form, but they have a plural if the noun is dual.

    8. ץ

      What's that doing here?

    1. The parsing "gender: common" is often used for pronouns and finite verbs in the first person (I or we) since the Hebrew, like the English, does not distinguish between male or female speakers and writers. Sometimes the parsing reads "unmarked gender".

    2. noun

      noun, finite verb, adjective, pronoun, pronominal suffix, and particle.

    1. Future actions of prophecy, as if they have already occurred (also extremely rare)

      Rephrase suggestion: Top line "Prophetic perfect" line below "Describing an action in the future with so much confidence that it is already seen as a completed action."

    2. (usually either a stative or passive verb)

      on a second line. Adjust to "either with a stative verb, or in a passive stem."

    3. conjunction

      Explain what a conjuction is, and that it consists of the letter waw.

    4. יָדַ֣ע

      This is also a perfect.

    5. ...but Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.

      add: in this example the Hebrew perfect is translated with the "past perfect".

    6. And he said, 'What have you done?

      add: in this example, the Hebrew perfect is translated with the "present perfect".

    7. "...and to the darkness he called out, 'Night'..."

      add: in this example the Hebrew perfect is translated with the "simple past".

    8. Generally speaking

      Starting an article with "generally speaking" sounds a bit too "conversational".

      Alternative: "In BH the pf. form is often used to ..."

    1. Body parts are often feminine, especially body parts that are in pairs. Proper names of places are usually feminine.

      These two should be in a list of "nouns that are typically, or usually feminine".

    2. an innatimate object


    3. several


    4. Exceptions

      You can recognize exceptions in one of the following ways: 1) memorize which words are the exceptions 2) look up the word in a dictionary 3) look at the surrounding adjectives and verbs that refer to this noun and see if they are masculine or feminine.

    5. nouns

      Adjectives follow a similar pattern, but they use a plural form if the noun is dual.

    6. Feminine nouns are feminine either because they refer to a female person, or because they are an object that is "grammatically feminine". If your language does not have grammatical genders, or the gender of a noun in your language is different from the gender of the Hebrew noun you are translating, you should follow the rules of your language.

      Adjectives agree with the gender of the noun they refer to.

      The gender of a finite verb (imperfect, perfect, imperative, etc.) works as follows: The gender of the verb agrees with the subject, namely the person or object that does the action or the person or object whose state is described by the verb if the verb is active. If the verb is passive the gender of the verb agrees with the person or the object that undergoes or receives the action (the direct object).

    1. Sometimes words are identified as "both". This is either because the form (morphology) and the context are not clear, or because the word refers to a group that includes both masculine people/words and feminine people/words.

      Ps. I remember I have seen examples of this, but I have a hard time finding them again.

    2. noun

      noun, finite verb, pronoun, pronominal suffix, adjective, and particle

    1. Interrogative adverbs

      Other interrogative adverbs:

      לָמָ֪ה and לָֽמָּה‮‬ why? PSA 42:10 לָמָ֪ה שְׁכַ֫חְתָּ֥נִי‮‬ לָֽמָּה‮‬־קֹדֵ֥ר אֵלֵ֗ךְ Why have you forgotten me, why do I walk mourning?

      מַדּ֖וּעַ why? 2KI 8:12 מַדּ֖וּעַ אֲדֹנִ֣י בֹכֶ֑ה Why is my master weeping?

      אָנָה whereto? ZEC 2:6 אָ֖נָה אַתָּ֣ה‮‬ הֹלֵ֑ךְ Where are you going to?

      עַד־אָן how long? JOB 8:2 עַד־אָ֥ן תְּמַלֶּל־אֵ֑לֶּה How long will you say these things?

      אֵ֥י מִזֶּ֖ה from where? 1SA 25:11 לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתִּי אֵ֥י מִזֶּ֖ה הֵֽמָּה׃ I do not know where they are from?

      Ps. all these examples are from one source, should probably find from other sources too to avoid copyright claims.

    2. how?

      "how? why? how!"

    3. where?

      "where? where is?"

    4. adverb Article

      Introductory paragraph "An adverb is a word that explains something about a verb. Hebrew technically does not have many adverbs, but it can use nouns, adjectives, particles, or other verbs to have the function of an adverb."

