34 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2021
    1. If the researches completed and proposed make a contribution, I shall be grateful; but I have also given full thought to possible practical applications. The socioeconomic demands of the present and the threatened socioeconomic demands of the future have led the American woman to displace, or threaten to displace, the American man in science and industry. If this process continues, the problem of proper child-rearing practices faces us with startling clarity. It is cheering in view of this trend to realize that the American male is physically endowed with all the really essential equipment to compete with the American female on equal terms in one essential activity: the rearing of infants. We now know that women in the working classes are not needed in the home because of their primary mammalian capabilities; and it is possible that in the foreseeable future neonatal nursing will not be regarded as a necessity, but as a luxury ---to use Veblen's term -- a form of conspicuous consumption limited perhaps to the upper classes. But whatever course history may take, it is comforting to know that we are now in contact with the nature of love.

      Just as women are needed, so are men. Men/fathers are just as important in a child's life. If one is absent, the other parent adapts and teaches what needs to be learned. Women and men should be equally seen as important. In this present, 2021, a woman has proven to do what men can do and men have proven to do what a women can do, aside from giving birth. A man can stay home and the woman work, why not? Studies with fathers, animal or human, should be just as important because there are different traits but they can also adapt to teach. This comes from the learning they learned from their mothers. There are female influences just as there are men.

    2. Again, we have here a family of problems of fundamental interest and theoretical importance.

      There is so much that will still continue to build the history of psychology.

    3. father-infant and infant-infant affection.

      It would also be interesting to test fathers with daughters, fathers with son, mother and son and mother and daughter. Would children with siblings react the same or different? Would monkey babys with siblings react the same as one single monkey baby?

    4. these observations suggest the need for a series of ethological-type researches on the two-faced female.

      I agree because monkeys are also here proving to be looking for comparisons to themselves. Relatability might be a factor because the monkey is looking for a face. If not relatability then looking for someone it recognizes. It put in its mind that that face was someone that can be trusted.

    5. 30 days of age

      I wonder why people say there are human years and animal years? Does time pass differently in their minds hence the faster maturation and change in animal reactions from 5 days to 10, 15, 30 etc.

    6. and it is possible that some semblance of visual imprinting may develop in the neonatal monkey.

      I could see how this could be possible because animals do imprint, by nature, so it is worthy of further research. Could this be like how a human baby recognizes people regularly around them and feels insecure around strangers?

    7. but no stronger than that of the experimental monkey for the surrogate cloth mother,

      This is very interesting. Love, warmth and comfort is obvious from real mother and baby due to nature. But to have a connection with a wire mother who shows only warmth and dependability, how can that compare to reciprocal love.

    8. control monkeys had had continuous opportunity to observe and hear other monkeys housed in adjacent cages and that they had had limited opportunity to view and contact surrogate mothers in the test situations, even though they did not exploit the opportunities.

      Interestingly, in their own language, learned from one another even if they were not there. I wonder how we could study their language.

    9. The initial reaction of the monkeys to the alterations was one of extreme disturbance. All the infants screamed violently and made repeated attempts to escape the cage whenever the door was opened. They kept a maximum distance from the mother surrogates and exhibited a considerable amount of rocking and crouching behavior, indicative of emotionality

      Were these monkeys raised with their real mothers? If so, they learned what a moving, living mother is. A wire mother is a stranger. The look and feel of it is strange so they have learned to protect themselves. If these are grown up monkeys that had surrogate mothers then how interesting that they did not recognize. Might it have been from previous interactions with other monkeys? That could have shown them similarities, someone who they really looked like. Take for example an adopted child. At a later age, it is only normal that they want to find the birth parents because they can relate. They have love for the parents who raised them, but the birth parents are who they come from.

    10. Obviously, the infant monkeys gained emotional security by the presence of the mother even though contact was denied.

      By this time, the monkey would learn that only visual is necessary to still be comfortable. I am sure if this test were to be done to a child, as long as the child could see the parent it would feel secure after a while. Even more so if the child had some distraction and the parent were there looking at him/her.

    11. When the cloth mother was present in the post-separation period, the babies rushed to her, climbed up, clung tightly to her, and rubbed their heads and faces against her body. After this initial embrace and reunion, they played on the mother, including biting and tearing at her cloth cover; but they rarely made any attempt to leave her during the test period, nor did they manipulate or play with the objects in the room, in contrast with their behavior before maternal separation.

