106 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. binary agonism

      Students have difficulty understanding almost any topic or issue beyond "binary agonism"; moreover, regardless if we can get them to see and discuss beyond binaries in class, they tend to revert back to "binary agonism" in their writing.

  2. Feb 2019
    1. INSTRUCTIONS for our Collaborative Roadmap of Douglass's "What To The Slave": write a Roadmap Entry for each of your assigned paragraphs. Follow the directions in the Roadmap handout.

      Questions we collaboratively brainstormed to analyze Douglass's oration:

      1. What is Douglass’s motive? Call to action? Purpose?

      2. What is Douglass’s thesis?

      3. What is Douglass’s stance and positionality?

      4. What evidence (kinds/types of evidence) does Douglass cite?

      5. What are Douglass’s Keyterms?

      6. Who is Douglass’s audience?

      7. What is the context of the speech?

      8. What rhetorical strategy/ies does Douglass use? What is his rhetorical strategy?

  3. Jan 2019
    1. Political philosophers have taught us to think that there is an inherent tension between liberty and equality, that we can pursue egalitarian commitments only at the expense of governmental intrusions that reduce liberty.

      Allen's argument about liberty and equality has entered a conversation in which the prevailing views has been that these two rights are in tension, or oppositional, to each other, rather than interdependent. According to Allen, this view reflects an inaccurate view suggested by the culmination of primary source documents that preceded and contributed to the writing of the declaration, and by the Declaration itself. Her argument--and what she does the close reading of the Declaration and other primary source documents to show, is that not only are freedom and inequality interdependent, but also we can't have liberty if we don't have equality. In other words: equality creates the conditions under which we can experience freedom.

    2. Hypothesis Annotation instructions:

      1) Make 2-3 annotations. 2) If another student has already annotated a passage you wished to annotate, you have two options: reply to that annotation or choose another passage to annotate. 3) Reply to at least 2 annotations made by your peers 4) If someone replies to your annotation, reply to keep the conversation going. 5) TAG all annotations CITA2019


      In the very first sentence we have Danielle Allen's motive for writing Our Declaration...

  4. Jan 2018
    1. After reviewing the characteristics of Greek Tragedy, would you say that the Gangster is a modern tragic hero?

      What characteristics of ancient tragedy remain in Warshow's understanding/application of tragedy to gangsters?

    1. insubstantiality of modern identity is incompatible with substantial, meaningful relationships. Gatsby's motivating vision of his beloved Daisy Buchanan, itself a dream, is shattered when confronted by the hollow woman who plays the game of illusions even more brilliantly than he. Daisy, the respect-able, "careless" society woman, turns out to be no more ethical than the bootlegger. The danger of superficial style and personality was not merely that decent folk would allow scoundrels to infiltrate their ranks. Gatsby and his associates, like countless other underworld characters, warned that modern Americans, seduced by the sirens of the artificial, were headed toward the shoals of moral disaster.

      This is some indictment in this conclusion. The wealthy are even more morally corrupt than the gangsters?!?!?

      The point about the "instability of identity" is key here. Gatsby believes (or makes Nick believe that he believes) that he can "repeat the past." Does he also believe that people are/become what they wear/consume? And that who they were simply disappears or gets covered over? If identity is like a palimpsest, those old, former identities will show through...

    2. Gatsby ascended from dull ordinariness to Olym~social heights on a fragile structure of elaborate illusions. Realizing "the unreality of reality;' the great man "sprang from his Platonic conception of himself." 88 It little matters that Gatsby's :'eneer of refinement is 2,.aper-thin, transparent to one who listened to his cautious speech or con-.--sidered his supposed boyhood in the "Middle West" city of San Fran-cisco

      "elaborate illusions"--does Gatsby use fashion and possessions to create an elaborate illusion? Is he an illusionist of consumerism? (Kind of like the Wizard of Oz)

    3. Gatsby__:aefiijed by his palatial home, fabled parties, gleaming motorcar, ana·w~obe of expensive suits and thick silk shirts-was not the man he at first ·seemea·i:oDe:This bootlegger was a master of "personal;ty," that: "un-broken series of successful gestures." Gatsby's mastery of the superfi-cial inevitably brings narrator Nick Carraway;TiFeothers;uru:Ierhis spell:

      Ruth gives a shout out to Fitzgerald's creation of Jay Gatsby as an example, in fiction, of what he is writing about RE: real self-invented and (media) invented gangsters!

