36 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2020
    1. Computational thinking requires understanding the capabilities of computers, formulating problems to be addressed by a computer, and designing algorithms that a computer can execute. The most effective context and approach for developing computational thinking is learning computer science; they are intrinsically connected.

      Considering that computational thinking is such a beneficial problem-solving skill that can be applied to virtually all subject areas and future career fields, I do think that schools should start to offer coding as a type of "foreign language" option. Whether or not students enter tech fields such as game design or website construction as a result of exposure to a coding course, they will at least practice critical thinking skills and develop their foresight.

    1. We learned that Discovery Education developers had already outlined the conceptual parameters of a space within Discovery Education for students to post original digital content mashed up with editable Discovery Education resources.

      I followed the Discovery Education hyperlink and took a brief survey of the website. Upon looking at the Social Studies "techbook," I really appreciated the graphic on the War of 1812. I always enjoyed history as a high school student, but I found that while reading simply from the textbook, it was often hard to visualize historical figures. This interactive presentation brings those figures to life, which is what the history classroom should be all about. Students could even use digital content creation platforms such as Discovery Education to create battle maps and timelines for notable historical events.

    2. Students will use their own smart phones, tablets, netbooks, and other devices at school and outside of school to create digital resources . . .  Students will access the resources of our private cloud anytime, anywhere, and from any device with internet connectivity in order to create and use videos. 

      Although I am in complete support of students creating digital content instead of simply consuming it, it is important to account for schools that do not have a 1:1 student-computer ratio. If teachers were to assign multimodal projects in classes where students did not have reliable outside access to internet, they would need to create a flexible timeline where students could complete most work in class. Furthermore, they could assign students group projects using one computer in order to combat the 1:1 ratio issue.

    3. In school, most youth only consume digital stories and resources. We need to transition from consumption to creation of digital content, from students as consumers to students as creators of digital content. When students create digital content that they value, they are much more likely to be engaged.

      This is an accurate and relevant observation. Students will not be empowered to use the digital content that they are presented with if they are only consumers of this technology. When students are given the position of creator, they get to consider the rheotrical impact of their digital content (audience, purpose, etc.) in the same way that they do while composing a more traditional piece of writing. This reminds me of the stop-motion example that we watched in technology class. Considering that the kindergartners took an active role in transforming the children's book into an interactive video, the students will be encouraged to pick up this technology in their future.

    1. There has been considerable research on representation in learningresources from diverse perspectives: Some has focused on comprehensionor on the effect of image on students’ memory or understanding of concepts(e.g., Martinez Pena & Gil Quilez, 2001; Pintó, 2002).

      This finding makes sense, as images are similar to alphabetic letters in that they communicate a clear meaning that can be decoded.

    2. To the pessimists, the increasing use of image threatens literacyskills and must inevitably lead to the “dumbing down” not just of textbooksbut of all of culture and, by a further effect, is bound to have deleteriouseffects on economic performance.

      Currently, I am in a Multimodal Composition class designed for Secondary Education English majors. We are working with author Cynthia Selfe's "Multimodal Composition" text, which outlines a similar issue. Many traditional teachers worry that an emphasis on multiomdality will overtake time allotted for traditional compositional skills, but it is important to recognize that students are practicing similar rheotrical strategies when they consider audience/purpose while creating a video essay or podcast. Furthermore, it is likely that they will create these types of digital media instead of the traditional research-style paper at the workplace.

    3. If, going one step further, we comparea contemporary textbook with “pages” on the Web dealing with the “same”issues, we see that modes of representation other than image and writing—moving image and speech for instance—

      With these changes in mind, it is important for students of the twenty-first century to be able to both deconstruct and create multimodal content that contains meeting. Certainly, literacy at its most basic definition will always be "the ability to read and write." If reading is the deconstruction of symbols to create meaning, then this practice can be applied to sound and digital visuals in addition to the traditional textbook.

    1. Do learners have opportunities to engage with and learn from school media and library professionals?

      I believe that it is important for teachers to engage media specialists from the library whenever necessary. During a research class in high school, I learned how to effectively search databases by using Boolean operators to narrow down the information that I needed. Collaborating with digital experts can empower students to search for and easily recognize useful, reliable sources. If a teacher works with students who do not have consistent access to WiFi at home, then they should allow for more flex time in the classroom when assigning a multi-modal project, such as a video essay or podcast.

    2. Do learners consciously make connections between their work and that of the greater community?

      This is why I think it is important for students to write for an audience other than the teacher. If students are simply creating work for the purpose of receiving a grade, then nothing meaningful is resulting from the assignment. Students are empowered to thoroughly consider their audience and purpose when working on a project that will eventually be presented to a larger audience. This reminds me of the video from a Portland school that we watched in technology class, where the students had to write grant proposals to install historic art around the city. Students need to be writing for an audience outside of their individual instructor because this prepares them for real-world practices.