    5. Missing: Adverb of location (see other comment here for one example).

    6. Missing: many particles can serve as adverbs. Sometimes of the verb "to be" that has to be supplied in the English if it is not present in the Hebrew.

      אֲשֶׁר ... שָׁ֖ם (GEN 13:14, EXO 9:26, 1SA 3:3)

    7. Missing: Adverbs of negation: אַל ,לֹא, and אֵין/אַיִן. לֹא for general negation, אַל for negative imperatives, and אֵין/אַיִן for "there is not".

      לֹא Examples: EXO 6:9, PRO 1:29 אַל Examples: GEN 35:17, NEH 4:5 אֵין/אַיִן Examples: DEU 28:29, JOS 6:1

    8. Sometimes a noun or a verb can take on the function of an adverb.

      Noun: 1SA 12:11 וַתֵּשְׁב֖וּ בֶּֽטַח׃ and you lived salfely (literally: and you lived, safety). HOS 14:5 (in Hebrew HOS 14:5) אֹהֲבֵ֖ם נְדָבָ֑ה I will love them freely (literally: I will love, free).

      Verb: 2KI 2:10 הִקְשִׁ֣יתָ לִשְׁאֹ֑ול you have asked a hard thing (literally: you have made hard/difficult by asking). 1SA 3:12 אָקִ֣ים אֶל־עֵלִ֔י אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־בֵּיתֹ֑ו הָחֵ֖ל וְכַלֵּֽה׃ I will fulfill against Eli everything that I have spoken concerning his house, from beginning to end. (literally: to begin and to end).

      Also the adjective מְאֹד (very) is sometimes an adverb when it modifies a verb or an adjective. Example: NUM 14:7 טֹובָ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ מְאֹ֥ד מְאֹֽד׃ good the land, very very. JOS 1:7 רַק֩ חֲזַ֨ק וֶֽאֱמַ֜ץ מְאֹ֗ד only be strong and be very courageous. ("to be courageous" is a verb).

    9. Missing: Adverb of amount: GEN 31:41 וַתַּחֲלֵ֥ף אֶת־מַשְׂכֻּרְתִּ֖י עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת מֹנִֽים׃ you have changed my wages ten times.

    10. manner

      Other adverbs of manner. ZEP 1:14 מַ֥ר צֹרֵ֖חַ שָׁ֥ם גִּבֹּֽור‮‬׃ bitterly (adv. of manner) cries there (adv. of location) the hero.

    11. Adverbs of time

      Adverbs of time and manner are both under "Demonstrative adverbs".

    1. Examples: RUT 2:21 וַתֹּ֖אמֶר ר֣וּת הַמֹּואֲבִיָּ֑ה and Ruth, the Moabite, said. 2SA 11:17 וַיָּ֕מָת גַּ֖ם אוּרִיָּ֥ה הַחִתִּֽי׃ and Uriah, the Hittite, also died.

    1. Hebrew has two sets of numbers: cardinal and ordinal. Ordinal numbers describe the order of the nouns. First through tenth have unique words, but eleventh and higher use cardinal numbers.

      Ordinal numbers (first, second, third, seventeenth) are used to express the order of events or relative importance.

    1. Additionally, ordinal numbers are used to express fractions: GEN 47:24 וּנְתַתֶּ֥ם חֲמִישִׁ֖ית לְפַרְעֹ֑ה and you will give one fifth to the pharaoh.

    2. twelve


    3. בְּשִׁבְעָֽה־עָשָׂ֥ר

      should be: בְּשִׁבְעָֽה־עָשָׂ֥ר יֹ֖ום

    4. וּשְׁנֵ֣י אֲנָשִׁ֣ים

      should be: שֵׁם֩ הָאֶחָ֨ד

    5. which means


    1. Hebrew has two sets of numbers: cardinal and ordinal. Cardinal numbers describe how many of the nouns there are. The gender of cardinal numbers is based on (but does not always match) its noun.

      Cardinal numbers (like one, two, three, fifty) describe how many of something there are. They either have the same gender as the noun, or are the deliberate opposite.