  5. May 2017

      I keep thinking about Pokemon Go! I mean, aren't players running around chasing "ghosts in the machine"? Ghosts (virtual reality Pokemon characters" in the "machine" (their cellphones)?

    2. Virtual Reality -a reality which is apparently true but not trnly True, a reality which is apparently real but not really Real.

      Batchen's use of the RSM definition to define his major keyterm. In what way is virtual reality like a spectre or ghost? In what ways does virtual reality haunt and whom does it haunt?

    1. The spectacle is capital accumulated to the point where it becomes image.

      Is Debord's thesis last....? How would this argument differ if Debord had begun with this statement? Why could he not begin with by making this claim?

  6. Apr 2017
    1. Share Observation Blogs. Workshop PRELIM 8: ACE Structure Paragrap

      We will also discuss Savage's article about "The Freedman" sculpture, since we didn't have a chance to discuss it on Thursday, and also catch up on other course readings, which I hope you are beginning to see connections between.....

    1. Civil War and its immediate aftermath. The second, perhaps more urgent to us in the early twenty-first century, is why Ward's work ultimately failed to become the great emblem of American liberty that so many critics hoped it would be. As we shall see, the answers to these two questions are linked. For what made the Freedman unconventional and innovative also made it problematic, at a time when the underlying issue of freedom was itself an un­resolved dilemma. To account for its power in

      Savage asks TWO QUESTIONS, using the RSM of inquiry to focus the topic of his paper, that may have been his original research questions.

    2. Ward's piece eventually lapsed into obscurity.

      So, the sculpture had a popular history before it "eventually lapsed into obscurity." Why might this have happened?

    3. he Freedman belonged to a well-established sculptural genre, that of the small-scale statuette purchased for display on a desk or a parlor mantel. Usually these works represented the great white men whose lives embodied the dominant culture's idea of its own moral purpose.

      It was rare for a bust/statue of a prominent African-American to be cast (and it still is--the statue of MLK at the MLK Memorial in D.C. is the most recent one). "The Freedman" is likely the first depiction of a non-white person in a sculptural genre/form that honored White people.

    4. Gray's painting was not the only work in the exhibition inspired by the Emancipation Proclamation. In a dimly lit corner of the exhibition rooms, there was a striking plaster statuette, not quite two feet high, by a little known sculptor named John Quincy Adams Ward. This was the Freedman, known to us today by several bronze casts probably produced from the original plaster mode

      Here is where the juxtaposition first occurs: and it's really interesting because these TWO works of art that portray the emancipated (or yet to be emancipated, or in the process of being emancipated) slave were excited in the very SAME room...

    5. hat same year at the annual spring exhibition of the National Academy of Design in New York City, a smattering of patriotic art work dealt with this momentous event. New York painter Henry Peters Gray showed his America in 1862, an allegorical image featuring a personification of America breaking the chains of a kneeling slave with one hand and giving the slave a sword with the other hand. While the painting is now lost, accounts in the contem­porary press make it clear that the picture was little more than a piece of Union propaganda, cloaked in the elevated language of nineteenth-century academic art

      It is clear that Savage mentions THIS painting, "American in 1862," by Henry Peters Gray to juxtapose it with John Quincy Ward's "The Freedman." WHY might he be doing this?

      Also: keep in mind what both Berger and Benjamin claimed about the risks and consequences of mechanically produced art becoming used for propagandistic or totalitarian purposes: can that happen with Art that is NOT mechanically reproduced, but merely produced?

    1. One ever feels his twoness, -an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.

      Part of the othering of African-Americans involves this feeling of the divided self.....

    2. hy did God make me an outcast and a stranger in mine own house? The shades of the prison-house closed round about us all: walls strait and stubborn to the whitest, but relentlessly narrow, tall, and unsealable to sons of night who must plod darkly on in resignation, or beat unavailing palms against the stone, or steadily, half hope­lessly, watch the streak of blue above.