    3. arners choose texts and tools to consume, create, and share ideas that match their need and audience?

      In a digital-based society, this is a very empowering skill for students to develop. Currently, I am taking a course titled "Theories of Teaching Writing." It focuses upon teachers can introduce multimodal compositional assignments in order to enhance a student's understanding of rhetoric. Oftentimes, educators might fear that the incorporation of multimodal assignments within the classroom might lead to a decrease in the quality of traditional composition skills. However, the student has the engage in the same rhetorical practices (consideration of audience, purpose, and Ethos/Logos/Pathos) when composing a video documentary as when writing a research paper.

    4. ognize and honor the multilingual literacy identities and culture experiences individuals bring to learning environments, and provide opportunities to promote, amplify, and encourage these differing variations of language (e.g., dialect, jargon, register)

      I think that this is a critical component of digital literacy if teachers want to engage students in real-world practices. When my mother taught middle-school Social Studies, she had a Jewish student who had the opportunity to visit Israel. One day, she allowed for her students to take a break from the curriculum and spend the class period Skyping him from the Smartboard, where they were able to ask culturally relevant questions. I believe that there is room for this in any classroom, no matter the subject area. Teachers can utilize videochat software to bring 'expert' opinions into their classes, a practice that allows for students to develop new perspectives on a topic.

  2. Feb 2020
    1. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning.

      This is definitely true. Even if a teacher has extensive knowledge on mathematical functions, they will be ineffective in the classroom if they do not know how to introduce addition/subtraction to students in Piaget's operational stage, who are likely still struggling with concrete operation-based skills.

    2. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught. T

      In my opinion, sufficient content knowledge is the basis for effectively integrating technology into the classroom. For example, an ELA teacher cannot introduce Google Advanced Search if they are not familiar with the basics of MLA/APA format or the use of Boolean operators. Students can quickly comprehend when a teacher is not on top of their game in terms of content knowledge. If this is the case, they will be less likely to engage in technologically-linked activities or recognize the relevance of topics being addressed in class.

    3. Email does not afford synchronous communication in the way that a phone call, a face-to-face conversation, or instant messaging does. Nor does email afford the conveyance of subtleties of tone, intent, or mood possible with face-to-face communication. Understanding how these affordances and constraints of specific technologies

      Furthermore, as students have begun to rely upon e-mail as a steady form of communication, they have become a bit too scared to call or meet with adults in person when a message cannot be adequately conveyed through writing. In my experience, a project-based learning experience forced me to consider how I should communicate outside of e-mail. As a sophomore in high school, I had to organize a service project of my design, so I decided to aide my local recreation center by teaching the after school children crafts and assisting them with homework. To set this project up, I had to call and arrange face-to-face meetings in order to effectively pitch my idea. In this sense, project-based learning activities allow for students to explore multiple modes of technologically-based communication.

    1. In a world of global interconnection and rapid change, effective learning is lifelong and integrated into the real world of work, civic engagement, and social participation. We can’t expect young people to be able to “bank” knowledge and skills from school and apply them to a stable world of work later in life. Instead, we need an approach to educational reform that recognizes learning as an ongoing process,

      I completely agree with the argument constructed here. If a student is only receiving direct instruction from a teacher within a classroom of twenty-something other peers, then they will not be able to automatically transfer abstract knowledge to their future workplace. In Integrating Technology class, we watched a video of students in Maryland who were able to develop their own restaurants. They had to consider nutrition, cost, and presentation/advertisement, which allowed for them to develop proficiency in software programs such as Excel and Prezi. Even if the students don't go on to open their own restaurants, they will likely need a solid command of Excel and other Microsoft programs in the workplace. This project allows for an excellent translation of skills from school to the workplace environment.

    2. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success or civic engagement. T

      Connected learning projects are definitely important, but it should be noted that this can be a difficult process to engage high school students in. While talking with the Cooperating Teacher at my field school this semester, she mentioned that she was able to implement a project where students had to pick a charity to organize a fundraiser for. Fortunately, she had a high-achieving group that year, but she still had to actively encourage the students to contact leaders within the community and hold them accountable to deadlines. I found this conversation interesting, as I had just started to develop a mock-unit plan that addressed literacy and leadership skills before attending my first day of classroom observations. It is important for adults to remember that not all students are going to have such a naturally idealistic impression surrounding these types of projects. We need to consider how we can support them as they begin to make a personal impact within their respective communities.

    1. Interests foster the drive to gain knowledge and expertise. Research has repeatedly shown that when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes. Connected learning views interests and passions that are developed in a social context as essential elements.