      This shows that a baby misses its mother or what has shown dependability. Love can also be measured with trust from comfort.

    12. In the absence of the mother some of the experimental monkeys would rush to the center of the room where the mother was customarily placed and then run rapidly from object to object, screaming and crying all the while.

      This seems like a more reasonable response than a monkey that did not learn defense.

    13. The behavior of these infants was quite different when the mother was absent from the room. Frequently they would freeze in a crouched position, as is illustrated in Figures 18 and 19. Emotionality indices such as vocalization, crouching, rocking, and sucking increased sharply, as shown in Figure 20. Total emotionality score was cut in half when the mother was present.

      Where could they have learned these actions? If a monkey mother did not teach them defense, how did they know to do that from birth?

    14. After one or two adaptation sessions, the infants always rushed to the mother surrogate when she was present and clutched her, rubbed their bodies against her, and frequently manipulated her body and face

      Looking for comfort and warmth it has been previously exposed to and has been constant. I wonder of color matters? If the cloth had been a soft color, strong color, bright or simple. Would that have made a difference or could the baby recognize that it was a different cloth.

    15. One function of the real mother, human or subhuman, and presumably of a mother surrogate, is to provide a haven of safety for the infant in times of fear and danger. The frightened or ailing child clings to its mother, not its father; and this selective responsiveness in times of distress, disturbance, or danger may be used as a measure of the strength of affectional bonds.

      Could it also be that the mother instinct to show the newborn baby closeness could develop in trust. Therefore trust shows reliability and love.

    16. We were not surprised to discover that contact comfort was an important basic affectional or love variable, but we did not expect it to overshadow so completely the variable of nursing; indeed; indeed, the disparity is so great as to suggest that the primary function of nursing as an affectional variable is that of insuring frequent and intimate body contact of the infant with the mother. Certainly, man cannot live by milk alone. Love is an emotion that does not need to be bottle- or spoon-fed, and we may be sure that there is nothing to be gained by giving lip service to love.

      We have learned now that the warmth from womb is necessary to baby. It is not taught from inside how to feed or love, but heat and heartbeat is felt. The wire mother showed the baby that it would be there always and it learned to rely or depend on that warmth.

    17. These data make it obvious that contact comfort is a variable of overwhelming importance in the development of affectional response, whereas lactation is a variable of negligible importance. With age and opportunity to learn, subjects with the lactating wire mother showed decreasing responsiveness to her and increasing responsiveness to the nonlactating cloth mother, a finding completely contrary to any interpretation of derived drive in which the mother-form becomes conditioned to hunger-thirst reduction.

      Meaning the baby knew warmth from womb, it did not know how to feed. Warmth was the first variable, them hunger was next after birth. It had to learn on its own, probably from curiosity, where food came from. Lactation is not known to baby. I wonder how long it took for baby to find food from synthetic mother.

    18. During the first 14 days of life the monkey's cage floor was covered with a heating pad wrapped in a folded gauze diaper, and thereafter the cage floor was bare. The infants were always free to leave the heating pad or cage floor to contact either mother, and the time spent on the surrogate mothers was automatically recorded.

      Warmth from the womb was stimulated by the heating pad, thus the monkey had something to compare to because it knew warmth was a comfort it needed.

    19. The result was a mother, soft, warm, and tender, a mother with infinite patience, a mother available twenty-four hours a day, a mother that never scolded her infant and never struck or bit her baby in anger. Furthermore, we designed a mother-machine with maximal maintenance efficiency since failure of any system or function could be resolved by the simple substitution of black boxes and new component parts. It is our opinion that we engineered a very superior monkey mother, although this position is not held universally by the monkey fathers.

      What would happen if the monkey were released to the wild? What instincts would it have learned how to survive on its own from? How would it react if one day it needed some kind of affection? I would be interested in reading about cause and effect from this study.

    20. We were impressed by the possibility that, above and beyond the bubbling fountain of breast or bottle, contact comfort might be a very important variable in the development of the infant's affection for the mother.

      Thus being compared to stages of development (" the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages") (McLeod. 2019), might be same results.

