36 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2016
    1. As that understanding of socialism might suggest, although Lefebvre was very much a Marxist,he was by no means an orthodox one

      It is hard to believe that Lefebvre is a Marxist. He believed in equality and giving space too much autonomy.

  2. Oct 2016
    1. For Lefebvre property rights alienateurban space from inhabitants, just as for Marx capital alienates from the proletariat both the meansof production and the products of their own labor

      This is an example of Sarah Schindler claim in “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination And Segregation Through Physical Design Of The Built Environment,”

    2. As they become more and more effectiveat doing so, the state apparatus will appear increasingly unnecessary, and it will begin to wither away

      States have so much power because of society's dependence.

    3. A long and winding debate ensuedabout the importance of space in urban society, primarily in urban studies and geography

      Before this class, I would have also questioned the importance of space. However, through class readings, I have gained an appreciation for space and its critical role in my development as a college student.

    4. He advocatedrelentlessly for a more holistic understanding of social life, one that is always attentive to the manyaspects of human experience (Lefebvre, 1991/1974).

      This reminds me of a saying that my band instructor would use: "Humans are a product of their environment." I understand that Lefebvre realizes that humans experience different things in life but I have a hard time believing that if I come from a poor environment that I will not be a productive citizen.

    5. urbanspace serves a complex social function in addition to its economic function.

      This idea supports Kathleen G. Scholl and Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi claim in “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces,

    6. HenriLefebvre

      Henri Lefebvre is known for pioneering the critique of everyday life, for introducing the concepts of the right to the city and the production of social space. He believed that the ideas of, "Change life! Change Society!" loses their meaning without producing an appropriate space.


    7. conceptual bloating

      Does the term conceptual bloating imply that "the right to the city" has become an overrated phrase that has caused the importance of the concept to lose value?

    8. Over the past decade or so, the right to the city has become one of the more talked-about conceptsin urban studies

      "The right to the city is far more than the individual liberty to access urban resources: it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city."


    9. World Charter for the Right to the City, the European Charter for Human Rights in the City, and theMontreal Charter of Rights and Responsibilitie

      These charters that are listed as examples clearly states their purpose; for example, Montreal Charter of Rights and Responsibilities The Montréal Charter of Rights and Responsibilities covers the main sectors of municipal activity: democratic, economic, social and cultural life, recreation, physical activities and sports, environment and sustainable development, security and municipal services.



      UN-HABITAT- United Nations Human Settlements Programme


      UNESCO-The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


    1. effective functioning

      "Effective functioning" goes back to the authors belief that campuses must respond to the prevailing philosophy of education.

  3. Sep 2016
    1. This ability to focus one’s attention is essential for effective performance of many of life’s necessary and daily activities, such as acquiring and using selected information; making and carrying out plans; and self-regulation of responses and behavior to meet desired goals

      This type of learning reminds me of elementary, middle, and high school when teachers would "teach to the test." There would be no stimulating and "outside of the box teaching". Teachers drilled facts and vocabulary as a result learning fatigue sat in.

    2. that open space must be treated as a scarce resource

      Let us remember that GSU understands the importance of green spaces. Kell Hall is going to be demolished soon and a green space will be developed in that space for GSU students.

    3. climate change

      Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. An overwhelming scientific consensus maintains that climate change is due primarily to the human use of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of effects on ecosystems, including rising sea levels, severe weather events, and droughts that render landscapes more susceptible to wildfires.

      Source,, http://www.takepart.com/flashcards/what-is-climate-change

    4. personal growth

      I went back to this sentence because "personal growth" stood out. How can a university promote personal growth if it is in a secluded area? I look at personal growth as having an opportunity to explore many aspects of learning. Being in a secluded area, does not offer these opportunities..

    5. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student.

      Scholl and Gulwadi present the issue at hand in this first sentence. Colleges and universities lack stimulating learning spaces that appeal to this generation of college students.

    6. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      Does this sentence suggest that universities were built on the classical learning theory, i.e., learning takes place by making a new association between events in the environment? If so, this is what the authors are suggesting in this article. The environment needs to be conducive for attentional learning.