      I absolutely agree with this point. In my Theories of Teaching Writing class, we just read a book entitled "Why They Can't Write." It was published by a former college composition instructor, John Warner. He explained that by the time his students reached college, they were so focused upon grades that they felt passing was the primary end goal of writing. Warner stressed that when students had personal interest in a writing assignment and could exercise more choice in regards to topic and form, they were likely to perform quite well. Unfortunately, students are forced to shove their writing into a fixed box because of the pressure placed on educators to "teach to the standardized tests."

    2. Connected Camps is a benefit corporation that offers virtual summer camps and afterschool programs in the game of Minecraft. High school and college Minecraft experts are trained to teach younger kids coding, engineering, game design, and digital citizenship.

      This instruction is beneficial because it combines proficiency in "hard skills," such as coding and game design, with "softer skills," such as crafting a sound online digital identity. In an increasingly interconnected world, young students need to seriously consider how they choose to craft a safe, protected online identity just as much as they should learn how to effectively code.

    3. While wealthy families are embracing the potential of new technologies for learning, and investing more and more in out-of-school and connected learning, less privileged kids are being left behind. A

      This is unfortunately true. As a future educator in the state of South Carolina, the discrepancies between well-supported and poorly-funded districts (such as those along I-95, or "The Corridor of Shame") are considerable. I grew up in an affluent high school where all students were given Chromebooks, but certain students within my district did not have the opportunity to work at home due to a lack of access to WiFi. This creates a challenge for teachers who want to integrate technology within the classroom and create technologically-based homework assignments, as they have to consider how to bring low-income students into collaborative processes.

    4. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them. It is a fundamentally different mode of learning than education centered on fixed subjects, one-to-many instruction, and standardized testing. The research is clear. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

      The opening of this paragraph addresses the importance of a project-based approach to education. If the teacher is focused on just transmitting information to a wide group of students, these students will not truly comprehend the material given that they do not have the opportunity to interact with it. As a student in high school, I had an impactful opportunity to engage in a project-based learning classroom. While taking a research class, I had the chance to develop and carry out a project that examined the impacts of peer tutoring on the expository writing skills of remedial students. At 16; I would not have been able to complete this work without the assistance and encouragement of my research instructor, peers, and teacher whose students participated in the study. It was so beneficial to sharpen my research skills through receiving consistent feedback from the students in my class. The unit plan that I am currently developing focuses on applying literacy and leadership skills outside of the classroom. When students are able to collaborate with teachers, classmates, and community leaders, they will be more encouraged to solve real-world issues.

    1. presentation of ideas to appropriately inform and engage others.

      This is an important skill for students who want to become civically engaged. It is important that teachers encourage students to make active change in their communities, and the effective use of social media platforms can help students spread the word about events that they create.

    2. Obtaining feedback from users and peers to evolve thinking and draft mockups/sketches of digital content.

      This would be a suitable place to incorporate tools such as Peer grade. Teachers can ask for students to asses their peers' work based on a specific set of questions.

    3. Using and revising keywords to make web searches to find information more efficiently.

      I had a research class during my senior year of high school that taught me how to effectively use Google Advanced Search, keywords, and boolean operators. All students should have the opportunity to enroll in such classes where they can receive instruction and assistance from media specialists. In a digitally-dominated age, it is important that students learn to identify credible information on reliable databases.

    4. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world. Having these skills on the web expands access and opportunity for more people to learn anytime, anywhere, at any pace. Combined with 21C leadership Skills (i.e. critical thinking, collaboration,

      This evidences how the definition of literacy has expanded beyond the basic definition of reading and writing. In an increasingly interconnected world, students need to be empowered to use technology to their advantage and communicate with other online users in a safe, effective manner.

    1. safeguard digital safety; implications of online activities; development of digital literacy and citizenship; knowledge of digital rights; and awareness of how digital technology, big data and algorithms shape society.

      I am glad that the UNESCO report mentions this. As exciting as learning to code/utilize a variety of databases is, students need to consider how they are crafting their digital identity in a responsible way.

    2. Teach computer programming and coding skills to children and young people:

      This is definitely important. In Literacy class (TEDU 325), we were talking about coding being offered as a foreign language in certain schools, which I think is appropriate in a global society that is interconnected through technology. However, as Canada's Media Smarts publication mentioned, it is critical that students develop interpersonal skills (empathy, consideration) while using the internet as well as broader technical skills.

    1. Digital platforms are the new arena for both online and offline civic participation, and digital technology also offers students a chance to participate as full citizens in a way that they can’t offline. Teaching them to be an active part of their online communities – as well as to use digital tools to be involved offline – is essential to prepare them to be fully engaged citizens when they’re older.