      "the shades of the prison-house closed round about us all": does Dubois mean this literally or figuratively?

    3. being a problem is a strange experience,

      What does Dubois mean by "being a problem"

    1. subjected myself to an objective examination, I discovered my blackness, my ethnic characteristics; and I was battered down by tom-toms, cannibalism, intellectual deficiency, fetichism, racial defects, slave-ships, and above all else, above all: "Sho' good eatin' .

      Does he have to "learn" how to be Black? What is Fanon pointing out here? What does it mean?

    2. he white man, who had woven me out of a thousand details, anecdotes, stories

      What does Fanon mean by this sentence? How can a Black person be created from words?

    3. or several years certain laboratories have been trying to produce a serum for "denegri­fication;" with all the earnestness in the world, laboratories have sterilized their test tubes, checked their scales, and embarked on researches that might make it possible for the miserable Negro to whiten himself and thus to throw off the burden of that corporeal malediction

      Skin lightening or bleaching products still exist.....

    4. Consciousness of the body is solely a negating activity. It is a third-person consciousness.

      How Fanon feels when he's in the "white world." Overly self-consciousness. In what way are his experience of being a Black man reminiscent of Foucault's ideas about surveillance? What might it mean if one can feel surveilled by a panopticon-like eye when one is NOT in a prison?

    5. Overnight the Negro has been given two frames of reference within which he has had to place himself

      In what way is this like DuBois's double-consciousness? In what way is like how Ellison's "Invisible Man" experiences his identity, his hyper visibility--invisibility in society?

    6. For not only must the black man be black; he must be black in relation to the white man

      This reminds me of some of Garrett's ideas for his research essay focus.....what does everyone think about this juxtaposition (yes, Fanon is using the RSM of juxtaposition to talk about the juxtaposition of black and white in western society)

    7. DIRTY NIGGER!" Or simply, "Look, a Negro!"

      Racial epithets & hypervisibility

    8. I was an object in the midst of other objects.

      The "other" is regarded as an "object," a "thing," rather than a human being

  7. Mar 2017
    1. whatis to be done,as long as the performance draws them out of their passive attitude and transforms them into . active participants in a shared world, Such.isthe firstconvictionthattheattical


    2. distance separating knowledge from ignorance.

      You may skip the education (schoolmistress-student) extended analogy if you wish.

    1. architecture and geometry,

      architecture + geometry + seeing?

    2. he more numerous those anonymous and temporary observers are, the greater the risk for the inmate of being surprised and the greater his anxious awareness of being observed. The Panopticon is a marvellous machine which, what­ever use one may wish to put it to, produces homogeneous effects of power. A real subjection is born mechanically from a fictitious relation. So it is

      "A real subjection is born mechanically from a fictitious relation": what does this mean?

    3. The Panopticon is a machine for dissociating the see/being seen dyad: in the peripheric ring, one is totally seen, wjthout ever seeing; in the central tower, one sees everything without ever being seen

      What effect/s does/do the Panopticon have on the way that we (the observed/the surveilled) ourselves see/can see?

    4. � surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action; that the perfection of power should tend to render its actual exercise unnece

      The victim of panopticism believes that they are always being watched, but they can't see whose watching them...

    5. things

      So: divide and conquer?

    6. r the future, bad reciprocal influences; if they are patients, the

      How is "invisibility" a guarantee of "order"? (Keep invisibility in mind for Unit 3)

    7. mpanions. He is seen, but he does not see; he is the object of information, never a subject in communication. The arrangement of his room, opposite the central tower, imposes on him an axia

      Does the panopticon prison structure both surveil & quarantine in keeping the prisoners from interacting with each other? What could they possibly "catch" from each other?

    8. ake it possible to see constantly and to recognize immediately. In short, it reverses the principle of the dungeon; or rather of

      How can a structure be both like a CAGE and a THEATER? Can you think of other structures that are like this? This seems like a weird extension of Plato's "Allegory of the Cave" that adds "surveillance" to the allegory: are the prisoner's being watched/surveilled by the people who make their shadow reality?