    7. Radloff

      Peter Radloff advances the idea of "learning ecology". A learning ecology is an environment that is consist with how learners learn. Radloff questions whether we treat time and space seriously enough in teaching and learning.

      Source: https://search.oecd.org/edu/innovation-education/2675768.pdf

    8. Before we outline each concept and propose their integration in this paper, we go back in time for a historical perspective of the evolution of campus open space.

      The authors open the article with the important issue of meeting " diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student". It is important to look at the history of the evolution of campus open spaces in order to understand where universities started and the direction that they need to go..

    9. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      As a student, I agree with this statement. Instead of exploring a concept in a hands- on manner, we use search engines because they are at our fingertips. For example, a student maybe exploring the effects of sap on trees but instead of going outside looking at the sap, students google it. This does not give students the live experience.

    10. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration

      Studies show that students that are involved in extra-curricular activities are more successful in college. Becoming involved in organizations,allow students to get hands-on experience in the field they will be working in.

    11. “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      Georgia State is located in downtown Atlanta. The universitie's structure resembles its downtown location, e.g., tall buildings that were once downtown offices. This makes Georgia State a part of the downtown community. Downtown and Georgia State have a relationship. Different tourist attractions welcome GSU students and give special discounts to them

    12. Continued enrollment growth, societal and technological changes, financial challenges, and a need for increased universal and open access create ever more diverse, changing and complex US university systems.

      The qualifications for merit based scholarships that are state funded are becoming steeper, e.g., The Zell Miller Scholarship. This makes it difficult for students to receive scholarships that were once readily available.

  4. Aug 2016
    1. The author gives an example of the wide-spread attempt to keep low income people from entering certain neighborhoods by discussing developments of Atlanta's MARTA system. Rich people reject the plan to expand MARTA so that poor people cannot have access to rich areas. As a result, poor people are limited to job opportunities and other luxuries.

    2. Exclusionary zoning is a method whereby municipalities’ zoning regulations require large lot sizes, square-footage minimums for buildings, or occupancy restrictions that make property unaffordable to or impractical for use by poor people or those who live with large or extended families.2

      This zoning tactic exist today. Certain neighborhoods do not allow occupants to build a house that is less than a stated square footage. Back then; however, stipulations would keep black people out of these neighborhoods. Today, black people are able to meet the guidelines and move in these neighborhoods. I was talking to an older person and he informed me that what white people do is move out of the neighborhood when black people move in.

    3. Fourteenth Amendment

      The Fourteenth Amendment clearly states that the states cannot deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.

    4. In County Board of Arlington County v. Richards,190 the county had adopted a rule that restricted daytime street parking to residents with residential parking permits,191 excluding commuters who had previously parked on local streets.192 The Court held that such a scheme was permissible and did not violate the Equal Protection Clause, since it was purportedly enacted to reduce hazardous traffic conditions, air pollution, and noise, as well as to preserve property values and the safety of neighborhood children.19

      In other words, the courts ruled in order to reduce air pollution and other environmental dangers, a community may restrict commuters from parking on their streets. Laws have a way of "fixing things up" to other motives.

    5. Homevoter Hypothesis—suggesting that homeowners are more likely than renters to vote and more likely to vote in ways that will protect their property investment—and our country’s long history of intentional discrimination and exclusion

      The homevoter hypothesis supports the fact that voting zones are targeted to help a certain political party. For example, homeowner's precincts may favor the republican party. Homeowners are thought of as being middle to upper class people.

    6. We often experience our physical environment without giving its features much thought. For example, one might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people—often homeless people—from lying down and taking naps.27 Similarly, upon seeing a bridge, or a one-way street, or a street sign, many people tend

      Not only is the physical environment designed to exclude certain people and behavior but it is design to accommodate behaviors. In a suburban park, benches may be made to accommodate a family of four because this is what a typical upper-class family looks like.

    7. Throughout history, people have used varied methods to exclude undesirable individuals from places where they were not wanted. People used the law by passing ordinances saying that certain individuals could not access certain locations

      Excluding poor people and blacks from places has been a practice for quite sometime. The tactics used are becoming more creative. I researched this topic and found that laws sometimes make certain areas favorable for political gain. In other words, voting precinct are zoned to favor a certain political party.