      McLeod. S. (2019). Freud's 5 stages pf psychosexual Development. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/psychosexual.html

    21. laboratory raised babies showed strong attachment to the cloth pads (folded gauze diapers) which were used to cover the hardware-cloth floors of their cages. The infants clung to these pads and engaged in violet temper tantrums when the pads were removed and replaced

      Harry Harlow is a great psychologist to read about here because he studied the nature of affection. He is the psychologist who did this study and taught us what would happen if affection was shown to a monkey by something that was not the mother.

    22. We know that we are better monkey mothers than are real monkey mothers thanks to synthetic diets, vitamins, iron extracts, penicillin, chloromycetin, 5% glucose, and constant, tender, loving care.

      I wonder what is meant by this... The only reason the real monkey mother is believed not to be as good as the synthetic mother is, is because of the recourses. A human will have better resources for a human baby because that is taught. A monkey mother is better at mothering a monkey baby because they are in nature. What is best for the monkey baby is it's own nature.

    23. monkeys and human children.

      Many animals show these kinds of capabilities.

    24. The macaque infant differs from the human infant in that the monkey is more mature at birth and grows more rapidly

      This is where we can have a comparison from human affection or love compared to animal connections. Why is it that animals mature faster than humans? Could it be because their basic nature is to survive in a world where they are still misunderstood or is it because they are misunderstood in a world they live in? After all, in my opinion, animals show more love towards one another than humans do.

    25. antecedent determining conditions

      Meaning the events, behavior, that lead to other behaviors.

    26. there exists no direct experimental analysis of the relative importance of the stimulus variables determining the affectional or love responses in the neonatal and infant primate

      This is why it is important to keep researching in psychology and philosophy, there are so many gray areas.

    27. oral erotic tendencies developed at an age

      Sigmund Freud argued there were stages in a child's life, which helped the child develop.

      " the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages" (McLeod. 2019).

      McLeod. S. (2019). Freud's 5 stages pf psychosexual Development. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/psychosexual.html

    28. Instead, the affectional ties to the mother show a lifelong, unrelenting persistence and, even more surprising, widely expanding generality.

      Here, the love to the mother is lifelong because the child has learned that the mother satisfies or helps teach the satisfaction of drives. The child has learned love and returns lifelong as the parent has taught it. Visa versa if he child has not learned love, it might not reciprocate.

    29. It is entirely reasonable to believe that the mother through association with food may become a secondary-reinforcing agent,

      This would be understandable because the primary reinforcing agent would be the thing that satisfied the drive

    30. The basic motives are, for the most part, the primary drives -- particularly hunger, thirst, elimination, pain, and sex -- and all other motives, including love or affection, are derived or secondary drives. The mother is associated with the reduction of the primary drives -- particularly hunger, thirst, and pain -- and through learning, affection or love is derived.

      "Thirst, hunger, and the need for warmth are all examples of drives. A drive creates an unpleasant state, a tension that needs to be reduced" (Cherry, 2020).

      The drive theory, developed by Clark Hull, is what this sentence refers to. As the mother satisfies the child's needs, it's drives are met, therefore providing comfort. Does comfort then become into gratitude then love?

      Cherry. K. (2020. Sep 17). Drive-Reduction Theory and Human Behavior. Verywellmind. https://www.verywellmind.com/drive-reduction-theory-2795381

    31. we know little about the fundamental variables underlying the formation of affectional responses and little about the mechanisms through which the love of the infant for the mother develops into the multifaceted response patterns characterizing love or affection in the adult.

      The question to research here would be - When does love form or is understood from person to person?

    32. The initial love responses of the human being are those made by the infant to the mother or some mother surrogate.

      This would be if the concentration of love - study- would be only between an infant and someone who the infant has interacted with. Leaving aside love at first sight, love between relatives (not parents or children), etc.

    33. These authors and authorities have stolen love from the child and infant and made it the exclusive property of the adolescent and adult.

      It is mentioned above that love has not been studied from origin, this would be a good theory to research. Does love start from infancy? How much love does an infant understand? Or is the love an infant feels mostly reliability? How do we know when adolescents understand love?

    34. But, whatever our personal feelings may be, our assigned mission as psychologists is to analyze all facets of human and animal behavior into their component variables

      If we look at the meaning of philosophy, then look at and try to describe the word love, we are trying to reason and understand the relationship of what it means to us and who we use it with. Love is important in history of psychology. Meaning of philosophy link: https://philosophy.fsu.edu/undergraduate-study/why-philosophy/What-is-Philosophy