    9. e shadows in the cells of the periphery. They are like so many c

      Those who were surveilled by panopticon-like structures

    10. r, standing

      supervisor = super + visor = super (above, superior) + visor (one who looks)

    11. tower is pierced with wide windows that open onto the inner side o

      Why might Foucault be using an architectural figure to represent a social construct?

    12. e plague gave rise. All the mechanisms of power which, even today, are disposed around the abnormal individual, to brand him and to alter him, are composed of those two forms from which they distantly

      various techniques of measurement are visual measurements, based on looking/observation. appraisal of the physical body or physical manifestations of the mental/physiological--even scientific observation (empiricism is not, in and of itself, without bias or agenda, eugenics is a case in point).

    13. his is what was operated regularly by disciplinary power from the beginning of the nineteenth century in the psychiatric asylum, the penitentiary, the reformatory, the approved school and, to some extent, the hospital.

      Institutions that started to regularly exercise disciplinary power starting in the early 19th century: hospitals, asylums, penitentiaries, schools, hospitals, etc.

    14. but the penetration of regulation into even the smallest details of everyday life through the mediation of the complete hierarchy that assured the capillary functioning of power;

      "...the penetration of regulation into even the smallest details of everyday life..."

      To what degree do we realize this vs. to what degree do we not realize this vs. to what degree have we internalized regulation and, thus, surveil or police ourselves?

    15. he leper and his separation; the plague and its segmentations.

      Foucault is contrasting the segregation-expulsion of lepers and the segmentation, regulation, and discipline of societies affected by the plague.

    16. irregularities


    17. surveillance

      If we are to use Foucault's example, surveillance in the 17th century was connected to quarantine during the plague, so it is interesting how systems of surveillance became equated with discipline (surveillance being a disciplinary regime of power) that migrated to other aspects of life, i.e. education, work, shopping, sartorial display, gender role normatively, identity creation-management, and other "behaviors" that are observed and subject to regulation...

    1. respondsbypoliticizingart.Notes1

      You can see that Benjamin has a lot of footnotes (a total of 21 footnotes) to show his research & that add support to his argument!

  8. Feb 2017
    1. nprinciple a workof arthasalwaysbeenreproducible.Man-made artifactscouldalwaysbeimitatedbymen

      All art can be reproduced in some way, at the very least, by copying or imitation.

    1. The means of reproduction are used politically and commercially to disguise or deny what their existence makes possible

      Walter Benjamin will have more to say about this in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"-in terms of how, for example, the state, governments, groups in power use reproduced images vs. how we as spectators make use of and meaning from them.

      Berger's views about art argue are democratic...

    2. he art of the past no longer exists as it once did. 7o Its authority is lost. In its place there is a language of images. What matters now is who uses that language for what purpose. This touches upon questions of copyright for reproduction, the ownership of art presses and publishers, the total policy of public art galleries and museums. As usually presented, these are narrow professional matters. One of the aims of this essay has been to show that what is really at stake is much larger. A people or a class which is cut off from its own past is far less free to choose and to act as a people or class than one that has been able to situate itself in history. This is why-and this is the only reason why-the entire art of the past has now become a political issue

      Berger's conclusion returns to his Motive: what the stakes are, why his argument matters, and why we should care about what he has to say about SEEING, Art, and the mechanical reproduction of images.

    3. What are we saying by that? Let us first be sure about what we are not saying.

      Berger makes a classic They Say, I Say rhetorical move that DIFFERENTIATES what he's saying from what other say and also from assumptions an audience might have or from people who might want to twist his words, or simply misinterpret him. What Berger is doing here is limiting, or qualifying his argument. Doing so not only provides clarification, but also makes his argument more complex and his stance stronger.

    4. t you saw depended upon where you were when. What you saw was relative to your position in time and spac

      What might this say about the difference between painting and photography?

    5. When we "see" a landscape, we situate ourselves in it. If we "saw" the art of the past, we would situate ourselves in history. When we are prevented from seeing it, we are being deprived of the history which belongs to us

      Is this an example of Berger's claim (from the Freewrite handout) that seeing is an act of choice?

    6. Yet, although every image embodies a way of seeing, our perception or appreciation of an image depends also upon our own way of seeing

      Think about this claim in relation to the previous ones about how WE see images.