    8. This Article examines the sometimes subtle ways that the built environment has been used to keep certain segments of the population—typically poor people and people of color—separate from others. Further, it considers the ways in which the law views and treats the exclusionary effects of these seemingly innocuous features of the built environment—which the Article terms “architectural exclusion”—as compared to more traditional and more obvious exclusionary practices. Although exclusion is perhaps the most important stick in the bundle of property rights, and although certain forms of exclusion can have beneficial results,18 this Article focuses on forms of exclusion that result in discriminatory treatment of those who are excluded. This Article builds on Lawrence Lessig’s regulatory theory, which asserts that behavior may be regulated or constrained, in part, by “architecture.”19 Lessig broadly defined architecture as “the physical world as we find it, even if ‘as we find it’ is simply how it has already been made.”20 The Article also employs the term “architecture” quite broadly to encompass civil engineering, city planning, urban design, and transit routing. The decisions of those who work in these varied fields result in infrastructure that shapes the built environment. The resulting infrastructure is included in this broad definition of architecture and functions as a form of regulation through architecture.21

      The center of this article is Lawrence Lessig's theory. His theory says that architecture shapes behavior. In other words what you build has an impact on how people react to those surroundings. Architecture shapes the environment and the people in it. Thus, sometimes limiting access. Architecture includes transportation, city development, zoning, and urban design.

    9. At the request of white residents, in 1974 the city of Memphis closed off a street that connected an all-white neighborhood to a primarily black one.9 Supporters of this measure argued that it would ostensibly reduce traffic and noise, in addition to promoting safety.10 The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge to this action, stating that the road closure was just a “routine burden of citizenship” and a “slight inconvenience.”11 Justice Marshall dissented, acknowledging that this inconvenience carried a “powerful symbolic message.”12 He wrote, “The picture that emerges from a more careful review of the record is one of a white community, disgruntled over sharing its street with Negroes, taking legal measures to keep out the ‘undesirable traffic,’ and of a city, heedless of the harm to its Negro citizens, acquiescing in the plan.”13 He believed that through this action, the city was sending a clear message to its black residents,14 and he could not understand why the Court could not see that message.

      Built environments date beyond the 1970's and court rulings have been necessary. In Memphis, a group of dissatisfied white people fought to keep their neighborhood from uniting with a black neighborhood. The courts ruled against the petition stating that the plan would slow down the flow of traffic. According to Justice Marshall the ruling was correct but the reasoning behind the ruling was not correct.

    10. Robert Moses was known as the “Master Builder” of New York.1 During the time that he was appointed to a number of important state and local offices,2 he shaped much of New York’s infrastructure, including a number of “low-hanging overpasses” on the Long Island parkways that led to Jones Beach.3 According to his biographer, Moses directed that these overpasses be built intentionally low so that buses could not pass under them.4 This design decision meant that many people of color and poor people, who most often relied on public transportation, lacked access to the lauded public park at Jones Beach.5

      Robert Moses' blueprints illustrated the construction of bridges that prohibited black people from passing under bridges. These constructions purposefully did not allow black people to visit public parks at Jones Beach in New York.

    11. Although the law has addressed the exclusionary impacts of racially restrictive covenants and zoning ordinances, most legal scholars, courts, and legislatures have given little attention to the use of these less obvious exclusionary urban design tactics. Street grid layouts, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, and other design elements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it. In this way, the exclusionary built environment—the architecture of a place—functions as a form of regulation

      The law recognizes that built environments are constructed to limit access to different places for certain social classes. However, the law does little to address the barriers that are being built. Instead, the law sees exclusionary built environments as being necessary.

    12. VOLUME 124 2014

      Built environments are constructed to separate social classes. For example, a bridge serves as an avenue to get to the other side. If the bridge is built low, the bridge keeps a bus from traveling under it. However, there is still means to crossing over the bridge. This access is given to certain people. Thus, a separation barrier exist. A separation barrier limits movement for a certain class of people.