      Technology is an important part of producing civically engaged youth, but teachers need to make students aware of misinformation that circulates around the internet. Also, students should know that political efficacy stems beyond brief tweets and reposts of news articles.

    2. trusted guides and lifelong learners alongside youth.[13]

      It is about establishing a balance between being a reliable source of information and guidance with accepting that there is always more for you to learn as an educator, and that students can teach as well...being collaborative will allow for students to trust you better and view you as a more authentic instructor.

    3. Models for digital citizenship are generally framed around elements such as rights and responsibilities, participation or civic engagement, norms of behaviour or etiquette, and a sense of belonging and membership.[11]

      Important for groups of students who are civically involved and for those who want to start projects within their schools/outside communities. Technology can be harnessed to develop a voice and spread the word about particular causes...many young people today seem to have a grasp of this, ad evidenced through the Parkland March for Our Lives group.

    4. One of the big mission statements and themes of our school is building character today for communities of tomorrow, so we are always tying things back into good character and how we want to be perceived by others; how we want to treat others; and how we want others to treat us… technology provides one more way to teach it, one more way to make it relevant to students.[10

      Especially true considering that some adolescents feel that they can cause harm towards other through digital comments because they are sitting behind a screen- this mode is not as personal as face-to-face communication is.

    5. This can make digital media hard to turn off, since a reaction – or a chance for us to respond to something – may come at any time.

      Because digital media is searchable, it is important for educators to learn how to keep students as protected as possible when they incorporate technology into the classroom. For example, we discussed how K-12 teachers who use hyptothes.is should create private groups and student accounts to preserve the anonymity of their students.

    6. This model[5] illustrates the many interrelated elements that fall under the digital literacy umbrella. These range from basic access, awareness and training to inform citizens and build consumer and user confidence to highly sophisticated and more complex creative and critical literacies and outcomes.[6] There is a logical progression from the more fundamental skills towards the higher, more transformative levels, but doing so is not necessarily a sequential process: much depends on the needs of individual users.

      Again, digital literacy extends beyond the ability to successfully navigate the internet and utilize a variety of tools. It has to do with the knowledge that is required in order to engage with a diverse community of internet-users. This is a helpful, comprehensive visual published from the International Society for Technology in Education.

    7. Digital literacy is more than technological know-how: it includes a wide variety of ethical, social and reflective practices that are embedded in work, learning, leisure and daily life.

      I appreciate that this definition pushes for an "ethical and social" understanding of how to effectively use the internet. Although digital literacy can be defined as learning how to code or using reliable databases to conduct research, adolescents need to realize that they should be acting in an empathetic, considerate manner towards other internet users. Part of becoming digitally literate is crafting a sound digital identity.

    8. But this enthusiasm masks a potential problem: although young people don’t need coaxing to take up Internet technologies and their skills quickly improve relative to their elders, without guidance they remain amateur users of information and communications technology (ICT), which raises concerns about a generation of youth who are not fully digitally literate, yet are deeply immersed in cyberspace.

      I have witnessed this attitude from high school students in my field experiences. They are adept at using technology, but they are convinced that because they "grew up with it," they need little help from teachers. As a future English teacher, I think that it is important to incorporate the use Google Scholar/Advanced Search and other school-sponsored databases so that students are empowered to understand the difference between credible and unreliable forms of information.

    9. One result of this can be “empathy traps,” features of networked interaction – such as a feeling of being anonymous, or the absence of cues such as tone of voice or facial expressions in the people we interact with – that prevent us from feeling empathy when we normally would, and these traps can make us forget that what we do online can have real consequences

      This is why it is so important to remind students to act with the consideration that they would if talking with an individual in person. The internet is a powerful tool for expression, but students need to watch how they respond to others because media is permanent.

  3. Jan 2020
    1. For instance, a New York Times piece viewed on the web may contain hyperlinks, videos, audio clips, images, interactive graphics, share buttons, or a comments section—features that force the reader to stop and make decisions rather than simply reading from top to bottom.

      I think that Leu makes an essential differentiation between offline and online reading here. For a student to truly make sense of a text and retain what it is communicating, they need to be able to interact with it in some capacity. This is where print is arguably beneficial- students can mark up a reading by highlighting or making handwritten notes in the margins. However, children of this age are digitally inclined, and many benefit from online learning experiences. As Leu stresses, teachers need to be careful with how they incorporate and structure technologically-based assignments into their classrooms. A student will gain little from simply reading a PDF off a screen...they need to actually interact with the text in order to make meaning out of it and remember what the author is communicating. This actually made me realize how useful and powerful tools like hypothesis are, because they allow for a student to directly engage with the text and easily discuss ideas with their peers.