    7. Every image embodies a way of seeing

      Of a particular person? Of a particular society? Of a particular historical period? What other factors may affect the "context" of our seeing image OR our creating an image?

    1. encomium to vision

      this means "PRAISE" of vision

    2. The grip of modern ocularcentrism was perhaps nowhere as evident as in France, the culture whose recent reversal of attitudes is thus perhaps all the more worthy of study.

      This sentence offers a transition between Unit I and Unit II--in that there will be a "reversal of attitudes" about ocularcentrism

    1. We should, however, recall that our mind can be stimulated by many things other than images -by signs and words, for example, which in no way resemble the things they signify

      Does this qualification make Descartes less ocularcentric? Does this show that he still has some agreement with Aristotle in that hearing is also important for knowledge acquisition?

    2. We must take care not to assume -as our philosophers commonly do -that in order to have sensory awareness the soul must contemplate certain images4 transmitted by objects to the brain; or at any rate we must conceive the nature of these images in an entirely different manner from that of the philosophers.

      Here Descartes voices his disagreement with Aristotelian, Socratic/Platonic, and Scholastic philosophy--this is one example of how/why he is regarded as "The Father of Modern Philosophy."

    3. rays

      basically, light/light rays bend, bounce, refract, can be reflected when they encounter solid matter.

    4. Nor will you find it strange that by means of this action we can see all sorts of colours. You may perhaps even be prepared to believe that in the bodies we call 'coloured' the colours are nothing other than the various ways in which the bodies receive light and reflect it against our eyes.

      Rahmat, you were writing about color in one of your ACE paragraphs, right? You might be able to make connections to Descartes to write an ACE Synthesis Paragraph...

    5. And since the construction of the things of which I shall speak must depend on the skill of craftsmen, who usually have little formal education, I shall try to make myself intelligible to everyone; and I shall try not to omit anything, or to assume anything that requires knowledge of other sciences.

      Descartes identifies that he is writing for a more general audience that includes what he refers to as "craftsman"--for people who do not have a lot of formal education. He's not only writing for other philosophers or scientists.

    6. Carrying our vision much further than our forebears could normally extend their imagination, these telescopes seem to have opened the way for us to attain a knowledge of nature much greater and more perfect than they possessed .

      Descartes makes a connection here to visual technologies and knowledge acquisition through seeing.

  9. Jan 2017
    1. mple warrant for this generalizatio.!l in Greek religion, and philosophy.

      In this sentence he outlines several subcategories of Greek culture/society that he will then give specific examples from in this paragraph to support this viewpoint. The rest of this paragraph includes those examples as evidence (linguistic evidence, images of Greek gods---who could appear to humans, theater, their penchant for geometry in mathematics, the Greek idealization of the nude body, and the Greek citizens role as "spectator" at various events (olympics, theater, etc.)

    2. Although there have been dissenting voices-William Ivins's was the most persistent6-it is generally agreed that classi-cal Greece privileged sight over the other senses,

      Jay points out that there is a prevailing belief among critics that the Greeks regarded sight as more important than the other senses...

    1. ow that the scattered verbs employed during the Homeric period to designate aspects of visual practice coalesced into only a few during the classical era, suggesting an essentializing of vision itself.8 The Greek gods were visibly manifest to humankind, which was encouraged to depict them in plastic form, They were also conceived as avid spectators of human actions, as well as willing to provide the occasional spectacle them­selves. The perfection of idealized visible form in the Greeks' art accorded well with th-::ir love of theatrical performance. The word theater, as has often been remarked, shares the same root as the word theory, theoria, which meant to look at attentively, to behold.'> So too does theorem, which has allowed some comment�tors to emphasize the privileging of vision in Greek mathematics, with its geometric emphasis.10 The impor­tance of optics in Greek science has also been adduced to illustrate its partiality for sight. Even the Greek idealization of t

      Jay points out the evidence of Greek ocularcentrism!

    1. the visual organ proper is composed of water, yet vision appertains to it not because itis so composed, but because it is translucent- a property common alike to water and to air

      Aristotle's claim about the composition of the eye...

