23 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. men are not judged by worldly standards but by their own inner conscience, here the poet seems to have clear and humble one.

    1. “The intellectuals are the dominant group’s ‘deputies’ exercising the subaltern functions of


    2. “The task of the study of ideology, which tries to be free from value-judgments, is to understand the narrowness of each individual point of view and the interplay between these distinctive attitudes in the total social process.”

      narrowness of individual pov

    1. "The first to come is Spring; The one who is my image is called Love."

      Primavera; Beatrice

    2. A miracle that led a miracle

      A Beauty that led to a Beauty

    1. sociology as the scientific study of a reality sui generis

      Yeah, Durkheim just got harder on social reality!

  2. Nov 2018
    1. However, topoi is a more general term which refers to the different topics/discourses that we can identify around a word. Semantic preference refers to the words which co-occur with a particular item all having some meaning in common. In this corpus we can see that the words co-occurring with 'illegal' are from lots of different semantic categories (entry, residence, work etc.)

      Topoi: Keywords-more frequent occurring in our corpus of interest than in the reference corpus. Semantic preference.

    1. The formula for calculating normalised frequency is: (observed frequency of your search term x basis of normalisation e.g. 1 million) / Total corpus size.

      Formula for normalized frequency

    2. So here we come to know that all linguistic features are related with culture.

    1. Annotation can be defined as “The process of adding […] interpretive, linguistic information to an electronic corpus of spoken and/or written language data” (Leech 1997). So annotation involves adding interpretive linguistic information to a text (e.g. part-of-speech). Markup provides non-linguistic objective, verifiable information (e.g. author, paragraph boundary). Tagging is a process of using specific conventions (tags) to a text for annotation/markup purposes (e.g. XML tags). The key distinction between annotation/markup is the type of information they add to a text. Tagging is then a method of annotation/markup.

      And there goes three of them seen, identified and unambiguous: Annotation-interpretative, markup-metadata, and Tags-conventions.

    1. (https://corpus.byu.edu/coca/). You can access the BNC free of charge through CQPweb (https://cqpweb.lancs.ac.uk/).

      corpus English

    2. (https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/schools/edacs/departments/englishlanguage/research/projects/clic/index.aspx)

      now comes my thing. literary corpus of linguistics.

    3. There's the BAWE corpus (about 6 million words) and the Cambridge Academic English corpus (CAEC) (almost 4 million words). I am not sure whether those corpora are small enough for your research purposes. You can have a look at the list of academic corpora available through Sketch Engine (https://www.sketchengine.eu/user-guide/user-manual/corpora/corpora-list/).


    4. if I am comparing a corpus of the work of Robert Burns with a general corpus of Late Modern English, does it make sense to remove Burns texts from the general corpus?

      extracting and analyzing specialized from and against General

    1. Markup is the way of adding annotation to the text. Tags are a part of the annotation itself. If you are applying a standard tagset (e.g. POS tags, USAS tags)

      Tags are part of markup and used to annotate the text/corpus.

    2. corpora are collections of natural language that are stored in electronic format. They provide evidence to help us identify patterns, trends and changes in language use that we might otherwise not be able to identify

      wonderful use of corpora to develop:linguistic theory, test and validate hypothesis. For the last two, all that we need is data and corpus means data (enormous).

    3. I would argue that the difference between annotation (tagging) and markup, is that markup involves adding information (either linguistic or non-linguistic) to a text, whilst linguistic annotation explicitly involves adding linguistic information (and in this sense, might be viewed as a sub-category of markup as an umbrella term).

      So, here's the trouble: markup and annotations are two different guy.

  3. Oct 2018
    1. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee worked in a particle physics lab named CERN. While there, he found that there was a need to share large amounts of documents. Because of the text at the time, researchers were already using markup languages so that they can write documents using a text-only format

      digital revolution. Everybody's common effort needed to make it sustain.

    1. Mantuan

      a city in E Lombardy, in N Italy: birthplace of Vergil

    2. both of these established — if we would speak la quale e 'l quale, a voler dir lo vero, the truth — to be the sacred precinct where fu stabilita per lo loco santo successors of great Peter have their throne

      "Successors of Peter" this seems to refer to the later popes of bishops of churches.