    2. Of the two last mentioned, seeing, regarded as a supply for the primary wants of life, and in itsdirect effects, is the superior sense; but for developing intelligence, and in its indirectconsequences, hearing takes the precedence

      What is Aristotle trying to say hear? How can both seeing and hearing be superior?

      The primacy of seeing vs. hearing depends on the CONTEXT or SITUATION. However, you might note that Aristotle does state that seeing "is the superior sense" but that "hearing takes precedence" for "developing intelligence." This is a departure from Plato, yes?

    3. he visual organ proper really were fire, which is the doctrine of Empedocles, a doctrine taughtalso in the Timaeus, and if vision were the result of light issuing from the eye as from a lantern,why should the eye not have had the power of seeing even in the dark

      Aristotle disagrees with Plato here...about the eye being composed of fire...

    4. But in animals which havealso intelligence they serve for the attainment of a higher perfection

      Aristotle claims that the senses of smell, hearing, seeing are connected to intelligence and higher orders of animals...

    1. Connection in the next sentence between Seeing and Learning/Knowing/Knowledge

    2. mirror

      Mirrors would have been an early form of visual technology

    3. longer

      So we are diurnal because we are primarily "seeing" beings?

    1. or the imperfections of

      Teresias in Sophocles

    2. one of the most extraordinary aspects of vision, most broadly conceived, is the ex­perience of being the o� Here the range of possibilities is • exceptionally wide, extending from the paranoid's fantasy of being under constant hostile surveillance to the exhibitionist's narcissistic thrill at be­ing the cynosure of all eyes

      Being the "object" of the "look"--the one looked at, appraised, viewed--whether one wants to be looked at or not. Of course, there is also the phenomenon of refusing or failing to see the "object" of the look....color blindness is one example of this. So, keep this in mind for Unit 3!

    3. Unlike the other senses of smell, touch, or taste, there seems to be a close, if complicated, relationship between �·ifili.1::i and\fanguag<;, both of which come into their own at approximately the same moment of maturation

      The relationship between sight & language--what we call reading. I wonder what these researchers might say about hearing and language for the blind, or sight and universal sign language for the deaf--i.e. the language is the same, regardless of what language one speaks.

    4. inevitable entanglement of vision and what has been called "visuality"-the distinct historical manifestations of visual experience in all its possible modes.25 Observation, to put it another way, means observ­ing the tacit cultural rules of different scopic regimes.

      What is a scope regime? A keyterm for Unit 2, but it might be interesting to note it for now.

    5. the boundary between the "natural" and the "cultural" component in what we call vision

      This is an important distinction: what is "natural" about vision vs. what is "cultural" about vision. To what degree is how we see rooted in nature or biology or chemistry, etc. vs. to what degree is how we see rooted in cultural practices or rituals or beliefs (including prejudices, social and gender norms, etc. think of something like beauty vs. ugliness--sorry Medusa).

    6. f the eye's powers are appreciated by science, so too are its limitations

      This sentence introduces a major transition in Jay's focus from benefits (i.e. the power) of seeing to the "limitations" of seeing/sight.

    7. As a diurnal animal standing on its hind legs, the early human beiag developed its sensorium in such a way as to give sight an ability to differentiate and assimilate most external stimuli in a way supe­rior to the other four senses.

      Then is this to say that humans become ocularcentric partly as a result of evolution?

    8. blind spot

      And, of course, blind spots can also be metaphorical...

    9. mage," which can sig­nify graphic, optical, perceptual, mental, or verbal phenomena.24

      This is a key point about images, I think...

    10. visually imbued 'cultm;i-and social practices, which may vary from culture to culture and ep-�h to ep:h. So�;y;es these can be construed in grandiose terms, such as a massive sh

      "visually imbued cultural and social practices"--Jay's claim here states that cultural and social practices are dependent upon vision. While that's kind of a general claim (and he does give a few examples) we could think about what social or cultural practices (historical or contemporary0 this claim holds true for....

    11. ubiquity of visual metaphors

      The "ubiquity" of "visual metaphors" in verbal/written language means that such metaphors are everywhere, perhaps so preponderant that we no longer notice that we are using them. This, in an of itself, can be an indication of the extent to which we (Western culture) are an ocularcentric society!

    12. �ular��!.�

      Jay's major keyterm in this reading!

    1. 9:30

      If no other classes plan to meet in our classroom during the 9-10:15am class period, I will hold morning office hours in our classroom.

  10. Nov 2016

      Sociologists discuss their evidence FURTHER in a discussion section of their papers. Then they draw conclusions from the evidence they have analyzed.

    2. BRIEF

      The next section presents the "WHAT" that Rap resists or raps against

    3. Ultimately, for Rose, rap is the voice of urban African American youth in an era of neglect and crisis.

      Martinez's argument is in conversation with/includes other important critics who have written on the subject of Rap's message before she has.

    4. MESSAGE

      Here is where Martinez enters the conversation about resistance and introduces her argument that Rap is another form of resistance.

    5. However,

      Martinez quotes Steinberg to offer support for her refutation of the counterargument.

    6. This stabili- zation of stratification is institutional discrimination-discrimination built into the existing structure of societal institutions such as schools, churches, banks, and hospitals. Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton (1967) stress the institutional racism implied the economic, social, and political domination of African Ameri- cans in the United States

      THIS is where Martinez starts to identify why the counterargument is problematic--and the beginning of of her refutation.

    7. William Julius Wilson (1987) suggests that historic and contemporary discrimi- nation, such as racial formation and institutional discrimination, are a decisive factor in the creation of an underclass in the urban inner city.

      Introduction of a counterargument--it's not an oppositional argument or one that disagrees with Martinez's argument, but one that downplays race by making the argument about class--which distracts our attention away from race....

    8. unkyard of dreams

      As opposed to the "American Dream"

    9. his paper suggests that political and gangsta rap music artists of the late 1980s and early 1990s were utilizing a bold form of oppo- sitional culture in protest and condemnation of perceived racial formation, insti- tutional discrimination, and urban decay in the inner cities. The message of resistance and social critique within the voices of these rappers, in fact, may have been an effective herald of the Los Angeles riots of 1992. Instead of seeking the cause of the rioting among the rioters (Sears 1993), political and gangsta rappers urged that America focus on inner city poverty, institutional discrimination, and governmental neglect2 for oppositional culture does not emerge in a vacuum or without cause.

      Martinez's thesis--yes, it's long, complex, and has multiple parts making it a distributive argument (i.e. sets up a distributive argument).

  11. Oct 2016
    1. A second aspect to the sucker concept must be mentioned here. This is the notion that one is a sucker if one who is outside the dominant value system, or social strata, lives by the values of that dominant system.

      Lupsha hasn't even introduced "gangsters" yet, and has talked about organized crime as a practice that precedes our idea of the gangster...a practice that was common before "ethnic immigrant gangsters" became our "gangsters" and we came to attribute "organized crime" as something that gangsters engage in....

  12. Sep 2016
    1. Assertion: usually the first or second sentence and includes your CLAIM.

      Citation: quotations that you cite as evidence to support your claim. IF you cite more than one quotation (i.e. Pauly & TGG) you will want to EITHER write a transition between the citations to show their connection in supporting the claim OR cite & analyze the first quotation before citing and analyzing the second quotation.

      You can then end with your final Explanation of how these sources support your claim (i.e. their significance).

  13. Aug 2016
    1. American GangsterDr

      Annotations for the syllabus can be either respond to the course description or unit descriptions, or ask questions about course policies and resources.

    1. Conversation

      Your writing always participates in a dialogue or conversation with the ideas and arguments of those who wrote before you about a topic and with those who will write after you have written about that topic:

                  past others <--> you <--> future others
    1. Withobviouscontempt,hecounters:"inthemain,thereallydangerousgangster,thekiller,wasapttobesomethingofadandy."1

      Who can tell us what a "dandy" is?

    2. dandy

      Who can tell us what a "Dandy" is?

    1. olding thecream:cororeareaori:Cuiiaer::~Jiin #! ~ .. ~~~~,9ffi1~~!fefvt~~

      Fanucci catches the blood with his hat so that it doesn't soil and stain his suit (we learn later that this is his ONLY suit)